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Inclusive Education by zhangyun


									Training on

  Charlotte McClain-Nhlapo
  Disability Advisor EAP World Bank
  11/12 July 2006.
Objectives of the WB
   Poverty reduction & sustainable
   Priorities embodied in the MDG’s.
   Reaching the poorest of the poor.
   The WB estimates that there are
    approximately 1.3 billion people living
    below the poverty line worldwide of
    which people with disabilities make
    up around 20% of the poorest of the
Reaching the poorest
   This translates into an estimated 260
    million PWD’s living in absolute
   1 in 5 people living on less than a $1 a
    day have a disability.
   To reach the poorest of the poor &
    most isolated citizens, poverty
    reduction efforts need to target issues
    affecting PWD’s & develop policies &
    programmes aimed at reducing their
Defining disability
   Disability is not simply a medical
   Rather it results from the physical,
    mental, or sensory impairments with
    culture, social institutions & physical
   When a person has an impairment which
    limits some aspect of their functioning it
    only becomes a disabling condition if
    they are confronted with barriers to
    things like health services, education,
    employment, public services &
   Could be physical barriers,
    programmatic barriers, or
    cultural barriers- stigma & social
   Disability grows out of an
    interaction between human
    functioning & an environment
    which does not account for
    different levels of functioning.
Some facts about
   It affects not only the person
    with a disability, but the family,
    the community & society at
   Women & girls with disabilities
    often face double
   Aging increases disability.
In EAP alone.
   WB/WHO estimate
    approximately 400 million
    persons with disabilities live
    in EAP region—comprising
    almost 2/3 of the world’s
    disabled population.
What we do know?
   The number of people with
    disabilities continues to
    increase in tandem with growth
    of the world population.
   Factors causing the increase
    include war & other forms of
    violence, inadequate medical
    care, & natural & other natural
The profile of disability
   Many people with disabilities are
   Global estimates indicate that
     90% of them are illiterate,
     40% are poor &

     80 % -live in isolated rural areas.

     Almost that many live in areas
      where the services needed to help
      them are unavailable.
    Disability in EAP
    Poverty Dimensions of Disability

   Poor more likely to be disabled
   Disabled more likely to be poor:
           Low education/high illiteracy
           Lower rates of economic activity
           Poor nutrition
           Less access to basic services
           Lower economic status
   Families affected
           PWD likely to not work
           Another family member = caregiver
           Cost of healthcare and services higher
Poverty and Disability
   For people with disabilities, poverty
    is multidimensional. It is
    characterized by:
     Material deprivation (low
     Low human development
      (education and health)
     Lack of voice and ability to
      influence decisions that affect their
     Acute vulnerability to adverse
      shocks (illness, economic crises,
      natural disasters, conflict).
Poverty cycle.
   There is a clear indication that poor
    people with disabilities are more
    likely to be caught in a vicious
    cycle of poverty and disability,
    each being both a cause & a
    consequence of the other.
       People with disabilities face
        discrimination, social exclusion &
        stigma from the moment they are
        perceived to have an impairment.
Disability & Poverty.
   Poverty is fundamentally an
    issue of exclusion.
   Integrating disability into
    operations & research does not
    involve creating a separate
    agenda to be added on.
   It requires innovation &
    improving what already exists.
Things are Changing
   People with disabilities are increasingly
    demanding to be part of society.
   Policy makers, planners & International
    agencies have realized that there is no
    way the MDG’s can be achieved without
    reaching the most vulnerable groups in
    It is now universally recognized that
    there can be no sustainable
    development without inclusive
Paradigm shift
   Moving towards the social
     More integrated
     It conceptualizes disability as an
      interaction between individual
      limitations & the environment.
    In contrast – the medical model
      which focused on the medical
      condition of the person.
The social model
   Is rights based
   It is more cost effective
   More sustainable & can be used
    to combat poverty.
   Critical for developing countries.
                   WHY BANK
   Link between disability and poverty
         Poor disproportionately disabled
         Disabled disproportionately poor

   High actual vs. reported prevalence = high cost
         Percent of population not working
         High dropout rates, remaining out-of-school

         Low cost prevention and early interventions =
          higher productivity
         Cost effective inclusion
Strategies for inclusive
   Must include two aspects.
     Prevention

     Integration

    80% of disabilities stem from
      preventable causes.
      (malnutrition, natural
      disasters, disease, conflict,
      traffic & other injuries, birth).
It requires…

   Addressing disability requires a
    multi-sectoral approach.
   Disability is a cross cutting
    issue & affects all aspects of
   It requires innovation &
    flexibility- stepping outside of
    the box.
How to do we . . . ?.
   Achieve inclusive development
    requires the application of three
    principles as well as the general
    principles found in a new UN
    Human Rights Convention being
    developed for people with
The Three Principles
   Should be seen not only as
    goals and objectives, but as
    the processes through
    which inclusive
    development for people with
    disabilities is achieved:
1. Access
  People   with disabilities
   should enjoy access to the
   built environment,
   transportation, information &
  so that they may be full
   participants in all aspects of
   life, & fully enjoy the full range
   of human rights.
2. Equity
   People with disabilities should
    enjoy equitable access to the
    benefits resulting from
    development activities.
   These activities should promote
    non-discrimination & equal
    opportunities for people with
    disabilities to participate in
    every facet of life: civil, political,
    economic, social & cultural.
3. Inclusion
   People with disabilities should
    be accepted as equal partners in
    development, & be included as
    full participants in all
    development activities.
   People with disabilities should
    be part of the PRSP
   In the CAS.
Inclusion essential for
    Strengthening the disability policy
     focus of PRSP’s is essential to
     the success of their strategies for
     2 reasons.
    1.   Disability is a significant factor of
         extreme poverty in developing
    2.   Unless people with disabilities
         are included in the PRSP’s - it is
         unlikely that most of the MDGs
         will be met.
Real Life
   It will not happen over night.
   Need to have real people involved.
   This a complex set of concepts and
    requires a range of different actors.
   While it is complex it is not
    insurmountable & there already a
    number of good practices.
   We need to work with DPO’s & share
   Finally, the rationale for
    including people with
    disabilities in development
    projects is not only a moral
    obligation but a legally
    binding imperative.

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