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Beliefs and Values How they are Shaped

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					 Beliefs and Values
How they are Shaped

    Hserv 482 # 17
        2008
                      Agenda
Values in USA
education?
business of the commercial media?
function of the media in a democratic society?
Shaping individualistic values in the USA
Alex Carey's summary of the 20th century
BELIEFS, VALUES
              US beliefs, values
We're NUMBER ONE, above reproach, moral
  authority
History: pilgrims escaping oppression
  – Did not want government to rule their lives
  – Pride in individualism, and ability to pull selves up
    by bootstraps
  – Took care of our own
Founding fathers:SMALL WEAK GOVERNMENT
  – Federalism (national, state and local gov'ts)
  – Legislative, Judicial and Executive
  – Vote limited to those with property
            US beliefs, values
Non-proportional representation (unlike any
 parliamentary democracy)
  – Bicameral Congress (Senate has power)
Weak political parties
  – Individual candidates raise own funding, make own
    decisions, run own campaigns
  – Candidates communicate through media, not
    through party organs
20th century deliberate weakening of gov't
  – 1920s progressive movement,attacking politically
    powerful and corporations
  – Constitution amendments for women's suffrage and
    direct election of senators
                  US beliefs, values
20th century direct primary elections took power from
  hands of party leaders
  – Presidential nominating conventions became meaningless
    as candidates chosen in primaries
  – Campaigns became more candidate and less party-centered
  – Polyarchy:
Party doesn't vote together as in other countries
Public Policy: federal, state, local (cf Europe)
  –   medical care
  –   transportation utilities
  –   welfare
  –   early life
  –   housing
             US beliefs, values
Little gov't regulation, instead have day in court

Litigious 1990: 20 times # lawyers/cap as Japan,
  10 times as Sweden, 3 times as Germany
  – Tort costs 2.3% of GDP in 1991 cf 1.2% for
    Germany, 0.9% France, Canada, Australia, 0.7%
    for Japan, 0.6% for UK
  – "There is hardly a political question in the US which
    does not sooner or later turn into a judicial one"
                                               Tocqueville
              US beliefs, values
Public Sector (federal, state, local) %GDP 1995
 (including the military)
  US 33%
  UK 43%
  Germany 50%
  Denmark 61%
  Sweden 66%
     50% for all EU countries, and without US military gap would
      be even bigger
Tax Receipts 1995 % GDP
  US 31, EU 45, UK 38, Sweden 58
             US beliefs, values
Individualism, goals, advancement
  NOT community goals or public advancement
Liberty (but 1/4 world's prisoners)
Equality of opportunity (not there, but belief is)
  Poorer people are not able to compete
             US beliefs WHY?
Migrants seeking escape, economic
  advancement
Never had a democratic socialist movement
US states with own power to tax & spend resist
  national initiatives
Labor unions only interested in their own and not
  for ambitious welfare state as in Europe
Frontier "land of opportunity," could always go
  west
WWII disrupted US much less than Europe
Reich: Supercapitalism
Reich: Supercapitalism
Harvey 2005
           Change in Real Family Income by Quintile and Top 5%, 1947-1979


  +116%                                                                      +114%
                                                    +111%
                           +100%                                                                       +99%
                                                                                                                                +86%




Bottom 20%            Second 20%                Middle 20%               Fourth 20%                  Top 20%                   Top 5%


 Source: Analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data in Economic Policy Institute, The State of Working America 1994-95 (M.E. Sharpe: 1994) p. 37.
Harvey 2005
            US INCOME SHARES
              Bottom 90%         Rich (top 1%) Superrich (top
                 of US                            0.01%)
               (vast majority)

People in     270 million          3 million        30,000
2005

1980 income      65.3%              10.0%            1.3%
share

2005 income      51.5%              21.8%            5.1%
share                                          Picketty & Saez +
                                               Johnston Free lunch
                   Change in After-Tax Income by Income Group, 1979-2004

                                                                                                               +176%




                                                                                               +106%
                                                                                +87%
                                                                +69%


                                                 +29%
                 +17%            +21%
  +6%

Bottom 20% Second 20% Middle 20%              Fourth 20%       Top 20%        Top 10%         Top 5%          Top 1%
 Less than  $17,300 -  $29,400 -               $43,200 -       $64,300+       $87,300+       $116,400+       $266,800+
  $17,300    $29,400    $43,200                 $64,300



   Source: Congressional Budget Office, Historical Effective Federal Tax Rates: 1979 to 2004, Table 1C, December 2006.
Saez & Veall 2005
TRILLION DOLLAR
   TRANSFER
Table 1 Categories of Income Shift 1
(shifting incomes from workers and their families)
Category of Inc ome Shift                                                       2005 Amount
De-Unionization (Union Wage differentials and secondary effects                 $156 billion
Temporary/Part -Time/Contract work Wage Reduction                               $250 billion
Manufacturing/Job Offshoring Negative Net wage effects                          $95 billion
Free Trade (Net Export    -Import Job Creation Wage Differential)               $19 billion
Legislated Wage    Compression (overtime pay el      imin ation/other)          $41 billion
Health care benefits cost shif      t (premiums/copays/other)                   $43 billion
Defined Benefit Pension Plans (Cash outs/Liability Owed)                        $85 bil lion
Social security payroll tax surplus diverted to general budget                  $151 billion
TOTAL SHIFTED FROM WORKERS/FAMILIES                                             $850 billion

Table 2 Categories of Income Shift        II
(shifting incomes     Wealthiest Households     & corporations      )
Category of Inc ome Shift                                                       2005 Amount
Tax Sheltering, avoidance, evasion by wealthiest households                     $200 billion
Bush tax cuts on capital incomes (dividens/capital gains/etc)                   $118 billion
Bush tax cuts of estate taxes                                                   $29 billion
Corporate tax windfall from foreign profits repatriation                        $19 3 billion
Corporate profits retention (in excess of historical average)                   $180 billion
TOTAL SHIFTED TO THE WEALTHIEST                                                 $72 0 billion

                                                                 Rasmus Z Magazine Feb/Apr 2007
Beliefs, values in the USA?
HOW ARE THEY SHAPED
  Beliefs, values in the USA?
    How are they shaped?
 HOW ARE THEY DIFFERENT
FROM BELIEFS AND VALUES IN
   OTHER COUNTRIES?
  Beliefs, values in the USA?
     How are they shaped?
How are they different from beliefs
 and values in other countries?
HOW MIGHT WE STUDY THIS?
NYT June 13, 2004
Values/Policies Across Countries
Values, policies, well-being of young
 children in Canada, Norway, US.
 Shelley Phipps
  – data from World Values Survey 1990
                      Qualities Children Should Learn at Home
US male   US female    Canada male   Canada female    Norway male    Norway female

    100

     90

     80

     70

     60
%




     50

     40

     30

     20

     10

      0
            Hard Work                Responsibility           Religious faith
                                                                Poverty Attitudes
             US male                   US female        Canada male       Canada female           Norway male           Norway female


                             60
% World Values Survey 1994




                             50



                             40



                             30



                             20



                             10



                              0
                                  be ca use the y are unlucky   be ca use of lazine ss and lack    Be caus e the re is injust ic e in
                                                                          of will powe r                     our socie ty
Beliefs in equality WB2005 World Development Report 2006 Fig 4.2
Ingelhart World Values Survey representative samples of 69 countries
Belief that Luck Determines Income and Welfare Spending
                         Source ALESINA Fighting Poverty in US & Europe 2004
Redistribution and the Belief that Poverty is Society's Fault
                             Source ALESINA Fighting Poverty in US & Europe 2004
Whoever tells the
 stories of a nation
 need not care who
 makes its laws.
                   Andrew Fletcher
                   Scotch Patriot
                   1653-1716


              NATION BULDING
               Reasons for nation state concept??

                  French invention of chair in 1490
Stories?
          Individualistic Values
Health synonymous with health care
  – Individuals, diseases
  – Individual response
  – Self-help culture
NYT Front Page 060205
           Individualistic Values
Health synonymous with health care
  – Individuals, diseases
  – Individual response
  – Self-help culture
Sports and glorification of gladiators
  – Verification of logic of opportunity syllogism
Media?
Does media focus on
   Populations?

   Individuals?

      WHY?
New York Times
             CULTURE OF FEAR
"It is always simply a matter to drag the people along,
   whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or
   a parliament, or a communist dictatorship. The people
   can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders.
   That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are
   being attacked, and denounce the peacemakers for
   lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger.
   It works the same in any country."

                                                  Herman Goering
 Hitler's propaganda chief said to Gustav Gilbert during an Easter
                 recess in the Nuremberg Trials on April 18, 1946
             CULTURE OF FEAR
"The short answer to why Americans
  harbor so many misbegotten fears is
  that imminent power and money await
  those who tap into our moral
  insecurities and supply us with
  symbolic substitutes.
(Barry Glassner) The Culture of Fear pg xxviii


Oderint dum metuant:
                let them hate so long as they fear (Roman maxim)
"The events of September 11, 2001, fundamentally
 changed the context for relations between the
 United States and other main centers of global
 power, and opened vast, new
 opportunities."http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nssall.html
               Media as Business
                 Product   Buyer   Seller
Print
Times, PI
The Stranger

Television
 XBC, CNN
 Cable

Radio
 commercial
 PBS

Internet
               Media as Business
                  Product       Buyer          Seller
Print             Readers     Advertisers     Publisher
Times, PI
The Stranger

Television        Viewers     Advertisers    Producers
 XBC, CNN
 Cable

Radio            Listeners    Advertisers    Producers
 commercial
 PBS

Internet         Users/Hits   Advertisers   Internet Sites
Goooogle
"Our job is to give people not
what they want, but what we
 decide they ought to have."

        Richard Salant,
 former President of CBS News
  'I know the secret of making the average
  American believe anything I want him to.
   Just let me control television.... You put
something on the television and it becomes
     reality. If the world outside the TV set
 contradicts the images, people start trying
 to change the world to make it like the TV
                   set images.....'
        Hal Becker, media 'expert' and
         management consultant, the
       Futures Group, in an interview in
                    1981
           Media in World War I
Woodrow Wilson elected President in 1916 on platform
  “Peace without victory” since population extremely
  pacifistic and didn’t want to be involved in a European
  War, but Wilson administration was actually committed
  to war and had to do something about it
They established the Creel Commission, a government
  propaganda commission, which in 6 months turned
  the pacifist population into a hysterical warmongering
  population, which wanted to destroy everything
  German, tear the Germans limb from limb, go to war
  and save the world.
  – Edward Bernays Creel Commission member and founder of
    public relations industry
              Edward Bernays
              Propaganda 1928
The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the
  organized habits and opinions of the masses is an
  important element in democratic society. Those who
  manipulate this unseen mechanism of society
  constitute an invisible government which is the true
  ruling power of our country. . . .
Clearly it is the intelligent minorities which need to make
  use of propaganda continuously and systematically. In
  the active proselytizing minorities in whom selfish
  interests and public interests coincide lie the progress
  and development of American democracy.
                            EDUCATION
Schools as an indoctrination system
    – Curriculums tolerated as long as perform institutional role
    – Today: Commercialism in schools
         • eg. vending machine contracts in Seattle schools, Channel 1
         • Derek Bok: former president of Harvard writes in 2003
            – Once confined to athletics (paying coaches $500,000, recruiting
               students only for athletic ability), now booming in medical schools and
               research labs
            – "commercialization threatens to change the character of the university in
               ways that limit its freedom, sap its effectiveness and lower its standing in
               society"
            – "Company officials regularly insist that information concerning the work
               they support be kept secret while the research is going on and for a long
               enough time thereafter to allow them to decide whether to file for a
               patent"
            – (Universities in the Marketplace: The Commercialization of Higher
               Education)
Courses, passing exams, imposing discipline rather than fostering independent
   thinking
Encouragement to get credit ratings in middle school,
Medical Harm, population health in medical school, public health school
                                        EDUCATION
William E. Simon, Secretary of the Treasury under
 Presidents Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford [and
 President of the conservative Olin Foundation].

"Why should businessmen be financing left-wing
  intellectuals and institutions which espouse the exact
  opposite of what they believe in?" he asks, referring to
  the fact that many corporations give grants to
  universities or institutions whose scholars may be
  critical of business.
Ann Crittenden, "Simon: Preaching the Word for Olin," New York Times, July16, 1978
 Example of function of Education
I pledge Allegiance to the flag
 of the United States of
 America and to the Republic
 for which it stands, one
 nation under God, indivisible,
 with Liberty and Justice for
 all.
  Example of function of Education
David Spritzler, a twelve-year-old student at
 Boston Latin School faced a disciplinary action
 in 1991 for refusal to recite Pledge of Allegiance
 which he considered "a hypocritical exhortation
 to patriotism" in that there is not "liberty and
 justice for all."
Teachers, as paid functionaries of the state,
 are expected to engage in a form of moral,
 social, political, and economic production
 designed to shape students in the image of the
 dominant society
 "The business community needs
  peace to see economic growth.
They need kids to be educated to
  be consumers and workers."
Carol Bellamy director of UNICEF
quoted in NYT September 3, 2000
             "The business community…
             need kids to be educated
             to be consumers and
             workers. The rule of law,
             good governance
              is important for creating an
             environment that will
             probably also be good for
NYT 050515   investment"
             Carol Bellamy
             director of UNICEF
              NYT 000903
           QUIZ
ON WHICH DO WE SPEND MORE

   Advertising or K-12 Education?

    Foreign Aid or Advertising?

    Advertising or Iraq Invasion?

        Toys or Advertising?
NYT 050515
     Toy Advertising for Children
$100 million in 1980
 $2000 million in 2004
Advertising costs amount to 15-20% of revenue to manufacturer of toy
     Promotional budget exceeds all other costs of developing toy and getting it to
      market
Toy industry: fast turnover, quick returns, big hits and constantly reinventing
  few items with staying power

1955: Mattel and Mickey Mouse Club, Disneyland

-By 1980s only practical barrier was how far kids push parents
-Film and toy tie-in industry: started with Star Wars 1977
    "If I wasn't a filmmaker, I'd be a toy maker" George Lucas


Three Rs now FOUR R's
        Advertising for Children
Advergaming

viral marketing
buzz marketing
orchestrated word of mouth
consumer generated marketing (best sales person is
  friend rather than an ad)
"slumber parties" for 8-13 year old girls" (GIA: Girls
  Intelligence Agency--"you and your 10 best buds
  hangin out all night with the hottest, yet-to-be-seen-in-
  stores, stuff for chicas like you"
        Advertising for Children
Which emotions to attack?
 -hire child psychologists
 -ads play on insecurities and need to fit in with peers
 "It's the fear of social failure. You have to have the
 latest. You don't want to feel like an outcast"
                     Sean Brierley Advertising Handbook

"Advertising at its best is making people feel that without
  the product you're a loser. Kids are very sensitive to
  that."
                   Nancy Shalek president Shalek Agency
                         The Nag Factor
"The child exerts a certain amount of
  pressure, the effectiveness of which
  depends on his (or her) ability to
  argue sensibly with an adult. The toy
  advertiser can help the child by
  providing him (or her) with arguments
  which will satisfy mother."
report to Mattel on how to sell Barbie to mothers (who hated the doll)
                                                                                Dr. Ernest Dichter
     pioneer of "motivational research" manipulation of deep psychological cravings as persuasion
                                                                                      techniques.
            Never too young
"I guess when I started they thought the youngest
   child you could advertise to and get a result
   was five; now they think it is somewhere
   between two and three"
                                               Bob Moehl, advertiser




Targets- now birth to 3 years--hot demographic
 - "if you own this child at an early age, you can
 own this child for years to come. Companies
 are saying, 'Hey, I want to own the kid younger
 and younger.'"
                             Mike Searles president of Kids R US
       Trends in child marketing
Began with toys, candy, cereals

Today clothes, fast food, computers, cosmetics,
   cars and credit cards

By age 18 have strong brand awareness

Strong awareness of one particular brand is
   worth $100,000 extra sales over a person's
   lifetime
            EU child marketing
All EU states base regulations
    on TV commercials on
    Television without Frontiers
    Directive
Sweden: no advertising
    directed at children under
    age 12
Greece: commercials for toys
    banned until 10 pm
Belgium: no commercials on
    children's programs and not
    during 5 min. before or after

				
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