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					Waverley Lecture


Andrew Hook "Intro" to Penguin: "most significant" novel of nineteenth century

David Brown Walter Scott and the Historical Imagination: the first really 'historical' novel

Ian Duncan Modern Romance: 51 The publication in 1814 of the anonymous novel Waverley was a
decisive event in the institutional formation of modern narrative.

From SS: 37 All concurred in viewing the publication of Waverley as (in John Scott's phrase) "an era in
our literary history" – an event that opened up the field of Scottish fiction, but at the same time
colonized it with a particular model of historical romance.

Ina Ferris 1 The publication of Waverley, or 'tis Sixty Years Since in 1814 was a momentous event for
the European novel

Historical Novel:

         Lukacs:

         20 It was the French Revolution, the revolutionary wars and the rise and fall of Napoleon,
         which for the first time made history a mass experience, and moreover on a European scale.
         During the decades between 1789 and 1814 each nation of Europe underwent more upheavals
         than they had previously experienced in centuries. And the quick succession of these
         upheavals gives them a qualitatively distinct character, it makes their historical character far
         more visible than would be the case in isolated, individual instances: the masses no longer
         have the impression of a 'natural occurrence'…Now if experiences such as these are linked
         with the knowledge that similar upheavals are taking place all over the world, this must
         enormously strengthen the feeling first that there is such a thing as history, second that it is an
         uninterrupted process of changes and finally that it has a direct effect upon the life of every
         individual.

         Why Scotland:

         Feishman: 17 As far as it is possible to speak of the social determination of literary
         phenomena, the rise of the historical novel may be described as the outcome of the age of
         nationalism, industrialization, and revolution: the age when the European peoples came to
         conciousness of and vigorously asserted their historical continuity and identity; the century
         when widening commerce, population shifts and factory organization created a new pattern of
         day-to-day life and consequent nostalgia for the old; the time when the French Revolution and
         its successors precipitated out what we have come to call the modern world.

         38 One of the reasons, it may be concluded, that the historical novel begins with Scott is that
         the tension between tradition and modernity first achieved its definitive form in Scotland.

         Adam Ferguson Essay on the History of Civil Government 1767 Gemeinschaft to Gestellschaft

         Culloden and Clearances 1745 rather than 1789

         Scottish Enlightenment – "stadial theory": Adam Ferguson Essay on the History of Civil
         Government 1767

                    Hunter Gatherers
                    Pastoral
                    Feudal – clans and Jacobitism
                    Modern Commercial and Civil Society – Capitalism – Talbot and England –
                    ambiguity – sense of loss…. and ambiguity:
         Fleishman: The values of the past are those of the folk or Gemeinschaft, of ritualized religion
         and nuclear family ties, of the absolute ethics of relatively primitive societies, and of personal
         motivation by inherited mores -- for the individual has not yet differentiated himself clearly
         from the group. On the other side (Gestellschaft) stand the values of modern life, not moral
         pragmatism or economic improvement alone, but also the values of the Enlightenment:
         rational freedom, liberation from the dead weight of the past both intellectually and politically,
         a new world abuilding for the fulfiment of all members of society. Scott's inability to choose
         between them reflects not a vacillating temperament but a comprehensive vision, for both are
         absolute and eternal value-systems.

Genre:

         Eighteenth (Fielding-esque) to Nineteenth Century Novel

         Romance
         Gothic
         Quixote
         Spenser
         Ariosto
         Shakespeare – sense of tradition and scholarship – new "masculine" readership – see opening:

         …my second or supplemental title was a matter of much more difficult election, since that,
         short as it is, may be held as pledging the author to some special mode of laying his scene,
         drawing his characters, and managing his adventures. Had I, for example, announced in my
         frontispiece, „Waverley, a Tale of other Days,‟ must not every novel-reader have anticipated a
         castle scarce less than that of Udolpho…..Again, had my title borne, „Waverley, a Romance
         from the German,‟ what head so obtuse as not to image forth a profligate abbot, an oppressive
         duke, a secret and mysterious association of Rosycrucians and Illuminati…..Or if I had rather
         chosen to call my work a „Sentimental Tale,‟ would it not have been a sufficient presage of a
         heroine with a profusion of auburn hair, and a harp, the soft solace of her solitary hours, which
         she fortunately finds always the means of transporting from castle to cottage….Or, again, if
         my Waverley had been entitled „A Tale of the Times,‟ wouldst thou not, gentle reader, have
         demanded from me a dashing sketch of the fashionable world, a few anecdotes of private
         scandal thinly veiled, and if lusciously painted, so much the better?…..but it is enough, and I
         scorn to tyrannise longer over the impatience of my reader, who is doubtless already anxious
         to know the choice made by an author so profoundly versed in the different branches of his
         art.

Nationalism:

         Reaction to E. But recall Montesquieu, Vico, Voltaire ("manners"), Herder – Romanticism v E
         uniformitarianism

         Fleishman: other forces producing historical novel: imperialism, industrialization, breakdown
         of christianity
                   especially loss of religion…. I think

         ix the close connection of the vogue of Scott and the rise of nationalism

         Nationalism – "the modern Janus" (Tom Nairn) –

         Benedict Anderson: Nationalism and Novel – "Foundational Fictions" (Doris Somer) –

         Renan: A nation is a soul, a spiritual principle. Two things, which in truth are but one,
         constitute this soul or spiritual principle. One lies in the past, one in the present. One is the
         possession in common of a rich legacy of memories; the other is present-day consent, the
         desire to live together, the will to perpetuate the value of the heritage that one has received in
         an undivided form.
         [and forgetting of original violence: Forgetting, I would even go so far as to say
         historical error, is a crucial factor in the creation of a nation, which is why progress in
         historical studies often constitutes a danger for [the principle of] nationality. Indeed,
         historical enquiry brings to light deeds of violence which took place at the origin of
         all political formations, even of those whose consequences have been altogether
         beneficial. Unity is always effected by means of brutality….

         Yet the essence of a nation is that all individuals have many things in common, and
         also that they have forgotten many things….every French citizen has to have
         forgotten the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew – cf. Culloden and Clearances]

tradition and plebiscite

(Bhabha: pedagogy and performative:

         The scraps, patches, and rags of daily life must be repeatedly turned into the signs of
         a national culture. While the very act of the narrative performance interpellates a
         growing circle of national objects. In the production of the nation as narration there is
         a split between the continuist, accumulative temporality of the pedagogical, and the
         repetitious, recursive strategy of the performative.

          – Waverley and 1822 pageant – The King's Jaunt (John Prebble))

Ambiguity: Popular v Official Nationalism (Scott?) – see Prebble: web it -- done.

Whole ambiguity of Scott's "invention of Scotland" (Hugh Trevor Roper)

Duncan versus the following: Scott's fiction is an "invention of tradition" or "invention of
Scotland" that folds the modern nation into the defeated Jacobite Highlands; tourism and
historical romance compose the symbolic arm of an Anglo-British "internal colonialism." The
destruction of clan society after Culloden provided the historical condition not just for
domestic national unity but for a modern literary tradition.

Duncan: reinvented Scotland for cultural export

Pittock: Scott "invented Scotland as a museum of history and culture, denuded of the political
dynamic which must keep such culture alive and developing. Scott loved his country, but
dencied its contemporaneity" (Invention, 87).

McCracken 90: 90 Beveridge and Turnbull [Scotland After Enlightenment: Image and
Tradition in Modern Scottish Culture Edin. Polygon, 1997) sum up this perspective: "Scots
have connived at the manufacture and peddling of clownish, contorted versions of their
history and culture, for reasons of economic gain and British-imperial participation, and as a
way of evading the harsh realities of the Scottish condition. This prolonged and shameful
undertaking has led Scots actually to accept a kind of dream history of their nation" (Scotland
58). All this courtesy of Scott's "pickling of a dead culture and cause" (74). Scott's literary
intervention in national valuation seems to have caused its own failure and the nation's
effectivc demise.

Pittock: Between 1820 and 1860, Jacobitism was turned into a tourist industry, a heritage trail
into extinct history, the virtues of which could be patronized and the vices forgotten.


Duncan: Whig positivism v Jacobite nostalgia

heimlich/unheimlich – what is left out…… Rob Roy: Rob Roy, Bailie Nicol Jarvie, Helen
MacGregor – post-script of Waverley:

         492 There is no European nation which, within the course of half a century or little
         more, has undergone so complete a change as this kingdom of Scotland. The effects
                 of the insurrection of 1745,--the destruction of the patriarchal power of the Highland
                 chiefs,-- the abolition of the heritable jurisdictions of the Lowland nobility and
                 barons,-- the total eradication of the Jacobite party, which, averse to intermingle with
                 the English, or adopt their customs, long continued to pride themselves upon
                 maintaining ancient Scottish manners and customs,-- commenced this innovation.
                 The gradual influx of wealth and extension of commerce have since united to render
                 the present people of Scotland a class of beings as different from their grandfathers as
                 the existing English are from those of Queen Elizabeth's time….. This race [the
                 former clans] has now almost entirely vanished from the land, and with it, doubtless,
                 much absurd political prejudice; but also many living examples of singular and
                 disinterested attachment to the principles of loyalty which they received from their
                 fathers, and of old Scottish faith, hospitality, worth, and honour.

        ethnic cleansing: Duncan SS: "thick descriptions" and dirt to aesthetic appropriation

        Culloden Papers q.v. – Duncan: 100 The review of "Culloden Papers" should upset the critical
        tendency to make Waverley stand for Scott's work as a whole, a tendency that recasts
        chronological priority as a typological priority and reduces the novel to a fixed template of
        aesthetic and ideological effects

Bhabha and "disjunctive time". The time of W:

        a: from space to time – other relegated to past – historicising of social strcutures – Other =
        past/primitive –

                 See Duncan SS: 71 Scott's historicization of regional difference would make it
                 conceptually available as "culture" in the ethnographic sense: the way of life and
                 value system of a local society, embedded in the economic conditions of a specific
                 developmental stage. That historicization invoked a global narrative of
                 modernization, at least in Waverley, which subjected regional difference to a dialectic
                 of loss and salvage – the material destruction of a traditional culture followed by its
                 sentimental and aesthetic reconstitution, as a a property of polite connoiseurs. [i.e. a
                 form of ethnic cleansing]
                 98: Scott‟s narrative of national formation….. converts a spatial or geographical
                 order of difference into a temporal, historical difference governed by the teleology of
                 modernization.

        b: RR: "primitive" contemporary with present – implicit in present of capitalism – see Duncan
        "Intro" to RR xxvi:

                 Thanks also to the earlier novels Scott's readers knew about the end of the clans, but
                 in this text they survive, the secret sharers of an imaginary present, invigorated rather
                 than depleted by their station outside the law. [cf. Al Quaida – Osama bin Laden]
                 Rob Roy is expert, above all, in the 'modern' arts of commerce and negotiations… the
                 primitive Highlander is also the archetype of economic man

        c: disjunctive time – Bhabha:

                          308 How does one encounter the past as an anteriority that continually
                          introduces an otherness or alterity within the present? How does one then
                          narrate the present as a form of contemporaneity that is always belated? In
                          what historical time do such configurations of cultural difference assume
                          forms of cultural and political authority?

                          312 I am attempting some speculative fieldnotes on that intermittent time,
                          and intersticial space, that emerges as a structure of undecidability at the
                          frontiers of cultural hybridity. [!]

                 I.e. the time of pageantry – outside of time – time out of joint – phantasmatic time
Waverley as character:

        Lukacs: The “hero” of a Scott novel is always a more or less mediocre, average English
        gentleman.

        “Maintaining individuals” v “world-historical individuals”

        “a sneaking imbecile”? (Scott in letter of 1814 – see Hook “Intro” p. 20)

        Duncan MR 68 Most modern critics of Waverley have read the novel as the story of the hero's
        education, made homologous with a historical transition towards modernity.

                 i.e, Bildungsroman see Jane Millgate


        Barrell: For instance, the hypostatized 'common language' which was the language of the
        gentleman whether he be Observer, Spectator, Rambler, 'Common to all by virtue of the fact
        that it manifested the peculiarities of none' – was primarily defined through a process of
        negation – of regionalism, occupation, faculty – so that this central vision of 'the gentlernan' is
        so to speak 'a condition of empty potential, one who is imagined as being able to comprehend
        everything, and yet who may give no evidence of having comprehended anything'. (From
        Bhabha: 296)

        Duncan: absent at end – me: not so much Fergus stepping out of painting as Waverley
        stepping into it. Cf Duncan:

                 In fact Waverley scarcely features as a grammatical subject in the last chapter of the
                 narrative of Waverley, as such disappearing altogether from the final pages. The
                 disappearance is marked by his conversion into an object, a figure of the past: our last
                 view of him is in the painting by the side of the dead can chieftain, 'in their Highland
                 dress'. As noted earlier, the representation is a polite fiction, and furthermore the
                 production of 'an eminent London artist'. The hero takes his place by entering the
                 décor, by becoming one of the relics of his own adventure.

                 i.e. into phantasm

        From McCracken: 17 Cairns Craig: [The] end of Waverley, finds the hero looking at a
        painting of himself and his [already executed] Jacobite companion [Fergus Mac-Ivor] . . 'in
        highlands dress'. . his life in history has been . . . 'framed' and removed from the flow of
        events. . . . By the very power of the model of history which they purveyed to the rest of
        Europe, the Enlightenment philosophers and Scott reduced Scottish history to a series of
        isolated narratives which could not be integrated into the fundamental dynamic of history . . .
        the order of progress could only be narrated from somewhere else. (Out of History, 39)

        20ff Interesting: Waverley becomes site of conjectural value (petit a – or even "point de
        capiton" – term not used by McCracken – so no phantasmatics) for many characters – whereas
        this is function really of Charles Edward Stuart. Waveley all lack, no excess – cf roles of
        Charles and Donald Bean Lean 21 In fact, Scott insists that Waverley is a confidence trick
        practiced by needy Scots against themselves... Waverley is Fergus's invention…. cf Charles'
        use of Waverley as fiction…Waverley never a presence…..the novel lacks any figure of
        authority..Through the novel Scott will indicate the difficulty of establishing national value by
        the circulation of persons and stories.




Donald Bean Lean:

        Symptom of text.
         Looks forward to Rob Roy

         Ian Duncan MR 78 on Bean Lean:

         A less noble and more industrious devil of the cause is the leader of the Highland banditti,
         Donald Bean Lean, also a Frenchified Scot, and something of an Autolycus or trickster figure.
         He stands for the true 'liberty' of a sort of natural politics of self-interest, a Richard Waverley
         on the other side of the law. At the same time, he is actually the agent of the major turns of
         Waverley's Jacobite career, defining it in the terms I have been describing. Waverley's
         involvement owes less to any authentic romance of Jacobitism on his own part than to a series
         of delusions, the effects of the cateran's opportunistic tricks, as the latter is bribed to gull,
         prompt and kidnap him along the labyrinthine track of his misallegiance. This shape- shifter's
         effective ally is the blatant beast of slander and misprision, whose hunting-ground is party
         politics, on the side of the law.


Flora to Helen MacGregor – Falls of Ledeard – cf. two passages……

The lost object – loss and mourning – W a novel of mourning – romance to real history on death of
Fergus – Bonnie Prince Charlie, lost object –

                  Bhabha: 313 Cultural difference is to be found where the 'loss' of meaning enters, as
                  a cutting edge, into the representation of the fullness of the demands of culture.
                  [recall Renan on forgetting]

Scott – narrator – : Duncan MR 98 Scott….. grows more like Bradwardine than the Waverley he once
might have been. [esp Scott of 1822] and at end Bradwardine takes Waverley's place as narrative
subject.

From SS: Scott's career straddled a major shift in Edinburgh literary politics from the Moderate Whig,
neo-Enlightenment regime of the Edinburgh Review to the new Romantic Tory dispensation of
Blackwood's Magazine.

Jacobite/Jacobin: the great unsaid of the text is radicalism and the French Revolution – Jacobitism –
jacquerie – Jacobinism – see W:

         322-4 A nearer view, indeed, rather diminished the effect impressed on the mind by the more
         distant appearance of the army. The leading men of each clan were well armed with broad-
         sword, target, and fusee, to which all added the dirk, and most the steel pistol. But these
         consisted of gentlemen, that is, relations of the chief, however distant, and who had an
         immediate title to his countenance and protection….But, in a lower rank to these, there were
         found individuals of an inferior description, the common peasantry of the Highland
         country….Each important clan had some of those Helots attached to them…Now these same
         Helots, though forced into the field by the arbitrary authority of the chieftains under whom
         they hewed wood and drew water, were in general very sparingly fed, ill dressed, and worse
         armed…It followed, as a matter of course, that, as we have already hinted, many of these poor
         fellows were brought to the field in a very wretched condition. From this it happened that, in
         bodies, the van of which were admirably well armed in their own fashion, the rear resembled
         actual banditti. Here was a pole-axe, there a sword without a scabbard; here a gun without a
         lock, there a scythe set straight upon a pole; and some had only their dirks, and bludgeons or
         stakes pulled out of hedges. The grim, uncombed, and wild appearance of these men, most of
         whom gazed with all the admiration of ignorance upon the most ordinary productions of
         domestic art, created surprise in the Lowlands, but it also created terror.


1822

From SS: Lockhart narrates George IV's ceremonial reenactment of Charles Edward's attempt to
replicate a lost ancestral sovereignty as a succession of tragedy by farce.
McCracken: 109 Mrs. Scott of Harden described his glorious attire: "[At the levie] His Majesty wore
the Royal Tartan Highland Dress with Buff coloured Trowsers like flesh to imitate His Royal Knees,
and little Tartan bits of Stockings like other Highlanders half up his Legs."…. Macaulay pondered the
incongruity of the King [disguised]…. in what, before the Union, was considered by nine Scotchmen
out of ten as the dress of a thief" …. The be-plaided Waverley appears pathetic; George IV appeared
bizarre.

110 Queen Victoria embraced her imagined Scottish heritage with enthusiasm….. "Duke of Edinburgh"

Pittock 88: The burial of Jacobite/nationalist sympathies with honours thick upon them was one Scott
carried out throughout his fiction. He also carried out in his life in a sequence of symbolic actions
which directed the attention of the British establishment away from the radical dangers of Scotland's
continuing history towards the pageantry of a safely deceased political struggle.
The event which enabled Scort to do this most effectively was the visit of George IV to Scotland in
1822.

Reproduction and facsimile:

Tully Veolan at end

Portrait of Fergus and Waverley

Flora at falls

Phantasm:

this beautiful conclusion from Duncan after dealing with Hume pattern of illusion – disillusionment –
belief:

         92 Romance no longer signifies illusion, a state of false consciousness – a naïve substitution
         for real history – but illusion sustained in self-knowledge: a play of sensibility that marks off a
         private space at the limits of real history. Thus it is not enough for us to stop at 'death',
         reinforcing its metaphysical boundary of negation: we have to read the content of that death,
         here in Scott the terrible abstractions of historical process and politics. For romance also
         confirms, in its authentic mood of an intimate elegiac pathos, the appropriation of other
         historical lives for our own. Scott's narratives recount again and again that aesthetic property
         is the last and absolute theft: a sublimation that comprehends the violence of history, all the
         deaths that have produced us, now reading.

                  [is this a version of the phantasm? I think it is – though therefore to say just
                  "aesthetic" not enough]

         cf. 104 the Baron's going to ground: the figure of an essential, original, authentic British place
         or ground, concealed in or 'underneath' history…..So vivid and moving, this local odyssey (the
         lord in exile in his own land) is a powerful synecdoche for the narrative it closes. Its project is
         the recovery of 'archetypal' terms of social relation, crystallized in a revolutionary ferment.
         The restoration of the ancient hierarchical forms of community occupies a private patriarchal
         ground of natural human kindness that has resisted the oppressions of an 'external' historical
         process. Once more, I am not describing here the immanence of transcendental mythic
         archetypes in a supremely receptive tale-telling (as if -- as some critics would have us believe
         -- the character of Scott's genius were merely an exceptional porousness to cultural
         atmospheres), but the story's cunning artifice of the very figure of the archetype. The-
         archetype, whose matrix is the modern, private, aestheticizing imagination, is projected
         through historical process as a recovery from it and an exorcism of the category of history to
         the negative space of the other, the outside, the past. We have outlived it; it takes place
         somewhere else.

         i.e. is romance escape from history but mode of living it?
         17 Cairns Craig: [The] end of Waverley, finds the hero looking at a painting of himself and his
         [already executed] Jacobite companion [Fergus Mac-Ivor] . . 'in highlands dress'. . his life in
         history has been . . . 'framed' and removed from the flow of events. . . . By the very power of
         the model of history which they purveyed to the rest of Europe, the Enlightenment
         philosophers and Scott reduced Scottish history to a series of isolated narratives which could
         not be integrated into the fundamental dynamic of history . . . the order of progress could only
         be narrated from somewhere else. (Out of History, 39)


Waverley and 1822 pageant – The King's Jaunt (John Prebble)

         Duncan SS: Lockhart narrates George IV's ceremonial reenactment of Charles Edward's
         attempt to replicate a lost ancestral sovereignty as a succession of tragedy by farce.

         McCracken: 73-4 John Prebble -- after King's jaunt: Scotland could not be the same again
         once it was over. A bogus tartan caricature of itself had been drawn and accepted. With the
         ardent encouragement of an Anglo-Scottish establishment. . Walter Scott's Celtification
         continued to seduce his countrymen and thereby prepared them for political and industrial
         exploitation" (364). Even scholars who assert the ongoing political energy of Jacobitism argue
         that the author did not recognize his images' vitality and deployed them with a deadening
         hand. To Murray Pillock, the game was one of loss. With Sir Walter's "transference of
         Jacobite symbols from the Stuart to the Hanoverian cause," Scott "helped dull edge of the
         Jacobite critique"



Duncan‟s argument that W not typical – i.e. chronological priority as typological priority – see
Culloden Papers and then RR

Miscellaneous

McCracken 20??: Moreover, through an excessive troping of movement, Scott implies that such
circulation is the Scottish condition. Whether in Flora's romantic promenade across the high beam, the
Baron's "swift and long strikes, which reminded Waverley of the seven-league boots of the nursery
fable" or Davie Gellatley's fractured dance, Scots are caught in a frenzy of action that can never
achieve the progress of valuation…

McCracken 81: …..Scott's Jacobitism …. "formed merely a sort of laughing-gas that agreeably excited
the feelings"

				
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