Waverley Lecture Andrew Hook "Intro" to Penguin: "most significant" novel of nineteenth century David Brown Walter Scott and the Historical Imagination: the first really 'historical' novel Ian Duncan Modern Romance: 51 The publication in 1814 of the anonymous novel Waverley was a decisive event in the institutional formation of modern narrative. From SS: 37 All concurred in viewing the publication of Waverley as (in John Scott's phrase) "an era in our literary history" – an event that opened up the field of Scottish fiction, but at the same time colonized it with a particular model of historical romance. Ina Ferris 1 The publication of Waverley, or 'tis Sixty Years Since in 1814 was a momentous event for the European novel Historical Novel: Lukacs: 20 It was the French Revolution, the revolutionary wars and the rise and fall of Napoleon, which for the first time made history a mass experience, and moreover on a European scale. During the decades between 1789 and 1814 each nation of Europe underwent more upheavals than they had previously experienced in centuries. And the quick succession of these upheavals gives them a qualitatively distinct character, it makes their historical character far more visible than would be the case in isolated, individual instances: the masses no longer have the impression of a 'natural occurrence'…Now if experiences such as these are linked with the knowledge that similar upheavals are taking place all over the world, this must enormously strengthen the feeling first that there is such a thing as history, second that it is an uninterrupted process of changes and finally that it has a direct effect upon the life of every individual. Why Scotland: Feishman: 17 As far as it is possible to speak of the social determination of literary phenomena, the rise of the historical novel may be described as the outcome of the age of nationalism, industrialization, and revolution: the age when the European peoples came to conciousness of and vigorously asserted their historical continuity and identity; the century when widening commerce, population shifts and factory organization created a new pattern of day-to-day life and consequent nostalgia for the old; the time when the French Revolution and its successors precipitated out what we have come to call the modern world. 38 One of the reasons, it may be concluded, that the historical novel begins with Scott is that the tension between tradition and modernity first achieved its definitive form in Scotland. Adam Ferguson Essay on the History of Civil Government 1767 Gemeinschaft to Gestellschaft Culloden and Clearances 1745 rather than 1789 Scottish Enlightenment – "stadial theory": Adam Ferguson Essay on the History of Civil Government 1767 Hunter Gatherers Pastoral Feudal – clans and Jacobitism Modern Commercial and Civil Society – Capitalism – Talbot and England – ambiguity – sense of loss…. and ambiguity: Fleishman: The values of the past are those of the folk or Gemeinschaft, of ritualized religion and nuclear family ties, of the absolute ethics of relatively primitive societies, and of personal motivation by inherited mores -- for the individual has not yet differentiated himself clearly from the group. On the other side (Gestellschaft) stand the values of modern life, not moral pragmatism or economic improvement alone, but also the values of the Enlightenment: rational freedom, liberation from the dead weight of the past both intellectually and politically, a new world abuilding for the fulfiment of all members of society. Scott's inability to choose between them reflects not a vacillating temperament but a comprehensive vision, for both are absolute and eternal value-systems. Genre: Eighteenth (Fielding-esque) to Nineteenth Century Novel Romance Gothic Quixote Spenser Ariosto Shakespeare – sense of tradition and scholarship – new "masculine" readership – see opening: …my second or supplemental title was a matter of much more difficult election, since that, short as it is, may be held as pledging the author to some special mode of laying his scene, drawing his characters, and managing his adventures. Had I, for example, announced in my frontispiece, „Waverley, a Tale of other Days,‟ must not every novel-reader have anticipated a castle scarce less than that of Udolpho…..Again, had my title borne, „Waverley, a Romance from the German,‟ what head so obtuse as not to image forth a profligate abbot, an oppressive duke, a secret and mysterious association of Rosycrucians and Illuminati…..Or if I had rather chosen to call my work a „Sentimental Tale,‟ would it not have been a sufficient presage of a heroine with a profusion of auburn hair, and a harp, the soft solace of her solitary hours, which she fortunately finds always the means of transporting from castle to cottage….Or, again, if my Waverley had been entitled „A Tale of the Times,‟ wouldst thou not, gentle reader, have demanded from me a dashing sketch of the fashionable world, a few anecdotes of private scandal thinly veiled, and if lusciously painted, so much the better?…..but it is enough, and I scorn to tyrannise longer over the impatience of my reader, who is doubtless already anxious to know the choice made by an author so profoundly versed in the different branches of his art. Nationalism: Reaction to E. But recall Montesquieu, Vico, Voltaire ("manners"), Herder – Romanticism v E uniformitarianism Fleishman: other forces producing historical novel: imperialism, industrialization, breakdown of christianity especially loss of religion…. I think ix the close connection of the vogue of Scott and the rise of nationalism Nationalism – "the modern Janus" (Tom Nairn) – Benedict Anderson: Nationalism and Novel – "Foundational Fictions" (Doris Somer) – Renan: A nation is a soul, a spiritual principle. Two things, which in truth are but one, constitute this soul or spiritual principle. One lies in the past, one in the present. One is the possession in common of a rich legacy of memories; the other is present-day consent, the desire to live together, the will to perpetuate the value of the heritage that one has received in an undivided form. [and forgetting of original violence: Forgetting, I would even go so far as to say historical error, is a crucial factor in the creation of a nation, which is why progress in historical studies often constitutes a danger for [the principle of] nationality. Indeed, historical enquiry brings to light deeds of violence which took place at the origin of all political formations, even of those whose consequences have been altogether beneficial. Unity is always effected by means of brutality…. Yet the essence of a nation is that all individuals have many things in common, and also that they have forgotten many things….every French citizen has to have forgotten the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew – cf. Culloden and Clearances] tradition and plebiscite (Bhabha: pedagogy and performative: The scraps, patches, and rags of daily life must be repeatedly turned into the signs of a national culture. While the very act of the narrative performance interpellates a growing circle of national objects. In the production of the nation as narration there is a split between the continuist, accumulative temporality of the pedagogical, and the repetitious, recursive strategy of the performative. – Waverley and 1822 pageant – The King's Jaunt (John Prebble)) Ambiguity: Popular v Official Nationalism (Scott?) – see Prebble: web it -- done. Whole ambiguity of Scott's "invention of Scotland" (Hugh Trevor Roper) Duncan versus the following: Scott's fiction is an "invention of tradition" or "invention of Scotland" that folds the modern nation into the defeated Jacobite Highlands; tourism and historical romance compose the symbolic arm of an Anglo-British "internal colonialism." The destruction of clan society after Culloden provided the historical condition not just for domestic national unity but for a modern literary tradition. Duncan: reinvented Scotland for cultural export Pittock: Scott "invented Scotland as a museum of history and culture, denuded of the political dynamic which must keep such culture alive and developing. Scott loved his country, but dencied its contemporaneity" (Invention, 87). McCracken 90: 90 Beveridge and Turnbull [Scotland After Enlightenment: Image and Tradition in Modern Scottish Culture Edin. Polygon, 1997) sum up this perspective: "Scots have connived at the manufacture and peddling of clownish, contorted versions of their history and culture, for reasons of economic gain and British-imperial participation, and as a way of evading the harsh realities of the Scottish condition. This prolonged and shameful undertaking has led Scots actually to accept a kind of dream history of their nation" (Scotland 58). All this courtesy of Scott's "pickling of a dead culture and cause" (74). Scott's literary intervention in national valuation seems to have caused its own failure and the nation's effectivc demise. Pittock: Between 1820 and 1860, Jacobitism was turned into a tourist industry, a heritage trail into extinct history, the virtues of which could be patronized and the vices forgotten. Duncan: Whig positivism v Jacobite nostalgia heimlich/unheimlich – what is left out…… Rob Roy: Rob Roy, Bailie Nicol Jarvie, Helen MacGregor – post-script of Waverley: 492 There is no European nation which, within the course of half a century or little more, has undergone so complete a change as this kingdom of Scotland. The effects of the insurrection of 1745,--the destruction of the patriarchal power of the Highland chiefs,-- the abolition of the heritable jurisdictions of the Lowland nobility and barons,-- the total eradication of the Jacobite party, which, averse to intermingle with the English, or adopt their customs, long continued to pride themselves upon maintaining ancient Scottish manners and customs,-- commenced this innovation. The gradual influx of wealth and extension of commerce have since united to render the present people of Scotland a class of beings as different from their grandfathers as the existing English are from those of Queen Elizabeth's time….. This race [the former clans] has now almost entirely vanished from the land, and with it, doubtless, much absurd political prejudice; but also many living examples of singular and disinterested attachment to the principles of loyalty which they received from their fathers, and of old Scottish faith, hospitality, worth, and honour. ethnic cleansing: Duncan SS: "thick descriptions" and dirt to aesthetic appropriation Culloden Papers q.v. – Duncan: 100 The review of "Culloden Papers" should upset the critical tendency to make Waverley stand for Scott's work as a whole, a tendency that recasts chronological priority as a typological priority and reduces the novel to a fixed template of aesthetic and ideological effects Bhabha and "disjunctive time". The time of W: a: from space to time – other relegated to past – historicising of social strcutures – Other = past/primitive – See Duncan SS: 71 Scott's historicization of regional difference would make it conceptually available as "culture" in the ethnographic sense: the way of life and value system of a local society, embedded in the economic conditions of a specific developmental stage. That historicization invoked a global narrative of modernization, at least in Waverley, which subjected regional difference to a dialectic of loss and salvage – the material destruction of a traditional culture followed by its sentimental and aesthetic reconstitution, as a a property of polite connoiseurs. [i.e. a form of ethnic cleansing] 98: Scott‟s narrative of national formation….. converts a spatial or geographical order of difference into a temporal, historical difference governed by the teleology of modernization. b: RR: "primitive" contemporary with present – implicit in present of capitalism – see Duncan "Intro" to RR xxvi: Thanks also to the earlier novels Scott's readers knew about the end of the clans, but in this text they survive, the secret sharers of an imaginary present, invigorated rather than depleted by their station outside the law. [cf. Al Quaida – Osama bin Laden] Rob Roy is expert, above all, in the 'modern' arts of commerce and negotiations… the primitive Highlander is also the archetype of economic man c: disjunctive time – Bhabha: 308 How does one encounter the past as an anteriority that continually introduces an otherness or alterity within the present? How does one then narrate the present as a form of contemporaneity that is always belated? In what historical time do such configurations of cultural difference assume forms of cultural and political authority? 312 I am attempting some speculative fieldnotes on that intermittent time, and intersticial space, that emerges as a structure of undecidability at the frontiers of cultural hybridity. [!] I.e. the time of pageantry – outside of time – time out of joint – phantasmatic time Waverley as character: Lukacs: The “hero” of a Scott novel is always a more or less mediocre, average English gentleman. “Maintaining individuals” v “world-historical individuals” “a sneaking imbecile”? (Scott in letter of 1814 – see Hook “Intro” p. 20) Duncan MR 68 Most modern critics of Waverley have read the novel as the story of the hero's education, made homologous with a historical transition towards modernity. i.e, Bildungsroman see Jane Millgate Barrell: For instance, the hypostatized 'common language' which was the language of the gentleman whether he be Observer, Spectator, Rambler, 'Common to all by virtue of the fact that it manifested the peculiarities of none' – was primarily defined through a process of negation – of regionalism, occupation, faculty – so that this central vision of 'the gentlernan' is so to speak 'a condition of empty potential, one who is imagined as being able to comprehend everything, and yet who may give no evidence of having comprehended anything'. (From Bhabha: 296) Duncan: absent at end – me: not so much Fergus stepping out of painting as Waverley stepping into it. Cf Duncan: In fact Waverley scarcely features as a grammatical subject in the last chapter of the narrative of Waverley, as such disappearing altogether from the final pages. The disappearance is marked by his conversion into an object, a figure of the past: our last view of him is in the painting by the side of the dead can chieftain, 'in their Highland dress'. As noted earlier, the representation is a polite fiction, and furthermore the production of 'an eminent London artist'. The hero takes his place by entering the décor, by becoming one of the relics of his own adventure. i.e. into phantasm From McCracken: 17 Cairns Craig: [The] end of Waverley, finds the hero looking at a painting of himself and his [already executed] Jacobite companion [Fergus Mac-Ivor] . . 'in highlands dress'. . his life in history has been . . . 'framed' and removed from the flow of events. . . . By the very power of the model of history which they purveyed to the rest of Europe, the Enlightenment philosophers and Scott reduced Scottish history to a series of isolated narratives which could not be integrated into the fundamental dynamic of history . . . the order of progress could only be narrated from somewhere else. (Out of History, 39) 20ff Interesting: Waverley becomes site of conjectural value (petit a – or even "point de capiton" – term not used by McCracken – so no phantasmatics) for many characters – whereas this is function really of Charles Edward Stuart. Waveley all lack, no excess – cf roles of Charles and Donald Bean Lean 21 In fact, Scott insists that Waverley is a confidence trick practiced by needy Scots against themselves... Waverley is Fergus's invention…. cf Charles' use of Waverley as fiction…Waverley never a presence…..the novel lacks any figure of authority..Through the novel Scott will indicate the difficulty of establishing national value by the circulation of persons and stories. Donald Bean Lean: Symptom of text. Looks forward to Rob Roy Ian Duncan MR 78 on Bean Lean: A less noble and more industrious devil of the cause is the leader of the Highland banditti, Donald Bean Lean, also a Frenchified Scot, and something of an Autolycus or trickster figure. He stands for the true 'liberty' of a sort of natural politics of self-interest, a Richard Waverley on the other side of the law. At the same time, he is actually the agent of the major turns of Waverley's Jacobite career, defining it in the terms I have been describing. Waverley's involvement owes less to any authentic romance of Jacobitism on his own part than to a series of delusions, the effects of the cateran's opportunistic tricks, as the latter is bribed to gull, prompt and kidnap him along the labyrinthine track of his misallegiance. This shape- shifter's effective ally is the blatant beast of slander and misprision, whose hunting-ground is party politics, on the side of the law. Flora to Helen MacGregor – Falls of Ledeard – cf. two passages…… The lost object – loss and mourning – W a novel of mourning – romance to real history on death of Fergus – Bonnie Prince Charlie, lost object – Bhabha: 313 Cultural difference is to be found where the 'loss' of meaning enters, as a cutting edge, into the representation of the fullness of the demands of culture. [recall Renan on forgetting] Scott – narrator – : Duncan MR 98 Scott….. grows more like Bradwardine than the Waverley he once might have been. [esp Scott of 1822] and at end Bradwardine takes Waverley's place as narrative subject. From SS: Scott's career straddled a major shift in Edinburgh literary politics from the Moderate Whig, neo-Enlightenment regime of the Edinburgh Review to the new Romantic Tory dispensation of Blackwood's Magazine. Jacobite/Jacobin: the great unsaid of the text is radicalism and the French Revolution – Jacobitism – jacquerie – Jacobinism – see W: 322-4 A nearer view, indeed, rather diminished the effect impressed on the mind by the more distant appearance of the army. The leading men of each clan were well armed with broad- sword, target, and fusee, to which all added the dirk, and most the steel pistol. But these consisted of gentlemen, that is, relations of the chief, however distant, and who had an immediate title to his countenance and protection….But, in a lower rank to these, there were found individuals of an inferior description, the common peasantry of the Highland country….Each important clan had some of those Helots attached to them…Now these same Helots, though forced into the field by the arbitrary authority of the chieftains under whom they hewed wood and drew water, were in general very sparingly fed, ill dressed, and worse armed…It followed, as a matter of course, that, as we have already hinted, many of these poor fellows were brought to the field in a very wretched condition. From this it happened that, in bodies, the van of which were admirably well armed in their own fashion, the rear resembled actual banditti. Here was a pole-axe, there a sword without a scabbard; here a gun without a lock, there a scythe set straight upon a pole; and some had only their dirks, and bludgeons or stakes pulled out of hedges. The grim, uncombed, and wild appearance of these men, most of whom gazed with all the admiration of ignorance upon the most ordinary productions of domestic art, created surprise in the Lowlands, but it also created terror. 1822 From SS: Lockhart narrates George IV's ceremonial reenactment of Charles Edward's attempt to replicate a lost ancestral sovereignty as a succession of tragedy by farce. McCracken: 109 Mrs. Scott of Harden described his glorious attire: "[At the levie] His Majesty wore the Royal Tartan Highland Dress with Buff coloured Trowsers like flesh to imitate His Royal Knees, and little Tartan bits of Stockings like other Highlanders half up his Legs."…. Macaulay pondered the incongruity of the King [disguised]…. in what, before the Union, was considered by nine Scotchmen out of ten as the dress of a thief" …. The be-plaided Waverley appears pathetic; George IV appeared bizarre. 110 Queen Victoria embraced her imagined Scottish heritage with enthusiasm….. "Duke of Edinburgh" Pittock 88: The burial of Jacobite/nationalist sympathies with honours thick upon them was one Scott carried out throughout his fiction. He also carried out in his life in a sequence of symbolic actions which directed the attention of the British establishment away from the radical dangers of Scotland's continuing history towards the pageantry of a safely deceased political struggle. The event which enabled Scort to do this most effectively was the visit of George IV to Scotland in 1822. Reproduction and facsimile: Tully Veolan at end Portrait of Fergus and Waverley Flora at falls Phantasm: this beautiful conclusion from Duncan after dealing with Hume pattern of illusion – disillusionment – belief: 92 Romance no longer signifies illusion, a state of false consciousness – a naïve substitution for real history – but illusion sustained in self-knowledge: a play of sensibility that marks off a private space at the limits of real history. Thus it is not enough for us to stop at 'death', reinforcing its metaphysical boundary of negation: we have to read the content of that death, here in Scott the terrible abstractions of historical process and politics. For romance also confirms, in its authentic mood of an intimate elegiac pathos, the appropriation of other historical lives for our own. Scott's narratives recount again and again that aesthetic property is the last and absolute theft: a sublimation that comprehends the violence of history, all the deaths that have produced us, now reading. [is this a version of the phantasm? I think it is – though therefore to say just "aesthetic" not enough] cf. 104 the Baron's going to ground: the figure of an essential, original, authentic British place or ground, concealed in or 'underneath' history…..So vivid and moving, this local odyssey (the lord in exile in his own land) is a powerful synecdoche for the narrative it closes. Its project is the recovery of 'archetypal' terms of social relation, crystallized in a revolutionary ferment. The restoration of the ancient hierarchical forms of community occupies a private patriarchal ground of natural human kindness that has resisted the oppressions of an 'external' historical process. Once more, I am not describing here the immanence of transcendental mythic archetypes in a supremely receptive tale-telling (as if -- as some critics would have us believe -- the character of Scott's genius were merely an exceptional porousness to cultural atmospheres), but the story's cunning artifice of the very figure of the archetype. The- archetype, whose matrix is the modern, private, aestheticizing imagination, is projected through historical process as a recovery from it and an exorcism of the category of history to the negative space of the other, the outside, the past. We have outlived it; it takes place somewhere else. i.e. is romance escape from history but mode of living it? 17 Cairns Craig: [The] end of Waverley, finds the hero looking at a painting of himself and his [already executed] Jacobite companion [Fergus Mac-Ivor] . . 'in highlands dress'. . his life in history has been . . . 'framed' and removed from the flow of events. . . . By the very power of the model of history which they purveyed to the rest of Europe, the Enlightenment philosophers and Scott reduced Scottish history to a series of isolated narratives which could not be integrated into the fundamental dynamic of history . . . the order of progress could only be narrated from somewhere else. (Out of History, 39) Waverley and 1822 pageant – The King's Jaunt (John Prebble) Duncan SS: Lockhart narrates George IV's ceremonial reenactment of Charles Edward's attempt to replicate a lost ancestral sovereignty as a succession of tragedy by farce. McCracken: 73-4 John Prebble -- after King's jaunt: Scotland could not be the same again once it was over. A bogus tartan caricature of itself had been drawn and accepted. With the ardent encouragement of an Anglo-Scottish establishment. . Walter Scott's Celtification continued to seduce his countrymen and thereby prepared them for political and industrial exploitation" (364). Even scholars who assert the ongoing political energy of Jacobitism argue that the author did not recognize his images' vitality and deployed them with a deadening hand. To Murray Pillock, the game was one of loss. With Sir Walter's "transference of Jacobite symbols from the Stuart to the Hanoverian cause," Scott "helped dull edge of the Jacobite critique" Duncan‟s argument that W not typical – i.e. chronological priority as typological priority – see Culloden Papers and then RR Miscellaneous McCracken 20??: Moreover, through an excessive troping of movement, Scott implies that such circulation is the Scottish condition. Whether in Flora's romantic promenade across the high beam, the Baron's "swift and long strikes, which reminded Waverley of the seven-league boots of the nursery fable" or Davie Gellatley's fractured dance, Scots are caught in a frenzy of action that can never achieve the progress of valuation… McCracken 81: …..Scott's Jacobitism …. "formed merely a sort of laughing-gas that agreeably excited the feelings"
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