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					Scfi 2011-12                                                                                              Dark Veeder
Aff                                                                                                   Timothy Webster

                                          TIMOTHY AFFIRMATION

I affirm
The resolution is a question of moral permissibility for countries to use TK’s, so then the value is morality.

O1 Governments have an obligation to their civilians to protect their well-being from the things that
can/will harm that well-being. This can also include but is not limited to their happiness/ mental well-being.

Since the resolution is a question of whether it is or it isn’t moral for a government to use targeted killing
and a government has an obligation to its civilians by social contract, the standard is adhering to social
contract.
C1a The US can’t risk failing on counter-terrorism
Dave Bohon, Government Panel Predicts WMD Attack by 2013, New American, 6/ 15/10,
http://www.thenewamerican.com/index.php/usnews/politics/3788-government-panel-predicts-wmd-attack-by-2013]

The official report from a blue-ribbon panel warns that terrorists with weapons of massive
destruction (WMD) are likely to attack somewhere in the world in the next three years, and the
United States could be a prime target. A nuclear or biological terror attack against the US or an
ally will happen in less than 2 years

C1b If an urban area is hit by nuclear bomb it will kill entire cities
Ira Helfand, MD Chief, Emergency Medicine Section Cooley Dickinson Hospital
Northampton, Massachusetts USA International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War/Physicians for Social Responsibility
Lachlan Forrow, MD Associate Professor of Medicine Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School
Boston, Massachusetts USA International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War/Physicians for Social Responsibility Jaya
Tiwari Research Director Center for Global Health and Security Physicians for Social Responsibility (IPPNW-USA) Washington,
DC USA http://clinmed.netprints.org/cgi/content/full/2002010001v1

4 leading MD chiefs some of whom specialize in nuclear war and preventions have done a study that
says that if a nuclear bomb was to hit an urban area such as new York harbor over 2,044,000 would be
expose to the radiations and around 544,000 people would die within a few weeks of it happening. It also
says that 9,700 hospital beds would be unusable

A 12.5 kiloton nuclear explosion in New York Harbor produce casualties more than one order of
magnitude greater than those inflicted at the World Trade Center. Blast and thermal effects would
kill 52,000 people immediately. Another 238,000 would be exposed to direct radiation from the
blast, and of these 44,000 would suffer radiation sickness and more than 10,000 of these would
receive lethal doses. In addition to this direct radiation from the explosion, fallout would expose
another million and a half people. For this group, the 24 hour cumulative dose would be high
enough to kill another 200,000 and cause several hundred thousand cases of radiation sickness.
In addition there would be many thousands of people with mechanical and thermal injuries.
Casualties on this scale would immediately overwhelm medical facilities leading to a high
mortality rate among those injured but not killed by the initial blast and thermal effects. Over 1000
hospital beds would be destroyed by blast, and 8700 beds would be in areas with radiation
exposures high enough to cause radiation sickness.


C2a TKs cripple terrorist plots.
Yoram Schweitzer and Einav Yogev, The United States and the Policy of Targeted Killing, Right Side News, June 25,
2011, http://www.rightsidenews.com/2011062513906/world/terrorism/the-united-states-and-the-policy-of-targeted-killing.html

However, a careful examination of the terror fighting strategy, and especially the operational
conduct of the United States, indicates that the combination of technology and human resources,
along with actions by armed unmanned aerial vehicles, has allowed the Americans to carry out
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Scfi 2011-12                                                                                               Dark Veeder
Aff                                                                                                    Timothy Webster
effective targeted attacks within the territories in which their ground forces’ freedom of movement
is limited. In this way, the United States and its allies have succeeded in killing or capturing the
commanders of the special al-Qaeda unit that is responsible for carrying out terror attacks
abroad. They have also been able to expel many additional senior military commanders and most
of the senior activists of al-Qaeda and its main affiliates in the Taliban and other terrorist
organizations and networks that operate in the Afghanistan-Pakistan sector. At the same time, the
United States and its allies have succeeded in foiling most of the attempted terrorist attacks by al-Qaeda and global
jihad activists. In spite of the protests heard recently, mostly in Afghanistan and Pakistan, against the aerial killings
because of the harm done to uninvolved civilians – harm caused both by the terrorist organizations’ deliberate custom
of taking shelter among a civilian population, and by human error – the United States, which is leading the struggle
against al-Qaeda and its affiliates, has unmistakably and publicly adopted this pattern of action and is in particular
implementing it in the sub-conventional battles underway in these theaters.

If governments can stop attacks such as state earlier and protect their citizens who would have had their
health lowered mental and physical will be safe and the government will up hold their social contract to
them.

C2b TKs cripple terrorist organizations
Daniel L. Byman, Professor at Georgetown University and Research Director of the Saban Center at Brookings Institution, The
Targeted Killings Debate, Expert Roundup, Council on Foreign Relations, June 8, 2011, http://www.cfr.org/international-peace-and-
security/targeted-killings-debate/p25230

Killing terrorist leaders and key lieutenants not only brings justice to our enemies, but can
devastate the group in question. Killing a leader like bin Laden removes a charismatic yet
pragmatic leader--one who succeeded in transforming a small group into a household name and
proved time and again he could attract recruits and funding. His replacement, be it Ayman al-
Zawahiri or another senior al-Qaeda figure, may prove less charismatic and less able to unify this
fissiparous movement. Some existing affiliates and cells may split off, and the core might be
eclipsed by rivals. Less dramatic, but no less important, is a campaign against lieutenants and
bomb-makers, passport-forgers, travel-facilitators, and others whose skills cannot easily be
replaced--essentially what the United States has been doing since the end of the Bush
administration in Pakistan through drone strikes. When these individuals are hit, and hit again, it is possible
to exhaust the terrorist group's bench. During the Second Intifada, Israel found that initial strikes against Palestinian
cell leaders and bomb-makers had only a limited impact on the terrorist groups it faced, as eager replacements
quickly took over. Eventually however, there was a bottom to the barrel and less skilled, less motivated people took
over. An often-neglected impact of killing terrorist leaders is on what they and their group do not do. When a
campaign against lieutenants is in full-gear, they must spend much of their time in hiding or
moving from place to place. Communicating by phone becomes risky, and the circle of trust
shrinks, making meetings or large-scale training harder to pull off. The hunt for spies within can
become all-consuming. In the end, leaders are less able to lead, and the group's cohesion and
strategic direction suffer.

If countries weaken the structure of the building that is terrorism they will be able to take down the entire
building with one hard fatal swoop and they would be able to breathe a sigh of relief.

C3a It’s war, deaths will occur -TKs minimize the harms of war
Kalsoom Lakhani, " Drone Attacks: Bombs in The Air Versus Boots on The Ground" July 20, 2009, Huffington
Post,http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kalsoom-lakhani/drone-attacks-bombs-in-th_b_241439.html

Why does the United States continue to champion such a policy? Upon studying numerous
articles and resources, the answer seems to be: because it is their best worst option. According
to an article in last week's Wall Street Journal, "Unlike fighter jets or cruise missiles, Predators
can loiter over their targets for more than 20 hours, take photos in which men, women and
children can be clearly distinguished(burqas can be visible from 20,000 feet) and deliver laser-
guided munitions with low explosive yields. This minimizes the risks of the 'collateral damage'
that often comes from 500-pound bombs."


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Scfi 2011-12                                                                        Dark Veeder
Aff                                                                             Timothy Webster
The plain and simple fact is that this is war. Deaths will occur “good” or “bad”. The thing we truly
need to look at is what can countries due to adhere to their social contract that they have with
their citizens. The only way they do this is if they are allowed to use targeted killing. Countries
need to be able to bring as many troops home as they can as soon as they can along with keep
the population there safe from weapons of mass destruction.




                                                                                                   3
Scfi 2011-12                                                                                          Dark Veeder
Aff                                                                                               Timothy Webster
Terrorism will go nuclear and cause extinction.
Yonah Alexander, professor and director of Inter-University for Terrorism Studies, Aug. 28, 2003, Washington Times

Unlike their historical counterparts, contemporary terrorists have introduced a new scale of
violence in terms of conventional and unconventional threats and impact. The internationalization
and brutalization of current and future terrorism make it clear we have entered an Age of Super
Terrorism [e.g. biological, chemical, radiological, nuclear and cyber] with its serious implications
concerning national, regional and global security concerns.
Terrorist are getting smart and strong. If countries don’t act know they will all be destroyed all the
civilian will die the country will fail at its social contract and morality will be lost.




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Scfi 2011-12                                                                                       Dark Veeder
Aff                                                                                            Timothy Webster


Is there a review process before authorizing a targeted attack?
By EBEN KAPLAN From the Council on Foreign Relations, January 25, 2006 Eben Kaplan is a writer for the Council on
Foreign Relations website, Q&A: Targeted Killings
cfr.org.http://www.nytimes.com/cfr/international/slot3_012506.html?pagewanted=print

Yes, but the type of review depends on what organization is carrying out the attack. If the U.S. military is
involved, there is "a very sophisticated target-review process that checks and cross-checks any potential
target with regard to constraints of international law, appropriateness of choice of munitions, blast effects
as they relate to collateral damage, etc." says Scott Silliman, executive director of Duke University's
Center on Law, Ethics, and National Security. This process is less clearly defined when the attack is
carried out by the CIA, though Korb says "you're going to have to get a lawyer to sign off before the
director would sign off." Likewise, experts say, there is a review process to ensure the accuracy of the
intelligence prompting an attack.




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Scfi 2011-12                                                                              Dark Veeder
Aff                                                                                   Timothy Webster


Article 51 of the UN Charter states the following:
Article 51: Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of collective or individual self-
defense if an armed attack occurs against a member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has
taken the measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. Measures taken by members
in exercise of this right of self-defense shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not
in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take
at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and
security.




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Scfi 2011-12                                                                                 Dark Veeder
Aff                                                                                      Timothy Webster


Capturing is illegal
Part I : General provisions
ARTICLE 3
In the case of armed conflict not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the High
Contracting Parties, each Party to the conflict shall be bound to apply, as a minimum, the following
provisions:

(1) Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down
their arms and those placed ' hors de combat ' by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall
in all circumstances be treated humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on race, color, religion
or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or any other similar criteria.
To this end, the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever
with respect to the above-mentioned persons:

(a) Violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture;

(b) Taking of hostages;

(c) Outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment;

(d) The passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced
by a regularly constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as
indispensable by civilized peoples.

(2) The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for.

An impartial humanitarian body, such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, may offer its
services to the Parties to the conflict.
The Parties to the conflict should further endeavor to bring into force, by means of special agreements, all
or part of the other provisions of the present Convention.
The application of the preceding provisions shall not affect the legal status of the Parties to the conflict.




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Scfi 2011-12                                                                                     Dark Veeder
Aff                                                                                          Timothy Webster


Pacifism, and why it doesn't work
By James Lester the Daily Barometer Published: Tuesday, May 17, 2005 Updated: Wednesday, June 8, 2011 17:06
http://www.dailybarometer.com/forum/pacifism-and-why-it-doesn-t-work-1.2370375



Throughout history, we have seen time after time the malicious killing of civilians, not in the context of
war, but in the name of pure malevolence. Think of slavery, tyranny and genocide, problems deemed
humanitarian crises and created by human cruelty all around the world.
Many of these horrors will not be eliminated with good intentions and condemnation. An NGO placed in
the middle of a genocidal killing field will not end the murder. A U.N. resolution that denounces the act of
slavery does nothing to actually stop it. There are times, when the only way to end an atrocity, is to
commit a lesser one, specifically military intervention.




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Scfi 2011-12                                                                                       Dark Veeder
Aff                                                                                            Timothy Webster


Why not isolationism
Department of Defense. 50th Anniversary of World War II Commemorative Committee. Pearl Harbor: 50th Anniversary
Commemorative Chronicle, "A Grateful Nation Remembers" 1941-1991. Washington: The Committee, 1991. Overview of The Pearl
Harbor Attack, 7 December 1941 http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq66-1.htm
When the attack ended shortly before 10:00 a.m., less than two hours after it began, the American
forces has paid a fearful price. Twenty-one ships of the U.S. Pacific Fleet were sunk or damaged:
the battleships USS Arizona (BB-39), USS California (BB-44), USS Maryland (BB-46), USS Nevada (BB-36), USS
Oklahoma (BB-37), USS Pennsylvania (BB-38), USS Tennessee (BB-43) and USS West Virginia (BB-48); cruisers
USS Helena (CL-50), USS Honolulu (CL-48) and USS Raleigh (CL-7); the destroyers USS Cassin (DD-372), USS
Downes (DD-375), USS Helm (DD-388) and USS Shaw (DD-373); seaplane tender USS Curtiss (AV-4); target ship
(ex-battleship) USS Utah (AG-16); repair ship USS Vestal (AR-4); minelayer USS Oglala (CM-4); tug USS Sotoyomo
(YT-9); and Floating Drydock Number 2. Aircraft losses were 188 destroyed and 159 damaged, the
majority hit before they had a chance to take off. American dead numbered 2,403. That figure
included 68 civilians, most of them killed by improperly fused anti-aircraft shells landing in
Honolulu. There were 1,178 military and civilian wounded.
All this happened under isolationism government rule.




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Scfi 2011-12                                                                                    Dark Veeder
Aff                                                                                         Timothy Webster


Terrorism has kill thousands
By Robert Rivas and Robert Windrem Worldwide terrorism-related deaths on the rise NBC News findings run counter to
recent Bush administration claims
NBC News updated 9/2/2004 10:43:05 AM ET http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5889435/

NBC News findings run counter to recent Bush administration claims Since Sept. 11, 2001, according to
the analysis, around 1,500 have died in terrorist attacks in Iraq, nearly 700 in Russia, more than 350 have
died in Israel, around 200 in Spain and more than 100 in the Philippines. The numbers sometimes are
imprecise because of the nature of the attacks, which leave many missing.




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Scfi 2011-12                                                                               Dark Veeder
Aff                                                                                    Timothy Webster



High Court rules targeted killings are legal if they meet proper criteria

The approach of customary international law applying to armed conflicts of an international nature is
that enemy civilians are protected from attacks by the army he wrote. However that protection does not
exist regarding civilians 'for such time as they take part in hostilities' (according to Article 51 (3) of the
First Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of August 12 1949 Harming such civilians even if the
result is death is permitted on the condition that there is no other alternative that harms them less and
on condition that innocent civilians nearby are not harmed disproportionately


                                            The Jerusalem Post

                                       December 15, 2006, Friday

                                         BYLINE: Dan Izenberg

                                        SECTION: NEWS; Pg. 3




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