20 by wuxiangyu

VIEWS: 26 PAGES: 27

									Chapter 20

Performance
Management
                                                     Objectives
       Explain the importance of performance
        feedback
       Describe the process of performance
        appraisal
       Identify the components of effective
        appraisals
       Demonstrate the skills required for a good
        appraisal


Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -1
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                                                …Objectives
           Describe 360-degree feedback
           Explain the opposition to appraisal
            systems
           Distinguish between effective and
            ineffective feedback




Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -2
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                 Performance Management
                     System - Defined

       A performance management system is a
       process of establishing performance
       standards and evaluating performance to
       ensure that goals are being effectively
       accomplished


Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -3
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                     The Balanced Scorecard
        Customer perspective – How do customers
         see the organization?
        Internal business perspective – What must
         the organization excel at in order to succeed?
        Innovation and learning perspective –
         How can the organization continue to
         improve and create value?
        Financial perspective – How does the
         organization look to shareholders?

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -4
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                         Basics of Performance
                             Management
       Develop rigorous systems that differentiate
        between three groups of employees

       Create conditions that foster goal
        accomplishment

       Establish a culture of accountability


Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -5
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                   Function Of Performance
                          Feedback
         Contributes to self-concept
         Reduces uncertainty about whether
          employee is on track
         Signals which organizational goals are
          most important
         Helps people master their environment
          and feel competent

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -6
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                                      Manager’s Role?

                       Not a judge, but a coach
                Not “gotcha” but “How can I help you do
                     better and achieve your goals?”

                Managers’ attitude toward appraisal and
                   their skill in appraising and giving
                          feedback are crucial

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -7
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
 Basic Objectives of Performance
        Appraisal Systems
       Provide employees with feedback
       Provide management with data for
        personnel decisions
       Recognize skill acquisition and identify
        skill deficits for further training and
        development
       Motivate employees to be more effective
       Comply with equal opportunity regulations
        and ensure fairness
Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -8
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                          The Appraisal Process
    Review legal requirements
    Translate organizational goals into job
     descriptions
    Set clear job expectations
    Provide job training or coaching to meet
     expectations
    Supply adequate supervision
    Acknowledge accomplishments, diagnose
     strengths and weaknesses in interview
    Establish performance goals and development
     plan
Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -9
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                               Bias and Appraisals
       Incorrect attributions can bias appraisals
       Potential for bias is reduced when:
                Employees make their work visible to the
                 appraiser
                Appraisers and appraisees together clarify
                 objectives and task responsibilities
                Appraisers use behaviorally-based appraisal
                 scales


Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -10
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                Does Performance Appraisal
                          Work? Meta-analysis
                                                                       results

       Feedback generally improves
        performance, but it can also diminish
        performance
       Appraisals used for developmental rather
        than administrative reasons (e.g.,
        promotions, bonuses) are more likely to
        produce positive reactions

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                            20 -11
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                             For Team Appraisals
       Determine KSAs required for team’s task
        and process-oriented skills
       Identify who should be involved in the
        appraisal
       Use both individual and team performance
        measures
       Address social loafing
       Ensure peers are trained in performance
        appraisal
Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -12
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                          Multirater/Multisource
                           Feedback - Defined

       Multirater or multisource feedback, such as
       360-degree feedback, incorporates
       feedback from various sources, such as:
       superiors, peers, subordinates, suppliers,
       and customers


Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -13
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                            360-Degree Multirater
                                 Feedback
                              Superiors’                                Manufacturers’ &
                               ratings                                 Customers’ ratings

             Other Team
              Members’                                           Employee          Subordinates’
               Ratings                                                                ratings

                                        Employee’s                            Suppliers’
                                         self-rating                           ratings



Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                                              20 -14
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
              For Effective 360-Feedback
       Ratees are held accountable for using the
        feedback

       Raters are held accountable for the
        accuracy or usefulness of their feedback

        Management provides resources to
        support the ratee’s behavioral change
Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -15
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
 Eliminate Performance Appraisal
       Deming’s criticisms of appraisals:
        Usually lack objectivity
        Ignore factors outside the employee’s control
        Encourage individual rather than team focus
        Promote short-sightedness and short-term focus
        Encourage employee to see boss as their
         “customer” rather than the real customer, which can
         result in fear, rivalry, and politics

       The TQM solution: recognize outstanding
       performers and coach poor performers; teams
       continuously gather data on own performance
Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -16
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
        Forced Distribution Systems -
                  Defined
      In forced distribution or forced ranking
      systems, managers have to rank all
      employees and fit them into a pre-determined
      distribution with only a certain percentage of
      employees allowed in each category




Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -17
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
        Results of Forced Distribution
                   Systems

       Employee skepticism
       Lower morale
       Less collaboration
       Lower productivity




Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -18
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                        Develop Strengths, Not
                            Weaknesses

       Focusing on Flaws                                               Focusing on
        Evokes negative                                               Strengths is more
         memories/emotions                                             productive
        Creates self-doubt                                             Discover each
                                                                         employee’s unique
        Lowers motivation,                                              strengths
         energy, productivity
                                                                        Capitalize on them
         and self-assurance
                                                                        Work around their
Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                                                                         weaknesses           20 -19
                       Effective Vs. Ineffective
                              Feedback
          Effective                                                    Ineffective
                  Descriptive                                            Evaluative
                  Specific, data-based                                   General
                  Directed at controllable                               Directed at personality
                   behaviors                                               traits
                  Solicited                                              Imposed
                  Immediate                                              Delayed
                  Suggests ways to                                       Prescribes ways to
                   improve                                                 improve
                  Intended to help                                       Intended to punish
                  Occurs when receiver is                                Occurs when giver is
                   ready to listen                                         ready
Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                                           20 -20
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
         Steps in the Interview Process
         Explain the format and purpose
                  Discover employee opinions regarding
                   performance and career goals
                  Provide supervisor’s appraisal
                  Problem solve about performance if
                   necessary
                  Plan for next period
         Employee presents self-appraisal

Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -21
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
   ...Steps in the Interview Process
       Respond to employee self-appraisal and convey
        feedback
       Ask about conditions or problems that hinder
        performance
       Problem solve about what both could do to
        improve employee performance
       Together set objectives and design plan for next
        period
       Discuss long-term career goals and
        development needs
Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -22
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                      When Does Culture Matter
                      in Performance Appraisal?

       Different cultures have different perceptions
       about the purpose of performance appraisal
       and how it should be carried out




Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -23
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                          Culture and Performance
                                  Appraisal
       Harmony and face-saving
                In Eastern cultures, negative feedback is
                 likely to be interpreted as a loss of face and
                 public humiliation

       Power distance
                In low power-distance cultures, employees
                 are more willing to question superiors
                In high power-distance cultures, employees
                 are more fearful of disagreeing with their boss
Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -24
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                                     …Culture and
                                 Performance Appraisal

       Uncertainty avoidance
         In cultures characterized by high
          uncertainty avoidance, appraisal
          systems are more formalized with more
          detailed regulations and procedures



Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                  20 -25
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
                     …Culture and Performance
                            Appraisal
   Individualistic Cultures                                            Collectivist Cultures
   emphasize                                                           emphasize
    Individual achievement                                             Group achievement
    Individual incentive                                               Group incentive
     schemes                                                             schemes
    Formal appraisal                                                   Informal appraisals
     processes with                                                     Hire and fire based on
     feedback on                                                         loyalty and seniority
     performance
    Merit-based hiring and
     promotion
Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E                                        20 -26
Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M. Rubin and Marlene E. Turner

								
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