Edible Landscaping

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					                                                         work well in small spaces. Trellises, fences, and
                10-Minute                                arbors make use of vertical space on which to grow
                University™                              edible trees, shrubs, and vines.
                                                          Time and Care
                                                         Edibles require care at specific phases of their
                                                         growth to remain productive. They will require
Edible Landscaping                                       improved soil, careful watering and fertilizing at
Overview                                                 the right times, and vigilant management of
When people think about growing food in urban            diseases and insects. This is especially true when
areas, the first idea is usually to hide the vegetable   the plants are young or just planted.
garden somewhere in the backyard.                         Use
Edible landscaping offers an alternative to              Know when to harvest, and be prepared to use the
conventional residential landscapes; edible plants       abundance from your garden.
can be just as attractive while producing fruits and      Beauty
vegetables. One can install an entirely edible           Ornamental plants offer a wide range of flower
landscape or incorporate some edible plants into         color, foliage shape, texture and leaf color. With a
existing gardens.                                        little research, it is possible to find edibles with the
                                                         characteristics you value. For example:
Definition                                               1. Love the pink blossoms on a dogwood tree? An
Edible landscaping is the use of food-producing               apple tree has beautiful pink blossoms.
plants in the residential landscape. It combines         2. Enjoy the shape and deep red color of the
fruit and nut trees, berry bushes, vegetables,                leaves on a Japanese maple? Black elderberry
herbs, edible flowers, along with ornamental plants           has lacy, blackish leaves.
into aesthetically pleasing designs. These designs       3. Like the bright red fall color of burning bush?
can adopt any garden style and may include                    Blueberry bushes do the same.
anywhere from 1 to 100 percent edible specimens.         4. Yearn for the big-leaf hostas but don’t have
                                                              enough shade? Rhubarb plants add drama in a
Why Landscape with Edibles?                                   sunny location with big leaves.
 Enjoy the freshness and flavor of home-grown,
fully ripened fruits and vegetables.                     Short List of Edible Plants (* denotes native)
 Control the quantity and kind of pesticides and         Small Trees (10 to 20 feet)
herbicides used on the foods you consume.                Apple: Choose from semi-dwarf, espalier, and
 Increase the food security of your household.          columnar forms; all have pretty pink blossoms in
 Save on grocery bills.                                 spring. Varieties such as Chehalis, Jonafree,
 Grow unusual varieties not available in stores.        Liberty, Prima, and Redfree are resistant to scab.
 Get outside, interact with the natural world,          * Black Elderberry: Lacy, blackish leaves are very
and have fun.                                            attractive; fruit used for jelly, syrup, and wine.
                                                         Good fire-resistant plant.
Things to Consider                                       Cherry: Red or golden fruits in summer. Compact
 Location                                               forms available for small spaces. Tendency toward
Most fruits and vegetables require 6 to 8 hours of       diseases. Also, birds like cherries, too!
sun to produce well. Some of the native plants,          Fig: Big, tropical looking leaves. Disease free.
such as salmonberry and thimbleberry, can take           Pear: Asian and European—White flowers in early
some shade, as can plants that have edible leaves,       spring. Asian pears tend not to have disease
like lettuce and kale.                                   problems.
 Space                                                  Persimmon: Colorful orange fruits in the fall; no
Be sure to think about the mature size of the plant.     disease problems.
Dwarf or semi-dwarf trees and smaller-sized shrubs
Plum: Ripe fruits may be green, gold, red, or             sunny area in spring and summer. Plant it in well-
purple. Brooks and Italian varieties of European          drained soil to avoid root rot.
plums are easy to grow. Brown rot is the most             Marionberry: A blackberry that does not get out of
common problem.                                           control, developed at OSU. A special technique is
* Serviceberry: Clusters of white flowers in early        used to train berry canes onto wires.
spring; fall color is brilliant yellow to orange. It is   Cucumber: When allowed to climb, the cucumber
adaptable to a wide range of soil types and               flowers and fruit make a nice background plant.
moisture.                                                 They get thirsty in hot weather and need plenty of
                                                          water.
   Shrubs (woody, perennials, annuals; 3 to 10           Pole bean: Need full sun and good air circulation to
    feet)                                                 avoid powdery mildew. Use in a children’s area to
Blueberry: Beautiful fall color and abundant fruits       make teepees and tunnels.
in summer. Easy to grow and has very few disease
problems.                                                  Ground covers
Currant and Gooseberry: Abundance of tart berries         Strawberry: White flowers in spring and red fruits
used in jams and jellies. Grow easily in medium to        in summer; strawberries are short lived and need
heavy soil and in a wide range of soil pH.                to be replanted every 3 to 4 years.
*Evergreen huckleberry: Beautiful evergreen shrub         Lingonberry: Beautiful and delicate-looking
with bronze-colored foliage. Likes part to full           evergreen ground cover. They will produce more
shade.                                                    fruit in full sun but will grow in part shade.
Rhubarb: Large, interesting leaves and red stems.         Lettuce: Leaves range in color from red and green
The leaves of rhubarb are poisonous; eat only the         to blue, with a variety of forms. Lettuce may go to
stocks.                                                   seed quickly in hot weather; sow seed every 2
*Salmonberry: Ripe berries are bright orange to           weeks to have a continued supply.
deep red. Naturalizes easily but needs to be              Kale: Lacy leaves in red, purple, green, and blue.
controlled from spreading and taking over.                Grows best from fall into winter; is a member of
Strawberry tree: Large, evergreen shrub with dark         the cabbage family and can be attacked by flea
green glossy leaves and bright red fruit. Flowers in      beetles and cabbage moth.
late fall to winter; best placed in a sheltered           Swiss chard: Brightly colored varieties are the
location.                                                 queens of edible ornamentals. Be aware that slugs
Tomato: Attractive, edible fruits in yellow, orange,      enjoy Swiss chard, too.
red, green, purple, and black colors and in a wide
range of shapes. Grown as an annual for the               Additional Resources
summer months, tomatoes need sun and heat to              Resources for edible plants in the Northwest
mature. Avoid overhead watering to discourage              One Green World, www.onegreenworld.com
disease.                                                   Raintree Nursery, www.raintree.com
                                                           Home Orchard Society,
 Vines and other climbers                                    www.homeorchardsociety.org
Grape (wine or seedless table grapes): Attractive          Sunset Western Garden Book
foliage makes good summer shade over an arbor or           Oregon State University Extension Service,
patio. Need harsh annual pruning for good                    200 Warner-Milne Road, Oregon City;
productivity.                                             http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog
Kiwi (fuzzy and hardy kiwi): Exotic foliage, white         Clackamas County Master Gardeners,
flowers in May, and, in fall, fruit colors in green,          www.cmastergardeners.org
red, and brown (colors in fall). Most need a very
                                                          Master Gardener™ Advice
sturdy structure to support vigorous growth. New,
smaller, self-fertile varieties are available.             Call Home Horticulture Helpline: 503-655-8631
Raspberry: Berries add beautiful color in the                 (Clackamas), 503-821-1150 (Washington), 503-
summer and fall. Canes grow fast and fill in a                445-4608 (Multnomah).

				
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posted:9/25/2011
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