4th International Conference on Intelligence and Creativity _ICIC

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					           a                          a
      Westf¨ lische Wilhelms-Universit¨ t Munster

 4th International Conference on
Intelligence and Creativity (ICIC)
  Theory, measurement, and practical issues

         October 9th - 11th, 2008

       Program & Abstracts
4th International Conference on Intelligence and Creativity (ICIC)
      a                         a
Westf¨ lische Wilhelms-Universit¨ t Munster
October 9th - 11th, 2008

Organizing committee
Prof. Dr. H. Holling, University of Munster
Prof. Dr. T. Lubart, Universit´ de Paris Cinque
Prof. Dr. B. Sch¨ fer, University of Munster
Prof. Dr. D. Ushakov, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

Scientific committee
Prof. Dr. V. Petrov, State Institute for Art Studies, Moscow
Dr. R. D. Roberts, ETS, Princeton
PD Dr. R. Schulze, University of Wuppertal
Prof. Dr. T. N. Ushakova, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow
Prof. Dr. Oliver Wilhelm, Humboldt University, Berlin
Prof. Dr. M. Zeidner, University of Haifa

German Research Foundation (DFG)

Program            5

Abstracts          9

Index of Authors   39



                 W, 8 O

Time             2.140 (CIP-Pool)

13:30 – 19:00h   Pre-conference workshop:
                 Structural equation modeling
                 of intelligence data with
                 Mplus 5
                 C. Geiser

19:00                           Informal get-together at Stuhlmacher


                      T, 9 O

    Time             2.040                                 2.035

    08:30 – 09:00h                              Registration, coffee

    09:00 – 09:15h   Welcome address

    09:15 – 10:00h   Keynote
                     K. Oberauer

    10:00 – 10:30h                                     Break

    10:30 – 12:00h   Intelligence I                        Creativity I
                     C. Ferr´ ndiz                         V. Spiridonov
                     R. Schulze                            T. G. Baudson
                     M. Ferrando                           B. Ayas

    12:30 – 14:00h                                     Break

    14:00 – 15:30h   Intelligence II                       Creativity II
                     H. Bohme
                          ¨                                Y. Turkan
                     F. Dislich                            E. Nikolaeva
                     P. Engelberg                          T. Galkina

    15:30 – 16:00h                                     Break

    16:00 – 17:30h   Intelligence III                      Creativity III
                     S. Belova                             T. Tikhomirova
                     A. C. Helms                           M. E. De Caroli
                     S. Troche                             V. Ovsyannikova

    19:00 – 20:00h                          Reception at the town hall

    20:00 – 21:00h                    Guided tour of the historical city center


                    F, 10 O

Time             2.040                              2.035

08:30 – 09:00h                                  Coffee

09:00 – 09:45h   Keynote
                 K. Sijtsma

09:45 – 10:00h                                  Break

10:00 – 12:00h   Intelligence IV                    Creativity IV
                 J. Haubrich                        D. Lyusin
                 U. Sak                             I. Akar
                 J.-T. Kuhn                         S. Sengil
                 G. Gediga

12:00 – 14:00h                                  Break

14:00 – 15:30h   Intelligence V                     Creativity V
                 C. Geiser                          V. M. Petrov
                 A. Hildebrandt                     L. A. Mazhul
                 N. Zeuch                           M. Kononenko

15:30 – 16:00h                                  Break

16:00 – 17:30h   Intelligence VI                    Creativity VI
                 J. M. Wicherts                     E. Grigorenko
                 J. P. Bertling                     O. Matskevitch
                 K. Kuchenb¨ cker

19:00 – 22:00h                      Conference dinner at Muhlenhof


                     S, 11 O

    Time              2.040

    08:30 – 09:00h                       Coffee

    09:00 – 09:45h    Keynote
                      E. Grigorenko

    09:45 – 10:00h                       Break

    10:00 – 11:30h    Intelligence VII
                      R. D. Roberts
                      Y. Dodonov
                      B. Colver

    11:30 – 11:45h    Closing address

                                                        Abstracts: Thursday, 9th October


                                     K                                                  Thursday
                                                                                              09:15 – 10:00h
                                 Introduction: R. Schulze                                     2.040

Why does working memory capacity predict reasoning ability?
                 The binding hypothesis

                                      K. Oberauer
                                  University of Bristol

Working memory capacity has been shown to be the best single predictor of reasoning
ability and fluid intelligence. I will propose the binding hypothesis as an explanation
for this finding. All reasoning tasks have in common that they require building new
structural representations. New structural representations are built by establishing
temporary bindings between component representations. The main function of working
memory is to establish, hold, and update those bindings, thus acting as a blackboard
for building and manipulating the representations used for reasoning. The limited
capacity of working memory arises from a limitation on its ability to establish and
maintain bindings. Evidence for the binding hypothesis comes from two sources: First,
measures of relational integration (i.e., the ability to integrate several relations into a
new structure) are closely correlated with conventional measures of working memory
capacity, and are excellent predictors of reasoning ability. Second, a direct measure of
binding obtained from short-term recognition tasks is closely correlated with measures
of working memory capacity.

                 Abstracts: Thursday, 9th October

   Thursday                                       I I
10:30 – 12:00h
         2.040                                        Chair: D. Lyusin

                      ¿There is any relationship between creative intelligence and
                                         emotional intelligence?
                         C. Ferr´ ndiz, M. R. Bermejo, M. Sainz, M. Ferrando, L. Prieto & D. Hernandez
                                                      Alicante University

                 The aim is to study the relationships between creativity and emotional intelligence.
                 The participants were 35 pupils (71.4% boys and 28.6% girls) aged 9 to 12 years old.
                 They were identified as G&T and are involved in a specific program for G&T. Three
                 instruments were used: a) the EQ-i:YV (Emotional Quotient-inventroy: Youth Version,
                 Baron & Parker, 2000) aimed to measure some dimensions of Emotional Intelligence
                 (EI); b) the TTCT is a psychometrics test oriented two assess some dimensions of cre-
                 ativity: flexibility, flexibility, originality and elaboration; and c) the creative subtests
                 (book covers, multiples uses of familiar things; personifications; figurative language
                 and number talk), included in the AURORA project (Grigorenko & Sternberg, 2008).
                 The aim of these subtests is to assess the creativity or the ability to generate novel and
                 interesting ideas, makes connections between things that other people don’t recognize
                 spontaneously. The results will be discussed regarding to the relationship between cre-
                 ativity assessed through different measures and the dimensions of perceived emotional
                 intelligence (interpersonal, intrapersonal, stress management, adaptability and mood)
                 in a G&T sample.

                        A meta-analysis of the validity evidence for emotional
                                          intelligence tests
                                     R. Schulze, R. D. Roberts, S. Hellwig & C. MacCann
                                                  University of Wuppertal
                                          Educational Testing Service, Princeton
                                                    University of Munster

                 Emotional intelligence (EI) is an ability construct that has been assessed in scientific
                 studies with a small number of maximum performance tests. The available evidence
                 in the published literature for the convergent and discriminant validity of these mea-
                 surement instruments is reviewed and synthesized. The results of the meta-analysis
                 focus on the strength of relations that EI measures have with personality factors and
                 traditional intelligence measures. Valid EI measures are expected to evince moderate
                 relationships with other intelligence measures and weak relationships with personality
                 factors. With some reservations, the results show that these requirements are met for
                 available EI measures.

                                                       Abstracts: Thursday, 9th October

      Emotional intelligence, creativity and IQ: A pilot study

   M. Ferrando, C. Ferr´ ndiz, M. D. Prieto, M. R. Bermejo, M. Sainz & M. C. Fernandez
                                   Murcia University

The aim of this work was to study the relationship between general intelligence, cre-
ativity and emotional intelligence. The participants were 82 students aged 7 to 12 years
old (53 boys and 29 girls). The instruments used were: a) an IQ test oriented to assess
different intellectual abilities; b) TTCT which aim is to measure creativity (fluidity, flex-
ibility, originality and elaboration); and c) EQ-i:YV aimed to measure some dimensions
(inter, intrapersonal intelligence, adaptability, stress management, general mood) of
Emotional Intelligence (EI). The results showed a low correlation between general in-
telligence and creativity. In addition, our data didn’t show any correlations between EI
and general intelligence. Only a negative statistically significant correlation was found
between complete sentences (IQ aptitude) and interpersonal EI dimension. Finally, the
data showed not statistically significant correlations between creativity and EI; whereas
we found correlations between intrapersonal dimension of EI and creativity.

                 Abstracts: Thursday, 9th October

   Thursday                                        C I
10:30 – 12:00h
         2.035                                    Chair: M. E. De Caroli

                  Categorization and research problems solving by experts and
                                       novices in biology

                                                     V. Spiridonov
                                      Russian State University for the Humanities

                 This research is dedicated to difference between experts (professors and PhD) and
                 novices (university students) in biology. We investigated how these two groups (n1 = 37;
                 n2 = 93) generalized biological concepts and suggested new research ideas basing on
                 experimental articles from biological journals. Processing collected data by multiple
                 regression we found out that biological concepts which predicted quality of research
                 ideas in groups of experts and novices were different.

                             The unholy alliance of “genius and madness”

                                                T. G. Baudson & F. Preckel
                                                     Trier University

                 Intellectual and particularly creative giftedness has frequently been associated with
                 psychopathological disturbances. Why is this the case, and — even more important —
                 what does this unholy alliance of “genius and madness” imply for parents, teachers,
                 and practitioners concerned with intellectually and creatively gifted children? This
                 presentation will analyze the historical development of the association between intelli-
                 gence, creativity and psychopathy and discuss the issue and its implications in the light
                 of current theoretical developments.

                                                        Abstracts: Thursday, 9th October

Test of Scientific Creativity: Its development and psychometric

                               B. Ayas, U. Sak & S. Demirel
                                   Anadolu University

Exceptional performance in science usually is used as an indicator of special scientific
ability and creativity. In this study we developed a new test of scientific creativity,
using the divergent-production paradigm but with some novelties in measurement.
The test is composed of five open-ended problems, one in biology, one in chemistry,
one in physics, one in ecology, and one in interdisciplinary science. Scores are drawn
from responses to hypothesis generation and hypothesis testing tasks. Three types of
scores can be obtained from responses on the test: fluency, flexibility, and the creativity
quotient. The last one, creativity quotient, is determined by using log2 formula. In this
session, a general description of the test and the results of a pilot study carried out with
94 gifted students will be presented.

                 Abstracts: Thursday, 9th October

   Thursday                                     I II
14:00 – 15:30h
         2.040                                        Chair: G. Gediga

                       Development of a short test for measuring conditional

                                                         H. B¨ hme
                                                      Jena University

                 Although reasoning with conditionals (if-then-propositions) is a central aspect of de-
                 ductive reasoning, nearly no tests exist for its measurement. Here a 16-item-short-test
                 is presented, that is derived from Evans’ negations paradigm. Based on the ideas of
                 the level-model of conditional reasoning (Rumain, Connell & Braine, 1983; Rijmen and
                 DeBoeck, 2003) different types of reasoners are proposed. Therefore, in contrary to
                 most psychometric tests, which aim at measuring a continuous latent dimension, here
                 a nominal latent variable called “Sophistication of conditional reasoning” is assumed.
                 This assumption is checked by analyzing the data of 867 subjects, who completed this
                 short test. A latent class analysis shows a good model fit. Easy interpretable types
                 of reasoners, as assumed in the level-model, can be found. Further results concern-
                 ing reliability, stability and validity of the short test are presented and conclusions for
                 measuring conditional reasoning are drawn.

                      Direct and indirect measurement of intelligence related

                           F. Dislich, T. Gschwendner, W. Hofmann, A. Zinkernagel & M. Schmitt
                                                Koblenz-Landau University

                 In a series of studies we investigated how discrepancies between implicit and explicit
                 representations of the intelligence self-concept are related to negative feedback. In a
                 first study (N = 177) we examined whether, compared to a congruent intelligence self-
                 concept, a discrepant self-concept of intelligence was related to more vulnerability after
                 receiving negative feedback for an attended intelligence test. Results showed that (i) the
                 performance reducing effects of negative feedback could be replicated, and (ii) persons
                 with a combination of high implicit and low explicit self-concept of intelligence per-
                 formed even better after receiving negative feedback than any other combination of
                 implicit-explicit intelligence self-concept. In a second study (N = 167) we tested and
                 confirmed the hypothesis that persons with a combination of high implicit and low
                 explicit self-concept of intelligence reach higher levels in achievement motivation after
                 receiving negative feedback.

                                                       Abstracts: Thursday, 9th October

Fairness of the I-S-T 2000 R knowledge test for women and men

                                P. Engelberg & R. Schulze
                                 Wuppertal University

The ‘Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R (I-S-T)’ is one of the most widely used intelligence
tests in Germany for the assessment of both fluid and crystallized intelligence (gc).
Significantly lower observed gc scores were reported for women as compared to men
in previous research. Such differences may be due to gender differences in ability or
they may be attributable to properties of the measurement instrument. The purpose of
the present research is to investigate the measurement invariance of the I-S-T gc assess-
ment procedures across gender groups to disambiguate the interpretation of potential
observed score differences. A total of 273 participants (172 women, 101 men) took
the I-S-T gc test and a test to assess fluid intelligence. Multigroup confirmatory factor
analyses with parceled indicators were used to test models of measurement invariance.
Additional differential item functioning analyses were conducted at the item level to
investigate specific gender differences for items varying in contents.

                 Abstracts: Thursday, 9th October

   Thursday                                       C II
14:00 – 15:30h
         2.035                                         Chair: U. Sak

                 Strategies and methods gifted Students use in problem solving

                                                    Y. Turkan & S. Sengil
                                                    Anadolu University

                 The purpose of this study was to investigate the strategies and methods mathematically
                 talented students used in an addition task of consecutive numbers. Research partici-
                 pants included 49 sixth grade and 46 seventh grade students who were identified as
                 gifted in mathematics. In the research process, students were asked to sum up numbers
                 from 1 to 20 using as many different methods as they could. An analysis of responses
                 given by students indicated a variety of addition strategies they used. But all strategies
                 could be grouped in six distinct categories. The findings showed that gifted students
                 used not only ordinary methods, such as Gauss’s method, for summing consecutive
                 numbers but also created their own methods. The findings will be discussed with a
                 focus on strategy use in problem solving.

                      The cardiac rhythm variation in emotional situations of
                            preschool children with different IQ levels

                                                      E. Nikolaeva
                                          Herzen State Pedagogical University

                 The purpose of the research was to compare characteristics of variability of cardiac
                 rhythm of preschool children with various IQ levels. 31 children were participants (17
                 girls and 14 boys, 5,11-7,2 years old). Children performed the associative experiment
                 in situations of an emotional reinforcement (as punishment and reward) with parallel
                 registration of electrocardiograms. Higher activation of a sympathetic part of vegeta-
                 tive nervous system is found out in children with higher IQs in neutral situation. The
                 positive reinforcement does not lead to more effective performance of associative test
                 by children with low IQs and worsens performance of the test by children with high
                 intelligence. Children with high IQs have identical results of performance of the asso-
                 ciative test both in situation of internal motivation and one of negative reinforcement.
                 Children with low IQs performed the test better under negative reinforcement.

                                                      Abstracts: Thursday, 9th October

  Self-appraisal as intellectual and creative process of peculiar
                      problem-solving tasks

                                       T. Galkina
                 Institute of Psychology Russian Academy of Sciences

Our theoretical and empirical researches showed possibility to study self-appraisal as
peculiar problem-solving tasks of a certain degree of difficulty. Such tasks may concern
estimation of self, own possibilities, abilities, personality properties etc. Our studies
proved that the peculiarities of solving different problems and creative tasks (among
them self-appraisal tasks and estimation of others) are connected with the developmen-
tal level of ability to act in mind (AAM), which was revealed and carefully studied by
Yakov Ponomariov. We continued his studies and provided extensive evidence confirm-
ing Ponomariov’s idea of formation of AAM as an essential pre-requisite of any activity,
behavior, communication and interaction. Our results showed that highly developed
AAM (IV-V developmental stages) provides possibility of solving self-appraisal tasks as
logical (cognitive, intellectual) tasks. Medium level of AAM (III developmental stage)
accompanied by some additional conditions gives possibility to solve self-appraisal
tasks as creative (intuitive, emotional) problems. Low developmental stages (I-II) of
AAM hamper the process of solving different self-appraisal and estimation tasks.

                 Abstracts: Thursday, 9th October

   Thursday                                     I III
16:00 – 17:30h
         2.040                                       Chair: P. A. Freund

                       The assessment of intelligence: what does it mean to be
                                   S. Belova, D. V. Ushakov, E. A. Valueva & P. A. Freund
                                  Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences
                                                   University of Munster

                 This collaborative Russian-German study is aimed at the examination of cultural speci-
                 ficity of tasks that could be used in the assessment of human abilities. We suggest
                 a model of relevance of tasks to culture that included three dimensions — prototyp-
                 icality, frequency and value. An evaluation of the model predictions with respect to
                 self-assessment measures of intelligence was carried out. According to the model, psy-
                 chometric properties of questionnaires are defined by their cultural relevance. The
                 intelligence questionnaire has been developed, and the relevance of its items has been
                 defined for both Russian and German cultures. It was found that cross-cultural dif-
                 ferences in items’ relevance are minimal. Furthermore, the external validity of the
                 questionnaire is positively related to prototypicality, and negatively related to value.
                 The level of self-estimates of abilities is predicted by value and frequency. To improve
                 questionnaires external validity, the procedures of correction of scores have been devel-

                      An empirical investigation of the validity of trans-cultural
                                     comparisons of test scores
                               A. C. Helms, P. A. Freund, E. A. Valueva, S. Belova & B. Sch¨ fer
                                                   University of Munster
                                  Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences

                 Comparing test scores on the same measurement instrument across cultures is generally
                 seen as challenging, if not impossible (Greenfield, 1997). This paper investigates the
                 validity of trans-cultural comparisons of test scores obtained from Russian and German
                 samples. 439 students aged 13 to 18 filled out a self-report questionnaire for behavioural
                 aspects of intelligence, which was constructed based on prior work. Exploratory and
                 confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to investigate the underlying structures
                 of intelligence in both samples. While there were parallels in the meaning of the
                 underlying factors, the items retained were not the same. To answer the question if it
                 makes sense to directly compare scores across culture, the factorial invariance of test
                 scores was examined. The results clearly showed that even configural invariance does
                 not hold for the two samples; therefore, trans-cultural validity of the test scores cannot
                 be assumed.

                                                       Abstracts: Thursday, 9th October

   Comparing the relations of psychometric intelligence with
 temporal resolution power and general discrimination ability

                                      S. Troche
                                  University of Bern

The temporal resolution power (TRP) hypothesis suggests that individual differences
in psychometric intelligence (PI) are due to temporal acuity of the brain. Correlations
between duration discrimination tasks and PI supported this assumption. Problem-
atically, however, discrimination ability is generally related to PI as it was shown for
tone frequency and intensity or brightness. Applying structural equation modeling, the
present study investigated whether the relation between PI and TRP can be dissociated
from the relation between PI and general discrimination (GD). GD was assessed by
frequency, intensity and brightness discrimination tasks and TRP by duration discrimi-
nation tasks. Capacity- and speed-related components of PI were determined applying
the Berlin Intelligence Structure Test. GD was significantly correlated with the capac-
ity but not with the speed component of PI whereas TRP was significantly correlated
with both components. These results indicate that the relation between PI and TRP is
dissociable from the relation between PI and GD.

                 Abstracts: Thursday, 9th October

   Thursday                                       C III
16:00 – 17:30h
         2.035                                      Chair: L. A. Mazhul

                   Information and interpersonal interaction in development of
                                   intelligence and creativity
                                                      T. Tikhomirova
                                               Russian Academy of Sciences

                 For the analysis of a problem of determination cognitive developments allocation in
                 the social environment determining changes of intelligence and creativity, 2 aspects is
                 offered: 1) information and 2) interpersonal interaction. On I a stage the children’s
                 creativity was assessed by mean of Williams CAP test, the intelligence — with Raven’s
                 SPM test in both groups. At II stage a special questionnaire has been elaborated to be
                 adminiatered to children’s mother and fathers. It included 14 scales discribing different
                 aspects of upbringing styles. At III stage in both groups repeated diagnostics of a level
                 of development of intelligence and creativity was spent. By means of the method of
                 multiple regression analysis it is shown, that the greatest share external dispersions of
                 individual distinctions in development of intelligence and creativity is defined with the
                 aspect of interpersonal interaction shown in a family milieu. The greatest values have
                 factors of multiple determination of intelligence and creativity, the caused factors of
                 educational influence of fathers. The information aspect of environment (enrichment of
                 the educational environment) in a greater degree influences parameters of development
                 of creativity.

                      Factors of creativity and levels of intelligence: a comparison
                         between children with mental retardation and typical
                                         M. E. De Caroli, O. Licciardello & E. Sagone
                                                   University of Catania

                 The aim of this empirical study was to investigate factors of creativity according to
                 Williams’ perspective comparing twenty-eight children (average age 8.39 from 6.01 to
                 11.02) with low-level mental retardation (MR) and twenty-eight children (average age
                 6.22, from 5.10 to 8.05) with typical development (TD) balanced for the same cognitive
                 level (pre-operational and operational stages: see Piaget, 1962). We used: a) the Italian
                 version of test of creative thinking (TCT: Williams, 1994) to explore fluency, flexibility,
                 elaboration, originality and production of titles; b) Logical Operations (OL: Vianello et
                 alii, 1991) to measure the cognitive levels of each child in areas of seriation, numeration
                 and classification. We predicted that MR obtained lower scores in each factor of creativ-
                 ity than TD. Results showed that, only for the operational cognitive level, MR obtained
                 statistically significant lower scores in originality (16.00 vs 22.50, p = .043), elaboration
                 (4.50 vs 14.50, p = .006) and in total creativity (51.75 vs 76.00, p = .002) than TD.

                                                        Abstracts: Thursday, 9th October

 Emotion sensitivity and its relations to emotional intelligence
                   and general intelligence

                                    V. Ovsyannikova
                      Russian State University for the Humanities

Important direction in research in the field of emotional intelligence (EI) concerns the
relations between EI and emotion information processing. In present study we investi-
gate the construct of emotion sensitivity and its relations to EI and general intelligence.
Emotion sensitivity is the bias in perception of others’ emotions such that a certain type
of emotions is over perceived’. To obtain the types of emotion sensitivity the special
emotion recognition procedure was used that was administered to 64 participants. By
means of factor analysis three types of emotion sensitivity were revealed. The data
shows that different types of emotion sensitivity correspond to different types of in-
telligence. Sensitivity to negative valence correlates with psychometric intelligence,
Sensitivity to high activation correlates with interpersonal EI. The results of this study
suggest that emotion sensitivity is one of the cognitive factors of emotion information

                 Abstracts: Friday, 10th October

       Friday                                          K
09:00 – 09:45h
         2.040                                     Introduction: H. Holling

                 Towards a better understanding of intelligence through the use
                                   of latent variable models

                                                         K. Sijtsma
                                                     Tilburg University

                 Latent variable models such as item response models and latent class models can play an
                 important role in understanding intelligence. Initially, item response models were used
                 to construct scales for the measurement of intelligence and other psychological prop-
                 erties. Latent class models were used mainly in sociology for the ad hoc classification
                 of respondents in groups characterized by typical score patterns on small numbers of
                 items measuring, for example, attitudes towards traditional male/female roles. A more
                 recent development in item response modeling and latent class modeling is their use as
                 explanatory models that may contribute to the testing of cognitive theories underlying
                 item and test performance.
                 I will explain the principles of both kinds of statistical models and highlight some of the
                 recent developments that have made both better suitable for intelligence research. The
                 developmental ability of transitive reasoning is used as a case study. I will demonstrate
                 how both item response models and latent class models may shed light on issues
                 such as identifying phases in developmental trajectories and testing competing theories
                 about transitive reasoning, but also for constructing scales based on well designed sets
                 of items. In addition, I will briefly touch upon some recent developments in latent
                 variable modeling, and their potential uses in cognitive and intelligence research.

                                                           Abstracts: Friday, 10th October

                               I IV                                               Friday
                                                                                             10:00 – 12:00h
                                  Chair: J. M. Wicherts                                      2.040

 A Monte Carlo-study investigating strategies to choose among
 statistical models of different structures in confirmatory factor
                                J. Haubrich & R. Schulze
                                 University of Munster
                                University of Wuppertal

According to all substantiated pertinent theories, intelligence is set up as a multidi-
mensional construct. However, the way of relating different dimensions is a matter of
debate. A prevalent means to translate conceptualizations of the structure of intelli-
gence into investigatable statistical models is provided by confirmatory factor analyses.
Within this framework, theories locating dimensions at different levels are represented
by the class of higher-order-factor-models, whereas theories conceiving dimensions as
differing in terms of breadth are incorporated in the class of hierarchical models. A
higher-order-factor-model is in general nested within — and hence a special case of
— a hierarchical model. Therefore, χ2 -difference-tests can be applied to evaluate the
differences of two models belonging to these classes, overcoming deficiencies adherent
to contrasting measures of absolute fit. In this Monte-Carlo-study, several hierarchical-
and higher-order-factor-models are compared under varied, practically meaningful con-
ditions. Reasonable strategies to identify an appropriate model, which turn out to be
not as straightforward as could be expected, are derived.

Test of mathematical talent: Its development and psychometric
              U. Sak, F. Karabacak, I. Akar, S. Sengil, S. Demirel & Y. Turkan
                                   Anadolu University

Mathematical talent can be viewed to be a collection of fully or partially developed
reasoning skills and knowledge and the ability to efficiently apply these skills in using
mathematical knowledge and solving mathematical problems. As mathematical talent
consists of a variety of equally important skills, each skill should be measured efficiently
in the identification of mathematically talented students. In this study, we revised and
refined the Test of the Three Mathematical Minds (Sak, 2005) to develop a more compre-
hensive, reliable and valid instrument for measuring mathematical ability. The revised
test, titled ”the Test of Mathematical Talent“ includes twelve subtests of mathematical
reasoning and knowledge. The new test was tried out with 219 sixth grade and 149
seventh grade students who applied for admission to an education program for gifted
students. In this session, a description of the test and its psychometric properties will
be presented.

Abstracts: Friday, 10th October

 Evaluating cognitive theory: A joint modeling approach using
                responses and response times

              J.-T. Kuhn, R. H. Klein-Entink, L. F. Hornke, J.-P. Fox & B. Sch¨ fer
                                    University of Munster
                                      Twente University
                                     Aachen University

The analysis of performance in computer-based educational assessment is often con-
fined to accuracy scores. Response times, although being an easily-available additional
source of information, are either neglected or analyzed separately. In this presentation,
a new statistical model is developed that allows the simultaneous analysis of accuracy
scores and response times of cognitive tests with a design structure. The model is
capable of determining both time intensity and difficulty of cognitive operations, thus
dissociating information that is often confounded in current assessment procedures.
This new model provides researchers with an integrated approach that can explicitly
relate different operationalizations of cognitive processing. The application of the model
is illustrated using a large-scale investigation of figural reasoning ability.

 Application of cognitive diagnosis using intelligence test data

                                         G. Gediga
                                    University of Munster

The overall aim of any assessment is to determine the skills a subject masters, and
the more skills one has to solve the problems, the more problems one will solve; this
simple idea is at the basis of all common theories of ability tests. Apart from this idea,
the theories diverge in their assumptions about “latent traits” or “ability parameters”
or other constructs that “represent” the data as good as possible. A direct connection
between theory and data is the skill assignment approach with the resulting knowledge
structure as a simple instance of a cognitive diagnosis model. Although the algebraic
theory of knowlegde structure based on skill assignments is straightforward, several
approaches had been explored to build a probabilistic version of the model (PKS),
with — so far — limited success. Actual data from intelligence tests will be used to

     • how a typical application of a PKS looks like

     • how the results of a PKS and the LLTM look like using the same body of data.

Finally, a hybrid deterministic-probabilistic version of the knowledge structure model
is presented and it is shown how the DPKS model results differs from PKS and LLTM

                                                           Abstracts: Friday, 10th October

                                C IV                                                Friday
                                                                                             10:00 – 12:00h
                                   Chair: J. P. Bertling                                     2.035

     Emotion influence on figurative and emotional creativity
                                      D. Lyusin
                             Russian Academy of Sciences

Current data on emotion influence on creativity is controversial. E.g., in some stud-
ies positive emotions enhance creativity level, in other studies they reduce creativity.
Mechanisms that are responsible for these influences can be divided into two groups
— cognitive and motivational. It can be suggested that they work independently and
often in different directions. In the present study two hypotheses are tested: 1. Two
dimensions of emotional state such as arousal and valence influence creativity in dif-
ferent ways because they activate different cognitive and motivational mechanisms. 2.
Emotion influence on creativity is mediated by emotional intelligence level. Method.
With the use of autobiographical memories four emotional states (high/low arousal ×
positive/negative valence) were induced in four groups of participants (16 people in
each group) equaled by creativity and EI level, then tests on figurative and emotional
creativity were administered. During a separate session emotional intelligence was
measured by Ovsyannikova-Lyusin Videotest of IE. Main results. Emotional states
influenced only emotional creativity, but not figurative creativity. In low-arousal partic-
ipants negative valence reduced originality and flexibility scores of EmCrea Test. The
nature of influence of emotion on EmCrea scores was mediated by EI level.

  Creativity-fostering behaviors in Turkish preschool teachers
                                       I. Akar
                                  Anadolu University

Creativity which is an important skill for children’s capability in all education sys-
tems, must be encouraged and developed by teachers in school programs. However,
the education process of a child initially begins in the family and officially it further
continues in preschool or kindergarten programs. From this point, a research about
preschool and kindergarten teachers’ creativity fostering behaviors is critical and essen-
tial for the improvement and encouragement of the creativity of Turkish preschool and
kindergarten children. In this research study; preschool teachers’ behaviors related to
fostering creativity will be investigated using a multi-itemed self rating scale including
possible creativity fostering behaviors. Participants will include in-service teachers of
kindergarten and preschool in Eskisehir in Turkey. Data to be collected will be ana-
lyzed and categorized using quantitative data analysis techniques. Findings will be
discussed with an emphasis on differences among preferred behaviors of kindergarten
and preschool teachers.

Abstracts: Friday, 10th October

Geometrical problem posing in mathematically gifted students

                                      S. Sengil
                                   Usak University

Sheffield (1987), in his/her definition of mathematically giftedness, emphasized that
mathematical talent has its own specific steps . At the top of those steps of mathe-
matically giftedness labels as creators. According to Sheffield, at the bottom of this
step labels as problem posers. In this context, problem posing is important as problem
solving for the development of the talents of math training students. While students are
posing problems, they restructure their own knowledges and become more productive.
The study question is; “How many and how different problems can mathematically
gifted students pose with using some geometrical figures and geometrical objects?”.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the problems that mathematically gifted stu-
dents pose in geometry. The sample of this study consists of mathematically gifted sixth
and seventh grade 96 students in Education Programs for Gifted and Talented Youth
in Anadolu University in Turkey. One geometrical figure and two geometrical objects
were given to these students. And then they were asked to pose problems using at
least two of those figures and/or objects. Their problems assessed by the perspectives
of correctness, variety in using the concepts and the steps of possible solution.

                                                        Abstracts: Friday, 10th October

                               I V                                               Friday
                                                                                            14:00 – 15:30h
                                   Chair: J.-T. Kuhn                                        2.040

    Sex differences in mental rotation in different age groups

                            C. Geiser, W. Lehmann & M. Eid
                                Free University Berlin
                               University of Magdeburg

Many studies have reported substantial sex differences in favor of males in the classical
Vandenberg & Kuse (1978) Mental Rotations Test. In the present study, we investigated
sex differences in 15 age groups (9 – 23 years, total N = 1624). We tested (1) whether sex
differences were present in young children and (2) whether sex differences increased
as a function of age. Structural equation analyses revealed that sex differences in favor
of males occurred at all ages (range of d values: 0.52 – 1.49). An effect size of d = 1.08
was found for nine year old children. Furthermore, a slight tendency of increasing sex
differences with age was observed. Potential explanations, implications, and limitations
are discussed.

      Measuring face processing: Structure and correlates of
          behavioral data and young-old differences

                                     A. Hildebrandt
          Institut zur Qualit¨ tsentwicklung im Bildungswesen (IQB), Berlin

Face processing is an important human ability. There are enormous differences in face
processing between people, ranging from prosopagnosia, where learning and recogniz-
ing new faces are highly impaired, to astonishing cases of memory for faces over many
years. In this presentation we will investigate the structure of individual differences in
face processing, correlates of latent variables of face processing and young-old differ-
ences in face processing in a multigroup context. In Study 1 (N = 151) a measurement
model for face processing postulating latent factors for Face memory, Face perception,
and Speed of face processing was established through the analysis of an extensive
battery of newly developed tasks. In Study 2 (N = 209) a slightly modified battery
of face processing tasks and indicators for fluid intelligence, general memory, object
recognition, and clerical speed tasks were used to replicate the measurement model and
to demonstrate the substantial uniqueness of face processing from established ability
constructs. In study 3 (N = 450) a replication of studies 1 and 2 and a young-old com-
parison — along with potential determinants of age associated decline — was pivotal.
The results clearly support the idea that the battery for face processing captures unique
abilities reflecting the speed and accuracy of face memory and face perception.

Abstracts: Friday, 10th October

Measuring cognitive capacity with Latin Squares: Psychometric
            properties and longitudinal analysis

                           N. Zeuch, J.-T. Kuhn & H. Holling
                                University of Munster

The Latin Square Task (LST) is a promising new tool for measuring cognitive complexity,
working memory and reasoning. Based on only one rule that is applicable for every
item no matter which level of complexity, LST is a parsimonious and non-verbal test
that does not require any previous knowledge. But what does LST really measure and
what does happen when one takes this test more than one time? The current study
investigates the psychometric properties of the LST and looks at learning effects. For
this purpose, several established instruments assessing fluid intelligence, concentration
and figural memory were administered together with LST. Additionally, four structural
identical versions of LST were administered at different occasions to investigate learning
effects via longitudinal analyses. A total of 305 German pupils took part in the study.
Results showed that LST had strong relations to fluid intelligence, concentration and
memory and that an interesting pattern of learning effects emerged between the test
sessions. Several significant predictors for intercept and slope of the learning curves
were found. Important implications for future investigations can be inferred.

                                                            Abstracts: Friday, 10th October

                                   C V                                                  Friday
                                                                                                 14:00 – 15:30h
                                    Chair: T. G. Baudson                                         2.035

       ‘Free will’ against the background of social necessity:
           Quantitative estimations of artistic creativity
                                        V. M. Petrov
                         State Institute for Art Studies, Moscow

To compare the ‘sector of freedom’ with the ‘sector of necessity’, a set of six approaches
was used. The most ‘rigid’ social determination takes place when ‘recruiting’ persons for
the given kind of creative activity (e.g., for 307 Russian poets of the 18th–20th centuries,
average impact of their own merits into their success is about 15%). Slightly less is the
freedom to violate ‘absolute’ requirements for structures of works of art; ‘half-absolute’
rules connected with optimal perceptual procedures; ‘relative’ requirements caused by
national identification. (For 167 European painters of the 15th–20th centuries, the share
of ‘violating’ objects equaled 25%, 48%, and 64% respectively.) Next are the ‘freedom’
not to be subdued to current ‘fashion’ (64% for Japanese painters of the 17th–20th
centuries) and the possibility to deviate from current style of thinking (for European
composers this indicator is growing from 19% around 1700 to 65% around 1940). The
character of this hierarchy responds to growing ‘free will’ when ascending the ladder
of levels of activity.

   Artistic creativity: Typology of stylistic waves (Information
                                L. A. Mazhul & V. M. Petrov
                         State Institute for Art Studies, Moscow

Periodical changeability of artistic life was statistically investigated in its two ‘faces’: —
billow-like evolution of the intensity of creative processes (Mallmann & Lemarchand,
1998; Simonton, 1994; Kulichkin, 2004; Petrov & Mazhul, 2002); — cyclic stylistic oscil-
lations (Martindale, 1990; Maslov, 1983; Koshkin, 1997). Though both kinds of waves
are correlated, exactly the last ones determine the dynamics of the entire social (mental)
life. The need to change the style of thinking is rooted in the very process of perceiving
any innovations, which can be described by the information-based model (Golitsyn &
Petrov, 1995). The process consists of three phases: (a) attenuation; (b) amplification;
(c) stagnation, which are accompanied by negative, positive, and negative emotions,
respectively. The phases (a) and (c) cause the need to ‘switch’ to another style. In de-
pendence of the degree of objects’ structural complexity, various types of waves appear.
Due to synergistic effect (interaction of the scale of audience, hemispheric orientation,
etc.), the stylistic waves occur grouped in two clusters: fast changes (3–9-year cycles)
and slow ones (40–50-year cycles). These waves were really observed, e.g., alteration
of left- and right-hemispheric prevalence in the creativity of 102 composers and 240
painters (both West European and Russian, 15th–20th centuries).

Abstracts: Friday, 10th October

                Research of young musicians’ creativity

                             M. Kononenko & T. Galkina
                            Russian Academy of Sciences

Creativity of rendition art manifests itself in the fact that musician-performer is co-
creator of music, created unique art interpretation of the musical composition. But
diagnostic of musical creativity has considerable difficulties, connected with revealing
and measuring its components.
We investigated manifestations of creativity with the help of the special creative con-
struction art situations method. The subjects were 85 young musicians 6-10 years old
— the pupils of the primary classes of Moscow musical schools. There were revealed
some components of musical creativity: re-creation of musical image, discovery of art
means of interpretation, realization of the image pitch of the musical composition in
performer’s acts. These components are connected with manifestations of originality
and flexibility of creative musical thinking.
The results showed next regularity: the high level of creativity in discovery of musical
image is often bound up with discovery of different means for its interpretation and
realization in rendition of musical compositions.

                                                           Abstracts: Friday, 10th October

                               I VI                                                 Friday
                                                                                               16:00 – 17:30h
                                    Chair: E. Nikolaeva                                        2.040

 IQ testing in Africa; mean level, psychometric properties, and
                        the Flynn Effect

                                     J. M. Wicherts
                                University of Amsterdam

On the basis of an extensive (but unsystematic) review of the literature, Lynn & Van-
hanen (2006) concluded that the average IQ of the Black population of sub-Saharan
Africa lies below 70. In this paper, we systematically review published empirical data
on this issue. Focus is on performance of African samples on Raven’s Progressive Ma-
trices. Validity of the Raven¿s tests in African samples is evaluated critically. Because
of a general lack of rigorous measurement invariance studies, it is uncertain to what
degree IQ scores of Africans reflect levels of general intelligence. Results of this sys-
tematic literature review show that average IQ of Africans is approximately 80 when
compared to US norms, and that Raven’s scores among African adults have shown a
secular increase over the years. It is concluded that the Flynn Effect is in its infancy in

                        Is the BIS-HB Rasch-scalable?

                          J. P. Bertling, P. A. Freund & H. Holling
                                   University of Munster

The Berlin Intelligence Structure Test for Gifted Children (BIS-HB; J¨ ger, Holling,
Preckel, Schulze, Vock, Suß & Beauducel, 2006) is a test that allows for differentiated
measurement of cognitive abilities not only at an average but also at higher ability levels.
As a theoretically and empirically founded measurement device, it enables the assess-
ment of general mental ability (g) as well as of seven more specific abilities that include
creativity as one dimension of intelligent behavior. It was shown by J¨ ger et al. (2006)
that the underlying structural intelligence model can be applied to all age and ability
groups, including pupils attending special schools for gifted children. One question
not investigated yet is whether the high psychometric quality of the BIS-HB also holds
in terms of Rasch-scalability of the underlying scales. The present study examined the
compatibility of the BIS-HB with the Rasch Model (RM) focusing on the population
of intellectually gifted children and adolescents. For this purpose, a subsample from
the representative norm sample of the BIS-HB was analysed following the approach
outlined by Buhner and colleagues (Buhner, Ziegler, Krumm & Schmidt-Atzert, 2006).
               ¨                       ¨
Results regarding global model fit as well as individual item fit are reported. Practical
implications for the assessment of intellectual giftedness are pointed out.

Abstracts: Friday, 10th October

       The Influence of intelligence on decision making: Do
       intelligent people make less errors that are due to the
                     application of heuristics?

                       K. Kuchenb¨ cker, H. Holling & A. Hellbach
                                University of Reading
                               University of Munster

In decision making heuristics are a well studied phenomenon. They are used in ev-
eryday life in order to ease cognitive information processing because they are time and
resource efficient. The central feature is that few information is considered and it is
processed in a simple way. However, there are some situations where these heuristics
necessarily result in wrong conclusions. The objective of this project was to determine
whether intelligence influences the likelihood that heuristics are applied by a subject
even though the situation requires more complex processing.
Data from 321 pupils were collected. The test comprised a measure of intelligence (CFT
20-R) as well as twelve items where, as described, heuristics lead to wrong conclusions.
The results did not show sufficient evidence for an effect of intelligence. This finding
might suggest that even in inappropriate situations heuristics are used with the same
frequency by more intelligent and less intelligent subjects, documenting the great impact
of heuristics in human information processing.

                                                         Abstracts: Friday, 10th October

                                C VI                                               Friday
                                                                                            16:00 – 17:30h
                                   Chair: V. M. Petrov                                      2.035

Creative intelligence in gifted and talented students: Using two
                       different measures
       E. Grigorenko, M. Tan, M. Ferrando, L. Prieto, C. Ferr´ ndiz & M. R. Bermejo
                                    Yale University
                                  Alicante University

The aim of this paper is to study the creativity in a sample of Gifted and Talented
(G&T). The participants were 35 pupils (71.4% boys and 28.6% girls) aged 9 to 12 years
old. They were identified as G&T and are involved in a specific program for G&T. Two
instruments were used to assess the creativity a) Torrance Thinking Creative Test (TTCT,
Torrance, 1974). The TTCT is a psychometrics test oriented to assess some dimensions
of creativity: flexibility, flexibility, originality and elaboration; and b) some creative
subtests (book covers, multiples uses of familiar things; personifications; figurative
language and number talk), included in the AURORA project (Grigorenko & Sternberg,
2008). The aim of these subtests is to assess the creativity or the ability to generate
novel and interesting ideas, makes connections between things that other people don¿t
recognize spontaneously. The results will be discussed regarding to the correlations
between both creativity measures and their utility to evaluate the cognitive profile of

                           Creative administration
                                    O. Matskevitch
                             Russian Academy of Sciences

We cannot imagine advertisement without eye-catching posters, bright TV spots and
creative jingles. To stand out in this clustered world clients have to pay millions of
Euros to ad agencies. Creative work costs lots of money. But what does it cost the
agency to come up with a big idea that would drive our minds? In order to answer
this question we conducted a series of interviews with creative directors of leading
worldwide advertising agencies in Moscow and London. We discussed such issues as
planning and controlling creative process, motivating creative people. Content analysis
of these interviews helped to develop criteria of successful and efficient creative process
in advertising agency: ability to create something new and unusual, but at the same time
following marketing brief; ability meet deadlines (even though it’s hard to predict when
inspiration comes); ability to carry idea through even when it is “killed” by the client.
Based on this analysis we created a questionnaire that can be used for creative staff
performance evaluation. The questionnaire was tested and approved by top-managers
of Moscow advertising agencies.

                 Abstracts: Saturday, 11th October

    Saturday                                          K
09:00 – 09:45h
         2.040                                 Introduction: D. V. Ushakov

                      The heritability of creativity and related processes: Is there
                                        room for modifiability?

                                                       E. Grigorenko
                                                      Yale University

                 In this presentation, Dr. Grigorenko will review the literature on the biological bases
                 and heritability of creativity and present some relevant data generated in her laboratory.
                 She will assert the importance of the systematic development of creativity within the
                 school curriculum and will share ideas and data supporting this assertion.

                                                        Abstracts: Saturday, 11th October

                              I VII                                                 Saturday
                                                                                               10:00 – 11:30h
                                   Chair: V. Spiridonov                                        2.040

      Designing and validating situational judgment tests of
                   R. D. Roberts, C. MacCann, R. Schulze & G. Fogarty
          Center for New Constructs, Educational Testing Service, Princeton
                                University of Wuppertal
                          University of Southern Queensland

Almost all previous research examining individual differences in emotional intelligence
and related constructs had largely been restricted to self-report instruments and the
so-called Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Tests (an assessment suite that
measures four-branches: Emotion Perception, Assimilating Emotions, Understanding
Emotions, and Managing Emotions). Thus far, neither measurement approach has
proven entirely satisfactory; self-reports are prone to faking, while scoring problems are
evident with the more objective test. Alternative assessments are needed. The current
assessments are based on an established test construction technique, the situational
judgment test (SJT) method. Situational judgment tests present scenarios that describe
incidents critical to effective behavior. A typical scenario might show several students
involved in a group activity. One of the students might admit that he or she did not
prepare for the task, which leads to an argument with one of the other students. After
the description or display of scenarios, respondents are prompted to either specify the
most appropriate behavior in such incidents or indicate their level of agreement with a
given behavior.
Two studies (N = 700) providing validity evidence for these situational judgment tests
of EI are reported. The aims of these studies were threefold: (a) Develop an assessment
system to measure emotional management and emotional understanding. (b) Provide
reliability evidence for the assessments, and evidence for a theoretically defensible factor
structure. (c) Provide additional validity evidence for the assessments by examining
relationships between SJT scores and age, ethnicity, gender, academic achievement,
personality, and other emotions measures.
These EI assessments appear reasonably reliable. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor
Analysis support the expected (two dimensional) factor structure. Construct validity
evidence is also demonstrated by relationships between EI and intelligence, personal-
ity (especially, Agreeableness), other emotions measures, and outcomes (e.g., grades).
Although promising, the approach might be made more ecologically valid if use is
made of multimedia technologies. We include a demonstration of a video-based EI
assessment that we have recently developed and would seem to represent a febrile
future direction. Our research team has also begun to include with such assessments
feedback and action plans that we derive from expert panels. We conclude with some
prototypes of student-level feedback and a blueprint for a full-blown evaluation study
of the assessment-intervention package.

Abstracts: Saturday, 11th October

Approximating curve inspection time of varied number simple
                       visual stimuli

                                     Y. Dodonov
                        Moscow State Humanitarian University

During given experiments, the participants were presented with the sets of dots (diam-
eter 8 mm) on the computer screen, amount of which was varying between 2 and 9.
Organization of the dots was chaotic within the imaginary square (100 × 100 mm). The
participants were instructed to call the number of dots on the screen within the least
time possible (audio method IT record). Discovered optimal approximating curve (AC)
IT from number of dots obey to the equation t = axk + b. In it t — inspection (calculation)
time number of dots; x — number of dots; a, k & b — individual coefficients. Fur-
thermore AC permit to calculate some integral parameters.First investigations shown
correlation between one of the AC integral parameter and IQ (Amthauer IST) is near
−0.75 (52 participants), with test parameter K of Gottschaldt Embedded-Figures Test is
near −0.45 (158 participants). Individual AC’s parameters are sufficiently stable and
presenting method can be used in experimental psychology.

                                                       Abstracts: Saturday, 11th October

Different versions of the Linear Logistic Test Model to analyze
                       intelligence data

                                       B. Colver
                                 University of Munster

The Linear Logistic Test Model (LLTM) assumes that the difficulty of a test item can be
explained by the linear combination of underlying cognitive processes. Four different
versions of the LLTM are introduced: The original LLTM by Fischer (Fischer and Mole-
naar, 1995), the Random Effects LLTM (Janssen, Schepers, and Peres, 2004), the Random
Weights LLTM (Rijmen and De Boeck, 2002) and the flexible LLTM. All four models
share the basic charcteristic of the LLTM, the decomposition of item diffculty. They
differ, however, in how restrictive the assumed relationship is modeled. The data of a
figural analogy test to assess reasoning ability is used for illustrational and comparative

Index of Authors

Akar, I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 25                            Klein-Entink, R. H. .                  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 24
Ayas, B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13                            Kononenko, M. . . .                    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 30
                                                                                 Kuchenb¨ cker, K. . .                  .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 32
Baudson, T. G. .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . 12       Kuhn, J.-T. . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 24, 28
Belova, S. . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 18, 18
Bermejo, M. R. .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    10, 11, 33        Lehmann, W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Bertling, J. P. . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . 31       Licciardello, O. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Bohme, H. . . . .
 ¨                    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . 14       Lyusin, D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Colver, B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37                              MacCann, C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 35
                                                                                 Matskevitch, O. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
De Caroli, M. E.      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 20
                                                                                 Mazhul, L. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Demirel, S. . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 13, 23
Dislich, F. . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 14   Nikolaeva, E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Dodonov, Y. . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 36
                                                                                 Oberauer, K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Eid, M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27                             Ovsyannikova, V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Engelberg, P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
                                                                                 Petrov, V. M.      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 29, 29
Fernandez, M. C.          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . 11       Preckel, F. . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 12
Ferr´ ndiz, C. . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    10, 11, 33        Prieto, L. . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 10, 33
Ferrando, M. . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    10, 11, 33        Prieto, M. D.      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 11
Fogarty, G. . . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . 35
Fox, J.-P. . . . . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . 24       Roberts, R. D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 35
Freund, P. A. . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 18, 31
                                                                                 Sagone, E. . . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . . . . 20
Galkina, T. . . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 17, 30   Sainz, M. . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . . 10, 11
Gediga, G. . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 24   Sak, U. . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . . 13, 23
Geiser, C. . . . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 27       a
                                                                                 Sch¨ fer, B. . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . . 18, 24
Grigorenko, E. . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 33, 34   Schmitt, M. . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . . . . 14
Gschwendner, T.           .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 14   Schulze, R. . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 10, 15, 23, 35
                                                                                 Sengil, S. . . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 16, 23, 26
Haubrich, J. . . .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . 23
                                                                                 Sijtsma, K. . . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . . . . 22
Hellbach, A. . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . 32
                                                                                 Spiridonov, V.         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . . . . 12
Hellwig, S. . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . 10
Helms, A. C. . .      .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . 18       Tan, M. . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 33
Hernandez, D. .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . 10       Tikhomirova, T.            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 20
Hildebrandt, A.       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . 27       Troche, S. . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . 19
Hofmann, W. . .       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . 14       Turkan, Y. . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . 16, 23
Holling, H. . . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    28, 31, 32
Hornke, L. F. . .     .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . 24       Ushakov, D. V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Karabacak, F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23                               Valueva, E. A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Index of Authors

Wicherts, J. M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Zeuch, N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Zinkernagel, A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14