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Discrepancies and Best Practices Deviations

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					                                                                  CH A P T E R                8
               Discrepancies and Best Practices Deviations

               The Discrepancies Reporting module of Campus Manager allows you to view the discrepancies and best
               practices deviations in your network. This chapter contains the following:
                •   Understanding Discrepancies and Best Practices Deviations
                •   Interpreting Discrepancies
                •   Interpreting Best Practices Deviations
                •   Viewing Discrepancy Reports
                •   Viewing Best Practices Deviations Reports
                •   Customizing Discrepancies Reporting and Syslog Generation



Understanding Discrepancies and Best Practices Deviations
               Campus Manager provides reports on discrepancies, such as network inconsistencies and anomalies or
               misconfiguration in the discovered network. This makes it easy to identify configuration errors such as
               link-speed mismatches on either end of a connection. Discrepancies are computed at the end of each data
               collection schedule.
               Campus Manager also reports Best Practices Deviations. These are variations from the normal or
               recommended practices in a network. These do not have any serious impact on the functioning of the
               network.
               Campus Manager allows you to:
                •   View Reports on Discrepancies. For details, see Viewing Discrepancy Reports
                •   View Reports on Best Practices Deviations. For details, see Viewing Best Practices Deviations
                    Reports
                •   Acknowledge Discrepancies. For details, see Acknowledging Discrepancies
                •   Acknowledge Best Practices Deviations. For details, see Acknowledging Best Practices Deviations
                •   Resolve Discrepancies and Best Practices Deviations.
                •   Customize Discrepancies Reporting. For details, see Customizing Discrepancies Reporting and
                    Syslog Generation.




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                         Fixing Discrepancies and Best Practices Deviations through Campus Manager
                         The following Discrepancies can be fixed through Campus Manager:
                          •    Link Duplex Mismatch
                          •    Link Speed Mismatch
                          •    Link Trunk/NonTrunk Mismatch
                          •    Port Fast Enabled on Trunk Port
                         The following Best Practices Deviations can be fixed through Campus Manager:
                          •    BPDU Filter Disabled on Access Ports
                          •    BPDU-Guard Disabled on Access Ports
                          •    Loop Guard and Port Fast Enabled on Ports
                          •    UDLD Disabled on Link Ports
                          •    CDP Enabled on Access Ports
                          •    High Availability not Operational



Interpreting Discrepancies
                         This section contains information on each of the discrepancy reported in Campus Manager. It describes
                         the discrepancy, the impact it has on the network, and ways to resolve it.
                         The user interface in Campus Manager displays commands you can use to make configuration changes
                         on devices to resolve discrepancies.
                         This section contains:
                          •    Trunking Related Discrepancies
                          •    VLAN-VTP Related Discrepancies
                          •    Link Related Discrepancies
                          •    ATM-LANE Related Discrepancies
                          •    Port Related Discrepancy
                          •    Device Related Discrepancy
                          •    Spanning Tree Related Discrepancy


Trunking Related Discrepancies
                         The trunking related discrepancies that Campus Manager reports are:
                          •    Trunk Negotiation Across VTP Boundary
                          •    Native VLANs Mismatch
                          •    Trunk VLANs Mismatch
                          •    Trunk VLAN Protocol Mismatch




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Trunk Negotiation Across VTP Boundary
                           Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when the trunk mode on any end of the trunk link is set to Auto
                           or Desirable.
                           Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP) cannot be used for trunk negotiation across VTP domain boundary.
                           This occurs when trunk mode on both sides has any of the following combinations:
                             •   On/Auto
                             •   On/Desirable
                             •   Desirable/Auto
                             •   Desirable/Desirable
                             •   Off/Desirable

                           Impact
                           Trunk negotiation across VTP boundary (that is, trunk link connecting two devices that are part of
                           different VTP domains) fails.

                           Fix
                           You cannot fix this discrepancy using Campus Manager.
                           To fix the discrepancy on switches using Cisco IOS:


                Step 1     Make sure that the Trunk mode is ON, on both sides of the link.
                Step 2     Enter the following command:
                           switchport trunk encapsulation         dot1q | isl
                           switchport mode trunk
                           end
                Step 3     Enter the following command to check the status:
                           show interfaces trunk
                           Or
                           show interface        mod interface_id trunk



                           To fix the discrepancy on switches using Catalyst operating system:


                Step 1     Make sure that the Trunk mode is ON, on both sides of the link.
                Step 2     .Enter the following command:
                           set trunk      mod/port on Dot1Q | ISL
                Step 3     Enter the following command to check the status:
                           show trunk      mod/port




Native VLANs Mismatch
                           Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when the native VLANs of all ports in a trunk do not match.


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                         This mismatch occurs when you have created a trunk port to connect another switch, and both ends are
                         in different native VLANs.


              Note       This discrepancy is applicable only for trunks that use 802.1q encapsulation.

                         Impact
                         The native VLAN must match on both sides of the trunk link, otherwise the traffic flow across the link
                         is affected. The trunk continues to remain operational.

                         Fix
                         If you have altered the default native VLAN configuration, ensure that all trunks have the same native
                         VLAN. Use the set vlan command for Cisco Catalyst operating system switches or the switchport
                         trunk native vlan command for Cisco IOS switches to specify the native VLAN.

                         You cannot fix this discrepancy through Campus Manager.
                         For more information on configuring VLANs, see the document Creating and Maintaining VLANs at the
                         following location:
                         http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/hw/switches/ps637/
                         products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a008007f261.html


Trunk VLANs Mismatch
                         Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when the list of active or allowed VLANs between the two ends
                         of a trunk do not match.

                         Impact
                         The trunk remains operational but the network traffic across the link is affected.

                         Fix
                         You can resolve this by modifying the list of allowed VLANs between the two ends of a trunk and
                         ensuring that there is no mismatch. You cannot fix this discrepancy through Campus Manager.


Trunk VLAN Protocol Mismatch
                         Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when different trunk encapsulations are set on the two ends of a
                         trunk.
                         For example, when one end of a trunk is configured as ISL and the other as 802.1q, Campus Manager
                         reports a discrepancy.
                         ISL and 802.1q are the different encapsulation types that you can configure in a trunk VLAN.




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                           Impact
                           The trunk remains operational when the trunk mode is set to On or No-negotiate with mismatching
                           encapsulation types. However, the network traffic across the link is affected because of the mismatch.

                           Fix
                           Configure the same encapsulation type on both ends of the trunk. You cannot fix this discrepancy
                           through Campus Manager.


VLAN-VTP Related Discrepancies
                           The VLAN-VTP related discrepancies that Campus Manager reports are:
                             •   VTP Disconnected Domain
                             •   DRiP Enabled VLAN
                             •   No VTP Server in Domain with AtLeast One VTP Client


VTP Disconnected Domain
                           Campus Manager reports a discrepancy if the devices that are part of the same VTP domain have
                           different VTP configuration revision numbers. When a switch in the same VTP domain has a higher
                           configuration revision number compared to the other switches, it could overwrite your server-configured
                           switch with incorrect information.

                           Impact
                           The VLAN information is not dynamically shared across the VTP domain.

                           Fix
                           Ensure that you configure VTP Configuration Revision number consistently across devices of the same
                           VTP domain. You cannot fix this discrepancy through Campus Manager.


DRiP Enabled VLAN
                           Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when there are two identical Token Ring Concentrator Relay
                           Function (TrcRF) in a Token Ring Bridge Relay Function (TrBRF).
                           The Duplicate Ring Protocol (DRiP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol that runs on Cisco routers and
                           switches that support switched VLAN networking. It is used to identify active Token Ring VLANs.
                           DRiP maintains the status of TrCRFs and uses this information to determine whether there are multiple
                           TrCRFs active in a TrBRF.

                           Impact
                           If you enable TrCRF on more than one switch or router, the ports associated with the TrCRF are disabled
                           on all switches. A router will not disable the internal ring used for source-route bridging, and for routing
                           source-routed traffic.
                           Instead, the router displays the following error message to indicate that two identical TrCRFs exist:
                           DRIP conflict with CRF <vlan-id>




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                         Fix
                         Assign a unique ring number for each TrCRF. You cannot fix this discrepancy through Campus Manager.


No VTP Server in Domain with AtLeast One VTP Client
                         Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when there is no VTP Server configured in a VTP domain.
                         You can configure a switch to operate in any one of these VTP modes—Server, Client, Transparent, and
                         Off. Primary and secondary servers are two types of servers that may exist on an instance in the VTPv3
                         domain.
                         A VTP client cannot store VLAN information. When a VTP client boots, it needs to reacquire the entire
                         configuration that is propagated by VTP.
                         The primary server can initiate or change the VTP configuration. The main purpose of a VTP secondary
                         server is to back up the configuration that is propagated over the network.

                         Impact
                         Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when an existing VTP server or primary server goes down and
                         there is no alternative or backup server.
                         This can occur in a VTPv2 or VTPv3 domain that has only client mode devices. This could happen when
                         the existing primary server or server mode device has gone down temporarily and if the server mode
                         device does not come up.
                         If you do not configure atleast one server, the devices become unreachable. Campus Manager discovers
                         only the client-mode devices in the domain and ignores the rest.

                         Fix
                         Configure atleast one device as server in a VTP domain. If the device you have configured as server is
                         temporarily down, configure another device as server. You cannot fix this discrepancy through Campus
                         Manager.
                         For more information on VTP domain, see the document Configuring VTP at the following location:
                         http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/switches/lan/catalyst6500/catos/8.x/configuration/guide/vtp.html


Link Related Discrepancies
                         The link related discrepancies that Campus Manager reports are:
                          •    Link Duplex Mismatch
                          •    Link Speed Mismatch
                          •    Link Trunk/NonTrunk Mismatch


Link Duplex Mismatch
                         Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when there is a duplex mismatch between links.
                         Duplex mismatch on 10/100Mb Ethernet links occurs when one port on the link is operating at
                         half-duplex while the other port is operating at full-duplex.
                         This happens when one or both ports on a link are reset and the auto-negotiation process does not cause
                         both partners to have the same configuration. It also happens when you reconfigure one side of a link
                         and do not reconfigure the other side.


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                          Impact
                          Half-duplex device waits until no other devices are transmitting on the same LAN segment. However a
                          full-duplex device transmits whenever it has something to send, regardless of other devices.
                          If this transmission occurs while the half-duplex device is transmitting, the half-duplex device will
                          consider this either a collision (during the slot time), or a late collision (after the slot time). Since the
                          full-duplex side does not expect collisions, it does not realize that it must retransmit that dropped packet.
                          A low percentage rate of collisions are normal with half-duplex, but not with full-duplex. If the switch
                          port receives many late collisions, it usually indicates a duplex mismatch problem. See Figure 8-1.

                          Figure 8-1           Duplex Mismatch

                                                                                   A (root)
                                                                                  Half-Duplex
                                                             Half-Duplex: Still
                                                            runs carrier sense                                Does not do
                                                               and collision                                  carrier sense
                                                                 detection


                                                                                            Collision
                                                                                                                    A
                                                            C                  BPDU lost                       Full-Duplex
                                                                      to be retransmitted




                                                                                                                              130876
                                                                                                      X
                          Fix
                          Campus Manager provides commands to resolve link duplex mismatch. Campus Manager displays
                          commands to set the port speed to Auto. Setting the port speed to Auto will automatically make the link
                          duplex to be negotiated between devices.
                          To fix the discrepancy on switches using Cisco IOS:


               Step 1     Go to the Discrepancy report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                          The Discrepancy Detail dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the following
                          command:
                          duplex auto

                          end

                          where auto enables the autonegotiation capability.
               Step 2     Click Fix.
                          A message appears indicating whether the discrepancy was successfully fixed or not.



                          To fix the discrepancy on switches using Catalyst operating system:


               Step 1     Go to the Discrepancy report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.




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                         The Discrepancy Detail dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the following
                         command:
                         set port speed       mod/port auto
                         where:
                          •    mod/port refers to the number of the module and the port on the module
                          •    auto    specifies autonegotiation for transmission speed and duplex mode on 10/100 Fast Ethernet
                               ports
             Step 2      Click Fix.
                         A message appears indicating whether the discrepancy was successfully fixed or not.




Link Speed Mismatch
                         Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when there is a mismatch in the link speeds, that is, different
                         link speeds on either side of a link (for 10/100 ports or for any group of links).
                         The IEEE 802.3u autonegotiation protocol manages the switch settings for speed (10 Mbps or 100 Mbps)
                         and duplex (half or full). There are situations when this protocol can incorrectly align these settings,
                         reducing performance. A mismatch occurs under these circumstances:
                          •    A manually-set speed or duplex parameter is different from the manually set speed or duplex
                               parameter on the connected port.
                          •    A port is in Autonegotiate mode and the connected port is set to full duplex with no autonegotiation.

                         Impact
                         Link speed mismatch results in reduced performance of the link.

                         Fix
                         Campus Manager displays commands to resolve link speed mismatch.
                         To fix the discrepancy on switches using Cisco IOS:


             Step 1      Go to the Discrepancy report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                         The Discrepancy Detail dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the following
                         command:
                         speed auto

                         end

                         where auto enables the autonegotiation capability.
             Step 2      Click Fix.
                         A message appears indicating whether the discrepancy was successfully fixed or not.



                         To fix the discrepancy on switches using the Catalyst operating system:


             Step 1      Go to the Discrepancy report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.




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                           The Discrepancy Detail dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the following
                           command:
                           set port speed        mod/port auto
                           where:
                             •   mod/port refers to the number of the module and the port on the module
                             •   auto    specifies autonegotiation for transmission speed and duplex mode on 10/100 Fast Ethernet
                                 ports
                Step 2     Click Fix.
                           A message appears indicating whether the discrepancy was successfully fixed or not.




Link Trunk/NonTrunk Mismatch
                           Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when there are trunking ports and non-trunking ports on either
                           side of a link. This happens when one end of the trunk is set to On, and the other end is set to Off.

                           Impact
                           This results in the trunk not coming up, and there would be no traffic flow across the link.

                           Fix
                           Campus Manager resolves the discrepancy by setting the trunk modes on the switches to Desirable mode.
                           To fix the discrepancy on switches using the Catalyst operating system:


                Step 1     Go to the Discrepancy report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                           The Discrepancy Detail dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the following
                           command:
                           set trunk       mod/port desirable
                           where:
                             •   desirable     causes the port to negotiate actively with the neighboring port to become a trunk link
                             •   mod/port specifies the number of the module and the port or ports on the module
                Step 2     Click Fix.
                           A message appears indicating whether the discrepancy was successfully fixed or not.




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                         To fix the discrepancy on switches using Cisco IOS:


             Step 1      Go to the Discrepancy report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                         The Discrepancy Detail dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the following
                         command:
                         switchport mode dynamic desirable

                         end

                         where dynamic desirable specifies an interface that actively attempts to convert the link to a trunk link.
             Step 2      Click Fix.
                         A message appears indicating whether the discrepancy was successfully fixed or not.




ATM-LANE Related Discrepancies
                         The ATM-LANE related discrepancies that Campus Manager reports are as follows:
                          •    ATM-VLAN With No Entry in LANE Config Server
                          •    More Than One Config Server in Single ATM-Fabric
                          •    Partitioned ATM-VLAN
                          •    ATM-VLAN With LANE Server That Have No Entry in Config Server


ATM-VLAN With No Entry in LANE Config Server
                         Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when there is no entry for an Emulated LAN (ELAN) in the LAN
                         Emulation Configuration Server (LECS).
                         The LECS maintains a database of ELANs and the ATM addresses of the LAN Emulation Servers (LES)
                         that control the ELANs.

                         Impact
                         If there is no entry for an ELAN in the LECS database, the LANE clients in the corresponding ELAN
                         will not be able to join the ELAN. This affects the network connectivity and flow of traffic.

                         Fix
                         Create an entry for the ELAN in the LECS database. You cannot fix this discrepancy through Campus
                         Manager.
                         For more information on ATM networks, see the document Designing ATM Internetworks at the
                         following location:
                         http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/idg4/nd2008.htm




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More Than One Config Server in Single ATM-Fabric
                           Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when more than one LECS is found in an ATM cloud in a LANE
                           1.0 specification.

                           Impact
                           When there is more than one LECS in an ATM cloud, it results in faulty and inconsistent behavior of the
                           LANE. The network connectivity is affected.

                           Fix
                           Ensure that there is only one LECS in an ATM cloud. You cannot fix this discrepancy through Campus
                           Manager.
                           For more information on ATM networks, see the document Designing ATM Internetworks at the
                           following location:
                           http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/idg4/nd2008.htm


Partitioned ATM-VLAN
                           Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when there is a partitioned ATM-VLAN. That is, when clients
                           of one ELAN have joined a different LES.

                           Impact
                           The clients of the ELAN that have become part of another LES, cannot communicate with other clients.
                           The network connectivity in the ATM-VLAN is disrupted.

                           Fix
                           You cannot fix this discrepancy through Campus Manager.
                           For more information on ATM networks, see the document Designing ATM Internetworks at the
                           following location:
                           http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/idg4/nd2008.htm


ATM-VLAN With LANE Server That Have No Entry in Config Server
                           Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when the LECS database does not have corresponding entry for
                           a LANE Broadcast and Unknown Server (BUS).

                           Impact
                           When the LECS database does not have an entry for a LANE BUS, the LAN Emulation Clients (LECs)
                           cannot contact the LAN Emulation Server (LES) BUS. This will affect the network connectivity.

                           Fix
                           Create an entry for the LANE BUS in the LECS database. You cannot fix this discrepancy through
                           Campus Manager.
                           For more information on ATM networks, see the document Designing ATM Internetworks at the
                           following location:
                           http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/idg4/nd2008.htm




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Port Related Discrepancy
                          The port related discrepancy that Campus Manager reports is Port is in Error Disabled State. See Port is
                          in Error Disabled State


Port is in Error Disabled State
                          Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when one or more of the switch ports in the discovered network
                          have a status of errDisable.

                          Causes of errDisable
                          A port enters errdisable state for any of the following reasons:
                           •    Channel misconfiguration
                           •    Duplex mismatch
                           •    BPDU port-guard
                           •    UDLD

                          Impact
                          When a port is error-disabled, it is effectively shut down and no traffic is sent or received on that port.
                          The port LED is set to the color orange and when you enter the show port command, the port status
                          shows errdisable.

                          Fix
                          To recover from errDisable:


              Step 1      Identify and fix whatever caused the ports to become error-disabled (cable, NICs, EtherChannel, and so
                          on).
              Step 2      Re-enable the port.



                          You cannot fix this discrepancy through Campus Manager.
                          For more information on the errDisable state, see the document Recovering From errDisable Port State
                          on the CatOS Platforms at the following location:
                          http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/tech/tk389/tk214/technologies_tech_note09186a0080093dcb.sht
                          ml


Device Related Discrepancy
                          The device related discrepancy that Campus Manager reports is Devices With Duplicate Sysname. See
                          Devices With Duplicate SysName, page 8-12


Devices With Duplicate SysName
                          Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when it discovers two devices with the same SysName. Campus
                          Manager stores the device details of only one of the two devices.



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                           Impact
                           Campus Manager manages only one of these devices.

                           Fix
                           Assign unique SysName for all devices in the network. You cannot fix this discrepancy through Campus
                           Manager.


Spanning Tree Related Discrepancy
                           The spanning tree related discrepancy that Campus Manager reports is PortFast Enabled on Trunk Port.
                           See Port Fast Enabled on Trunk Port


Port Fast Enabled on Trunk Port
                           Campus Manager reports a discrepancy when PortFast is enabled on trunk ports.
                           PortFast causes a spanning tree port to immediately enter the forwarding state, bypassing the listening
                           and learning states.
                           You must disable STP PortFast for switch-switch links. This is because, if you enable PortFast on a port
                           that is connected to another Layer 2 device, such as a switch, you might create network loops.

                           Impact
                           If you enable PortFast on ports that connect two switches, spanning tree loops can occur if Bridge
                           Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) are being transmitted and received on those ports.

                           Fix
                           Campus Manager provides commands for disabling PortFast on ports.
                           To fix the discrepancy on switches using the Catalyst operating system:


                Step 1     Go to the Discrepancy report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                           The Discrepancy Detail dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the following
                           command:
                           set spantree portfast mod/port disable

                           where disable disables the spanning tree PortFast-start feature on the port.
                Step 2     Click Fix.
                           A message appears indicating whether the discrepancy was successfully fixed or not.




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                         To fix the discrepancy on switches using Cisco IOS:


             Step 1      Go to the Discrepancy report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                         The Discrepancy Detail dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the following
                         command:
                         no spanning-tree portfast

                         end

                         This command disables PortFast on the given port.
             Step 2      Click Fix.
                         A message appears indicating whether the discrepancy was successfully fixed or not.




Interpreting Best Practices Deviations
                         This section contains information on each of the Best Practice Deviation reported in Campus Manager.
                         It gives a description of the Best Practice Deviation, the impact (if any) it has on the network, and ways
                         to resolve it.
                         The user interface in Campus Manager displays commands to make configuration changes on devices,
                         to resolve some Best Practices deviations.
                         This section contains:
                           •   Channel Ports Related Best Practices Deviations
                           •   Spanning Tree Related Best Practices Deviations
                           •   Trunk Ports Related Best Practices Deviations
                           •   VLAN Related Best Practices Deviations
                           •   Link Ports Related Best Practice Deviation
                           •   Access Ports Related Best Practice Deviation
                           •   Cisco Catalyst 6000 Devices Related Best Practice Deviation


Channel Ports Related Best Practices Deviations
                         The channel ports related best practices deviations that Campus Manager reports are:
                           •   Non-channel Port in Desirable Mode
                           •   Channel Port in Auto Mode




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Non-channel Port in Desirable Mode
                           Campus Manager reports a Best Practice Deviation when a non-channel port is in the Desirable mode.
                           There are four user-configurable channel modes:
                             •   On
                             •   Off
                             •   Auto
                             •   Desirable
                           Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP) packets are exchanged only between ports in Auto and Desirable
                           modes. Ports configured in on or off mode do not exchange PAgP packets.
                           To form EtherChannel between, it is best to have both switches set to the Desirable mode. This gives the
                           most robust behavior if one side or the other encounters error situations or is reset. The default mode of
                           the channel is Auto.
                           Both Auto and Desirable modes allow ports to negotiate with connected ports to determine whether they
                           can form a channel. The determination is based on criteria such as port speed, trunking state, and native
                           VLAN.
                           Ports can form an EtherChannel when they are in different channel modes if the modes are compatible.
                           Examples of ports that can form an EtherChannel are:
                             •   A port in desirable mode can successfully form an EtherChannel with another port that is in
                                 Desirable or Auto mode.
                             •   A port in the Auto mode can form an EtherChannel with another port in the Desirable mode.
                             •   A port in the Auto mode cannot form an EtherChannel with another port that is also in the Auto
                                 mode, since neither port initiates negotiation.
                             •   A port in the On mode can form a channel only with a port in the On mode because ports in On mode
                                 do not exchange PAgP packets.
                             •   A port in Off mode cannot form a channel with any port.

                           Impact
                           When a non-channel port is in the Desirable mode, the links will not be efficiently used.

                           Fix
                           Set the non-channel port to Auto mode. You cannot fix this Best Practice Deviation through Campus
                           Manager.


Channel Port in Auto Mode
                           Campus Manager reports a Best Practice Deviation when a channel port is in Auto mode.
                           There are four user-configurable channel modes:
                             •   On
                             •   Off
                             •   Auto
                             •   Desirable




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                         Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP) packets are exchanged only between ports in Auto and Desirable
                         mode. Ports configured in On or Off mode do not exchange PAgP packets.
                         For switches to which you want to form an EtherChannel, it is best to have both switches set to Desirable
                         mode. This gives the most robust behavior if one of the sides encounters error situations or is reset. The
                         default mode of the channel is Auto.
                         Both Auto and Desirable modes allow ports to negotiate with connected ports to determine if they can
                         form a channel. The determination is based on criteria such as port speed, trunking state, and native
                         VLAN.
                         Ports can form an EtherChannel when they are in different channel modes if the modes are compatible.
                         Examples of ports that can form an EtherChannel are:
                           •   A port in Desirable mode can successfully form an EtherChannel with another port that is in
                               Desirable or Auto mode.
                           •   A port in Auto mode can form an EtherChannel with another port in Desirable mode.
                           •   A port in Auto mode cannot form an EtherChannel with another port that is also in Auto mode, since
                               neither port initiates negotiation.
                           •   A port in On mode can form a channel only with another port also in On mode, because ports in this
                               mode do not exchange PAgP packets.
                           •   A port in Off mode cannot form a channel with any port.

                         Impact
                         Channel port set to Auto mode is considered a Best Practice Deviation because it is not the recommended
                         configuration. Cisco recommends that you set the channel port to Desirable mode. There is no serious
                         impact on the network.

                         Fix
                         Set the channel port to Desirable mode. You cannot fix this Best Practice Deviation through Campus
                         Manager.


Spanning Tree Related Best Practices Deviations
                         The spanning tree related best practices deviations that Campus Manager reports are:
                           •   BPDU Filter Disabled on Access Ports
                           •   BPDU-Guard Disabled on Access Ports
                           •   BackboneFast Disabled in Switch
                           •   UplinkFast not Enabled
                           •   Loop Guard and Port Fast Enabled on Ports




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BPDU Filter Disabled on Access Ports
                           Campus Manager reports a Best Practice Deviation when BPDU Filter is not enabled on access ports.

                           Impact
                           BPDU filtering allows you to avoid transmitting BPDUs on PortFast-enabled ports that are connected to
                           an end system. When you enable PortFast on the switch, spanning tree places ports in the forwarding
                           state immediately, instead of going through the listening, learning, and forwarding states.
                           By default, spanning tree sends BPDUs from all ports regardless of whether PortFast is enabled.
                           BDPUFilter can be enabled for each port or globally. When you enable BPDUFilter globally, it applies
                           to all PortFast-enabled ports on the switch.
                           When you disable PortFast on a port, the BPDU Filter that was globally enabled on the PortFast enabled
                           port is also disabled.

                           Fix
                           Campus Manager provides commands for enabling BPDU Filter on access ports.
                           To fix the Best Practice Deviation on switches using Catalyst operating system:


                Step 1     Go to the Best Practices Deviations report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                           The Best Practice Deviation Details dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the
                           following command:
                           set spantree bpdu-filter          mod/port enable
                           where:
                             •   mod/port specifies the number of the module and the port on the module
                             •   enable   enables BPDU packet filtering
                Step 2     Click Fix.
                           A message appears indicating whether the Best Practice Deviation was successfully fixed or not.



                           To fix the Best Practice Deviation on switches using Cisco IOS:


                Step 1     Go to the Best Practices Deviations report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                           The Best Practice Deviation Details dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the
                           following command:
                           spanning-tree bpdufilter enable
                           end
                           where enable enables BPDU Filtering on the particular interface.
                Step 2     Click Fix.
                           A message appears indicating whether the Best Practice Deviation was successfully fixed or not.




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BPDU-Guard Disabled on Access Ports
                         Campus Manager reports a Best Practice Deviation if PortFast is enabled and BPDU-Guard is not
                         enabled on a port.
                         BPDU-Guard prevents spanning-tree loops by moving a port into the errdisable state when a BPDU is
                         received on that port. When you enable BPDU-Guard on the switch, spanning tree shuts down the
                         interfaces that receive BPDUs instead of putting the interfaces into the spanning-tree blocking state.

                         Impact
                         Cisco recommends that you enable BPDUGuard to block incoming BPDUs on edge devices (end-hosts).
                         The Cisco BPDUGuard feature, when enabled, informs the switch to disable PortFast ports if a BPDU
                         is received on those ports.
                         BDPUGuard can be enabled on each port or globally. When you enable BPDUGuard globally, it applies
                         to all PortFast-enabled ports on the switch.

                         Fix
                         Campus Manager displays commands for enabling BPDU Filter on access ports.
                         To fix the Best Practice Deviation on switches using Catalyst operating system:


             Step 1      Go to the Best Practices Deviations report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                         The Best Practice Deviation Details dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the
                         following command:
                         set spantree bpdu-guard        mod/port enable
                         where:
                           •   mod/port specifies the number of the module and the port on the module
                           •   enable      enables BPDUGuard
             Step 2      Click Fix.
                         A message appears indicating whether the Best Practice Deviation was successfully fixed or not.



                         To fix the Best Practice Deviation on switches using Cisco IOS:


             Step 1      Go to the Best Practices Deviations report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                         The Best Practice Deviation Details dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the
                         following command:
                         spanning-tree bpduguard enable
                         end
                         where enable enables BPDUGuard on the particular interface.
             Step 2      Click Fix.
                         A message appears indicating whether the Best Practice Deviation was successfully fixed or not.




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BackboneFast Disabled in Switch
                           Campus Manager reports a Best Practice Deviation when BackboneFast is enabled on one of the
                           switches and not enabled on all other switches in a switch cloud.
                           Cisco recommends that BackboneFast be enabled on all switches running STP. It can be added without
                           disruption to a production network.

                           Impact
                           If you do not enable BackboneFast on all devices, it might lead to undesirable effects on the spanning
                           tree operation.
                           BackboneFast provides rapid convergence from indirect link failures. By adding functionality to STP,
                           you can reduce convergence times from the default of 50 seconds to 30 seconds.
                           Figure 8-2 shows an example topology with no link failures. Switch A, the root switch, connects directly
                           to Switch B over link L1 and to Switch C over link L2. The port on Switch C that connects directly to
                           Switch B is in the blocking state.

                           Figure 8-2           BackboneFast Example Before Indirect Link Failure

                                                             Switch A
                                                              (Root)                             Switch B
                                                                              L1




                                                                    L2                     L3

                                                                                     Blocked port

                                                                                                         11241
                                                                         Switch C


                           If link L1 fails, Switch C detects this failure as an indirect failure, because it is not connected directly to
                           link L1.
                           Switch B no longer has a path to the root switch. BackboneFast allows the blocked port on Switch C to
                           move immediately to the listening state without waiting for the maximum aging time for the port to
                           expire.
                           BackboneFast then transitions the port on Switch C to the forwarding state, providing a path from Switch
                           B to Switch A.
                           This switchover takes approximately 30 seconds. Figure 8-3 shows how BackboneFast reconfigures the
                           topology to account for the failure of link L1.




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                        Figure 8-3         BackboneFast Example After Indirect Link Failure

                                                  Switch A
                                                   (Root)                                       Switch B
                                                                        L1

                                                                     Link failure


                                                         L2                             L3

                                                                                     BackboneFast transitions port
                                                                                     through listening and learning




                                                                                                                             11244
                                                                                     states to forwarding state
                                                                  Switch C


                        Fix
                        Enable BackboneFast on all switches in a switch cloud.
                        To enable BackboneFast Globally on a Catalyst operating system:


            Step 1      Enter the command:
                        set spantree backbonefast enable

            Step 2      Enter this command to check the status:
                        show spantree backbonefast




                        To enable BackboneFast Globally on Cisco IOS:


            Step 1      Enter the command:
                        spanning-tree backbonefast

            Step 2      Enter this command to check the status:
                        show spanning-tree backbonefast




                        You cannot fix this Best Practice Deviation through Campus Manager.
                        For more information on Spanning Tree related configuration, see the document Configuring Spanning
                        Tree PortFast, UplinkFast, and BackboneFast at the following location:
                        http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/switches/lan/catalyst6500/catos/8.x/configuration/guide/stp_enha.ht
                        ml




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UplinkFast not Enabled
                           Campus Manager reports a Best Practice Deviation when UplinkFast is not enabled on switches.


                 Note      This Best Practice Deviation is not applicable if the device is not an access layer switch.

                           Cisco recommends that you enable UplinkFast for switches with blocked ports, typically at the access
                           layer. Do not use on switches without the implied topology knowledge of a backup root link—typically,
                           distribution and core switches in Cisco's multilayer design. It can be added without disruption to a
                           production network.

                           Impact
                           UplinkFast provides fast STP convergence after a direct link failure in the network access layer. It
                           operates without modifying STP, and its purpose is to speed up convergence time in a specific
                           circumstance to less than three seconds, rather than the typical 30-second delay.
                           Figure 8-4 shows an example topology with no link failures. Switch A, the root switch, is connected
                           directly to Switch B over link L1 and to Switch C over link L2. The port on Switch C that is connected
                           directly to Switch B is in the blocking state.

                           Figure 8-4           UplinkFast Example Before Direct Link Failure

                                                             Switch A
                                                              (Root)                          Switch B
                                                                              L1




                                                                    L2                  L3

                                                                                    Blocked port
                                                                                                      11241




                                                                         Switch C


                           If Switch C detects a link failure on the currently active link L2 (a direct link failure), UplinkFast
                           unblocks the blocked port on Switch C and transitions it to the forwarding state without going through
                           the listening and learning states, as shown in Figure 8-5. This switchover takes approximately 1 to 5
                           seconds.




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                        Figure 8-5         UplinkFast Example After Direct Link Failure

                                                  Switch A
                                                   (Root)                                   Switch B
                                                                          L1



                                                          L2                        L3

                                                      Link failure
                                                                                UplinkFast transitions port
                                                                                directly to forwarding state




                                                                                                                 11242
                                                                     Switch C



                        Fix
                        Enable UplinkFast on all access layer switches.
                        To enable Uplink Fast on Catalyst operating system:


            Step 1      Enter the command:
                        set spantree uplinkfast enable

            Step 2      Enter this command to check the status:
                        show spantree uplinkfast




                        To enable Uplink Fast on Cisco IOS:


            Step 1      Enter the command:
                        spanning-tree uplinkfast

            Step 2      Enter this command to check the status:
                        show spanning-tree uplinkfast




                        You cannot fix this Best Practice Deviation through Campus Manager.
                        For more information on Spanning Tree related configuration, see the document Configuring Spanning
                        Tree PortFast, UplinkFast, and BackboneFast at the following location:
                        http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/switches/lan/catalyst6500/catos/8.x/configuration/guide/stp_enha.ht
                        ml




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Loop Guard and Port Fast Enabled on Ports
                           Loop Guard
                           Assume that a switch port is receiving BPDUs, and is in the blocking state. The port makes up a
                           redundant path. It is blocking because it is neither a Root Port nor a Designated Port. If, the flow of
                           BPDUs stops, the last known BPDU is retained until the Max Age timer expires.
                           When the Max Age timer expires, that BPDU is flushed, and the switch thinks there is no longer a need
                           to block the port. The port moves through the STP states until it begins to forward traffic. The switch
                           then forms a bridging loop. In its final state, the port becomes a Designated Port.
                           To prevent this situation, you can use the loop guard STP feature. When you enable this feature, loop
                           guard keeps track of the BPDU activity on nondesignated ports. While BPDUs are received, the port is
                           allowed to behave normally.
                           When BPDUs are missing, loop guard moves the port into the loop-inconsistent state. The port is
                           effectively blocking at this point to prevent a loop from forming and to keep it in the nondesignated role.
                           After BPDUs are received on the port again, loop guard allows the port to move through the normal STP
                           states and become active. In this way, Loop Guard automatically governs ports without the need for
                           manual intervention.

                           STP PortFast
                           STP configures meshed topology into a loop-free, tree-like topology. When the link on a bridge port goes
                           up, STP calculation occurs on that port. The result of the calculation is the transition of the port into
                           forwarding or blocking state. The result depends on the position of the port in the network and the STP
                           parameters.
                           This calculation and transition period usually takes about 30 to 50 seconds. At that time, no user data
                           passes through the port. Owing to this, some user applications can time out during the period.
                           To allow immediate transition of the port into forwarding state, enable the STP PortFast feature. PortFast
                           immediately transitions the port into STP forwarding mode upon linkup. This way the port still
                           participates in STP. So if the port is to be a part of the loop, the port eventually transitions into the STP
                           blocking mode.

                           Impact
                           Enabling both the above features in a port, gives unpredictable results. Hence Campus Manager flags it
                           as a Best Practice Deviation.

                           Fix
                           If you fix the above Best Practice Deviation through Campus Manager, it disables the Port Fast feature
                           in the port.
                           To fix the Best Practice Deviation on switches using the Catalyst operating system:


                Step 1     Go to the Best Practices Deviations report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                           The Best Practice Deviation Details dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the
                           following command:
                           set spantree portfast disable
                Step 2     Click Fix.
                           A message appears indicating whether the Best Practice Deviation was successfully fixed or not.




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                         To fix the Best Practice Deviation on switches using Cisco IOS:


             Step 1      Go to the Best Practices Deviations report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                         The Best Practice Deviation Details dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the
                         following command:
                         spanning-tree portfast disable

             Step 2      Click Fix.
                         A message appears indicating whether the Best Practice Deviation was successfully fixed or not.




Trunk Ports Related Best Practices Deviations
                         The trunk ports related best practices deviations that Campus Manager reports are as follows:
                           •   Non-trunk Ports in Desirable Mode
                           •   Trunk Ports in Auto Mode


Non-trunk Ports in Desirable Mode
                         Campus Manager reports a Best Practice Deviation when non-trunk ports are set to Desirable mode.

                         Impact
                         Cisco recommends that you set trunk to Off on all non-trunk ports. This helps eliminate wasted
                         negotiation time when bringing host ports up. If a non-trunk port is set to Desirable, it attempts to
                         become a trunk port if the neighboring port is in Desirable or Auto mode, although that is not the
                         intended behavior.

                         Fix
                         You cannot fix this Best Practice Deviation through Campus Manager. Set the trunk mode to Off on all
                         non-trunk ports.
                         Table 8-1 lists all possible combinations of trunk mode configurations and when Campus Manager
                         reports a Best Practice Deviation.

                         Table 8-1         Trunking Configuration 1

                          Modes            On           Auto          Desirable            Nonegotiate           Off
                          On               None.        Reports       None.                    None.             Reports Best Practice
                                                        Best                                                     Deviation.
                                           (Trunking)                 (Trunking)           (Trunking)
                                                        Practice
                                                                                                                 (Not Trunking)
                                                        Deviation.
                                                        (Trunking)
                          Auto             Reports Best None.         Reports Best         Reports Best           None.
                                           Practice     (Not
                                                                      Practice             Practice              (Not Trunking)
                                           Deviation.   Trunking)
                                                                      Deviation.           Deviation.
                                           (Trunking)                 (Trunking)           (Not Trunking)




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                           Table 8-1           Trunking Configuration (continued)1

                            Modes             On                  Auto              Desirable           Nonegotiate          Off
                            Desirable         None.               Reports           None.               Reports Best         Reports Best Practice
                                                                  Best                                  Practice             Deviation.
                                              (Trunking)                            (Trunking)
                                                                  Practice                              Deviation.
                                                                                                                             (Not Trunking)
                                                                  Deviation.
                                                                                                        (Not Trunking)
                                                                  (Trunking)
                            Nonegotiate       None.               Reports           Reports Best        None.                Reports Best Practice
                                                                  Best              Practice                                 Deviation.
                                              (Trunking)                                                (Trunking)
                                                                  Practice          Deviation.                               (Not Trunking)
                                                                  Deviation.        (Not Trunking)
                                                                  (Not
                                                                  Trunking)
                            Off               Reports Best None.                    Reports Best        Reports Best         None.
                                              Practice     (Not                     Practice            Practice             (Not Trunking)
                                              Deviation.   Trunking)
                                                                                    Deviation.          Deviation.
                                              (Not                                  (Not Trunking)      (Not Trunking)
                                              Trunking)
                            1. Information in brackets indicate the trunking state of the interface.


Trunk Ports in Auto Mode
                           Campus Manager reports a Best Practice Deviation when trunk ports are set to Auto mode.

                           Impact
                           Cisco recommends an explicit trunk configuration of Desirable at both ends. Auto mode indicates a static
                           property and the port will not initiate the trunking link, if the neighbor does not initiate it. See Table 8-1
                           for different trunk mode combinations.

                           Fix
                           Set both ends of trunk ports to Desirable mode. You cannot fix this Best Practice Deviation through
                           Campus Manager.
                           Enter the following command to set Desirable mode:
                           set trunk mod/port desirable ISL | dot1q



VLAN Related Best Practices Deviations
                           The VLAN related best practices deviations that Campus Manager reports are as follows:
                             •    VLAN Index Conflict
                             •    VLAN Name Conflict




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VLAN Index Conflict
                         Campus Manager reports a Best Practice Deviation when there is a conflict in the VLAN Index. A VLAN
                         Index conflict occurs in case of a VTP domain which has Server mode and Transparent or Off mode
                         devices, where a same VLAN index has different VLAN name in transparent and server mode devices
                         in the domain.

                         Impact
                         There is no serious impact on the network connectivity. It is considered as a Best Practice Deviation
                         because Campus Manager cannot manage a VTP domain where the same VLAN index has different
                         VLAN names in transparent and server mode devices.

                         Fix
                         Assign the same name for a VLAN Index in both the transparent and server modes of the VTP domain.
                         You cannot fix this Best Practice Deviation through Campus Manager.


VLAN Name Conflict
                         Campus Manager reports a Best Practice Deviation when there is a conflict in the VLAN Name. A
                         VLAN Name conflict occurs in case of a VTP domain which has Server mode and Transparent or Off
                         mode devices, where a VLAN part of the transparent mode device in the domain has the same name as
                         VLAN part of the server mode device in the domain.

                         Impact
                         There is no serious impact on the network connectivity. It is considered as a Best Practice Deviation
                         because Campus Manager cannot manage a VTP domain with devices where a VLAN part of the
                         transparent mode device in the domain has the same name as VLAN part of the server mode device in
                         the domain.

                         Fix
                         Resolve the conflict by assigning different names for the VLAN part of the transparent mode and the
                         server mode devices. You cannot fix this Best Practice Deviation through Campus Manager.


Link Ports Related Best Practice Deviation
                         The link port related Best Practice Deviation that Campus Manager reports is UDLD Disabled on Link
                         Ports. See UDLD Disabled on Link Ports


UDLD Disabled on Link Ports
                         Campus Manager reports a Best Practice Deviation if UniDirectional Link Detection (UDLD) is disabled
                         on link ports.

                         Impact
                         If you disable UDLD, it could result in Spanning Tree loops.
                         Unidirectional links are often caused by a failure not detected on a fiber link, or by a problem with a
                         transceiver.




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                          Figure 8-6           Unidirectional Links

                                                                                                                                B
                                                            A                                                                Blocking


                                                                                                                X
                                                                             X
                                                                BPDU lost this way        B unblocks its port and can forward




                                                                                                                                          130877
                                                                                                  traffic this way......



                          In Figure 8-6, suppose the link between A and B is unidirectional and drops traffic from A to B while
                          transmitting traffic from B to A. Suppose that B should be blocking. It has previously been stated that a
                          port can only block if it receives BPDUs from a bridge that has a higher priority. In this case, all these
                          BPDUs coming from A are lost and bridge B eventually forwards traffic, creating a loop.
                          To detect the unidirectional links before the forwarding loop is created, Cisco designed and implemented
                          the UniDirectional Link Detection (UDLD) protocol. This feature is able to detect improper cabling or
                          unidirectional links on Layer 2 and automatically break resulting loops by disabling some ports.
                          For maximum protection against symptoms resulting from uni-directional links, we recommend that you
                          enable aggressive mode UDLD on point-to-point links between Cisco switches, where you have set the
                          message interval to the default 15 seconds.

                          Fix
                          Campus Manager provides commands to enable UDLD on link ports.
                          To fix the Best Practice Deviation on switches using Catalyst operating system:


               Step 1     Go to the Best Practices Deviations report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                          The Best Practice Deviation Details dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the
                          following command:
                          set udld enable mod/port

                          where enable enables the UDLD information display.
               Step 2     Click Fix.
                          A message appears indicating whether the Best Practice Deviation was successfully fixed or not.



                          To fix the Best Practice Deviation on switches using Cisco IOS:


               Step 1     Go to the Best Practices Deviations report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                          The Best Practice Deviation Details dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix displays the following
                          command:
                          udld port

                          end

                          This command enables UDLD in normal mode by default on all interfaces.




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             Step 2      Click Fix.
                         A message appears indicating whether the Best Practice Deviation was successfully fixed or not.




Access Ports Related Best Practice Deviation
                         The access ports related Best Practice Deviation that Campus Manager reports is CDP Enabled on
                         Access Ports. See CDP Enabled on Access Ports


CDP Enabled on Access Ports
                         Campus Manager reports a Best Practice Deviation when Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is enabled on
                         the access port of a switch.
                         CDP is enabled by default and is essential to gain visibility of adjacent devices and for troubleshooting.
                         It is also used by network management applications to build Layer 2 topology maps.

                         Impact
                         In parts of the network where a high level of security is required (such as Internet-facing de-militarized
                         zones), you should turn off CDP.

                         Fix
                         Campus Manager provides commands to disable CDP on switches.
                         To fix the Best Practice Deviation on switches running Catalyst operating system:


             Step 1      Go to the Best Practices Deviations report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                         The Best Practice Deviation Details dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the
                         following command:
                         set cdp disable mod/port

             Step 2      Click Fix.
                         A message appears indicating whether the Best Practice Deviation was successfully fixed or not.



                         To fix the Best Practice Deviation on switches running Cisco IOS:


             Step 1      Go to the Best Practices Deviations report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                         The Best Practice Deviation Details dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the
                         following command:
                         no cdp enable

             Step 2      Click Fix.
                         A message appears indicating whether the Best Practice Deviation was successfully fixed or not.




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Cisco Catalyst 6000 Devices Related Best Practice Deviation
                           The Cisco Catalyst 6000 devices related Best Practice Deviation that Campus Manager reports is High
                           Availability not Operational. See High Availability not Operational


High Availability not Operational
                           Enabling High Availability on switches is applicable only for Cisco Catalyst 6000 devices. Campus
                           Manager reports a Best Practice Deviation when there are two supervisor engines in Cisco Catalyst 6000
                           devices and High Availability is not enabled.

                           Impact
                           High Availability:
                             •   Is a critical requirement for most networks. Switch downtime must be minimal to ensure maximum
                                 productivity in a network.
                             •   Allows you to minimize the switch-over time from active supervisor engine to the standby
                                 supervisor engine, if the active supervisor engine fails.
                             •   Allows the active supervisor engine to communicate with the standby supervisor engine, keeping
                                 feature protocol states synchronized.
                             •   Provides a versioning option that allows you to run different software images on the active and
                                 standby supervisor engines.
                           You can enable High Availability using Command Line Interface (CLI).

                           Fix
                           As a general practice with redundant supervisors, we recommend that you enable High Availability
                           feature for normal operation.
                           Campus Manager provides commands for enabling High Availability.
                           To fix the Best Practice Deviation on switches using Catalyst operating system:


                Step 1     Go to the Best Practices Deviations report and click the hyperlink in the Summary field.
                           The Best Practice Deviation Details dialog box appears. The Recommended Fix field displays the
                           following command:
                           set system highavailability enable

                Step 2     Click Fix.
                           A message appears indicating whether the Best Practice Deviation was successfully fixed or not.



                           For more information on Supervisor engines and High Availability, see the document Configuring
                           Redundancy at the following location:
                           http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/switches/lan/catalyst6500/catos/8.x/configuration/guide/redund.htm
                           l




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  Viewing Discrepancy Reports




Viewing Discrepancy Reports
                       To view discrepancy reports:


            Step 1     Go to the LMS Portal and select Campus Manager > Reports > Reports Generator.
                       The Report Generator page appears.
            Step 2     Select Discrepancies from the list of available reports.
                       The Report Generator page has options to configure the report you want to view. Table 8-2 describes the
                       options that you can configure to generate a Discrepancy Report.

                       Table 8-2          Generating Discrepancy Reports

                        Option                            Usage Notes
                        Device Selector                    •    Click Selection tab to choose the device groups for which you
                                                                want discrepancies to be reported.
                                                                A list of all the available System Defined Groups and User
                                                                Defined groups appears.
                                                           •    Check the checkbox next to the device group for which you
                                                                want discrepancies to be reported.
                        Report Options                     •    Click Unacknowledged to view a report of the discrepancies
                                                                that are not acknowledged.
                                                           •    Click Acknowledged to view a report of only the
                                                                acknowledged discrepancies.
                                                           •    Click Both to view a report of both acknowledged and
                                                                unacknowledged discrepancies.
                        Severity Selector                 You can select the severity level of the discrepancies for which you
                                                          want to generate a report. The different severity levels are Medium
                                                          and High.
                        Type Selector                      1.   Select the discrepancies from Available Types, for which you
                                                                want the report to be displayed.
                                                                You can select multiple entries by pressing Ctrl or Shift while
                                                                clicking.
                                                           2.   Click Add.
                                                                The selected discrepancies are added to Selected Types. You
                                                                can also double-click on a discrepancy from Available Types to
                                                                add it to Selected Types.
                                                                To remove a discrepancy from Selected Types, select the
                                                                discrepancy and click Remove.




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                           Table 8-2           Generating Discrepancy Reports (continued)

                            Option                             Usage Notes
                            Scheduling                          1.   Select the Run Type for the job—Immediate, Once, Daily,
                                                                     Weekly, Monthly.
                                                                2.   For jobs with Run Type anything other than Immediate, select
                                                                     the Date and Time for the job to run.
                                                                     The Date and Job Info fields are disabled when you select
                                                                     Immediate as the Run Type for the job.
                            Job Info                            1.   Enter a description for the job in the Description field.
                                                                     The text you enter is displayed in the Campus Manager job
                                                                     browser. This is a mandatory field.
                                                                2.   In the E-mail field, enter the e-mail ID to which you want the
                                                                     job completion status to be sent.


                Step 3     Click Submit to generate the Discrepancy Report.
                           The Discrepancy Report appears if you had set the Run Type to Immediate.
                           For any other Run Type, the report is created as a job. For details on viewing, stopping, and deleting the
                           scheduled report job, see Using the Reports Job Browser
                           To clear the values you entered click Reset.




Understanding Discrepancy Reports
                           The Discrepancy Report is displayed in a tabular format. Table 8-3 describes the fields in a Discrepancy
                           Report.

                           Table 8-3           Discrepancy Reports

                            Field                               Description
                            Acknowledge                         If you have launched:
                                                                 •   Unacknowledged Discrepancy Report
                                                                     You can acknowledge discrepancies from this report.
                                                                     For details on acknowledging a discrepancy, see
                                                                     Acknowledging Discrepancies.
                                                                 •   Acknowledged Discrepancy Report
                                                                     You can unacknowledge discrepancies from this report.
                                                                     For details on unacknowledging a discrepancy, see
                                                                     Unacknowledging Discrepancies.
                                                                 •   Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Discrepancy Report
                                                                     The Acknowledge column displays Yes for Acknowledged
                                                                     discrepancies and No for Unacknowledged Discrepancies.
                            Type                                Brief description of the discrepancy.


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                      Table 8-3          Discrepancy Reports (continued)

                       Field                              Description
                       Severity                           The severity level of the discrepancy. Discrepancies are categorized
                                                          according to their severity as medium, or high.
                       Summary                            The IP addresses of the devices that are affected by the discrepancy
                                                          are displayed here. Click the hyperlink to view more details on the
                                                          discrepancy.
                                                          For more information, see Viewing Details on Discrepancies.
                       Fix                                States if the discrepancy can be fixed through Campus Manager.
                                                          If the discrepancy is fixable, a link is provided, clicking on which
                                                          takes you to the Fix Page.
                                                          For details on fixing discrepancies, see Fixing Discrepancies.
                       First Found                        The date and time when the discrepancy was first discovered by
                                                          Campus Manager.
                       Remarks                            If a fix has been attempted on the discrepancy, it is shown here. The
                                                          RME Job ID for the fix operation is also shown here.


                      Acknowledging Discrepancies
                      Discrepancies that do not having serious impact in the network, can be acknowledged. You can also
                      acknowledge a discrepancy that you no longer want to see in the Discrepancy Report. If you
                      acknowledge it, it is removed from the report.
                      To acknowledge a discrepancy:


           Step 1     In the Discrepancy Report, check the checkbox corresponding to the discrepancy.
           Step 2     Click Acknowledge.
                      The acknowledged discrepancy does not appear in the report, the next time you generate it.



                      Unacknowledging Discrepancies
                      If you want the acknowledged discrepancy to reappear in the Discrepancy Report, you need to
                      unacknowledge it.
                      To unacknowledge a discrepancy:


           Step 1     In the Discrepancy Report, check the checkbox corresponding to the discrepancy.
           Step 2     Click UnAcknowledge.
                      The unacknowledged discrepancy appears in the report, the next time you generate it.




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Viewing Details on Discrepancies
                           To get detailed information on a discrepancy, click the hyperlink in the summary column of the
                           Discrepancy Report. The Discrepancy Details dialog box appears.
                           Table 8-4 explains Discrepancy Details:

                           Table 8-4           Discrepancy Details

                            Field                               Description
                            Type                                Name of the discrepancy.
                            Severity                            Severity level of the discrepancy. Discrepancies are categorized
                                                                according to their severity as low and high.
                            First Found                         Date and time when the discrepancy was first discovered by
                                                                Campus Manager.
                            Description                         IP addresses of the devices which cause this discrepancy are
                                                                displayed here.
                            Detail                              Brief summary of the discrepancy.


Fixing Discrepancies
                           This page displays information about the Discrepancy detected in the network and helps you fix it
                           through appropriate commands.
                           Table 8-5 describes the fields in the Discrepancy Details dialog box.

                           Table 8-5           Discrepancy Details

                            Field                               Description
                            Type                                Name of the discrepancy.
                            Severity                            Severity level of the discrepancy. Discrepancies are categorized
                                                                according to their severity as low and high.
                            First Found                         Date and time when the discrepancy was first discovered by
                                                                Campus Manager.
                            Description                         IP addresses of the devices which cause this discrepancy are
                                                                displayed here.




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                      Table 8-5          Discrepancy Details (continued)

                       Field                              Description
                       Detail                             Brief summary of the discrepancy.
                       Recommended Fix                    Campus Manager provides an option to resolve certain
                                                          discrepancies. For such discrepancies, a set of commands is
                                                          displayed that will be used to resolve the discrepancy.
                                                          You can edit the commands provided by Campus Manager, to suit
                                                          your network requirements.


                                                          Caution   Make sure that you do valid changes to the commands.
                                                                    Campus Manager does not check the correctness of the
                                                                    commands, after you edit it. So, if the commands are
                                                                    incorrect, the fix will fail.

                                                          Campus Manager uses the cwcli interface of Resource Manager
                                                          Essentials (RME) to resolve discrepancies.
                                                          For details on setting RME Credentials, see Setting RME
                                                          Credentials


                      Notes on Fixing Discrepancies
                      For fixing Discrepancies, Campus Manager uses RME CiscoWorks CLI (CWCLI) framework.
                      Set the following from Campus Manager to access the RME Server:
                       •   RME Server Name
                       •   RME Server Port
                       •   RME Server Protocol
                       •   User Name
                       •   User Password
                      For complete details on this, see Setting RME Credentials.
                      While fixing Discrepancies through Campus Manager:
                       •   Enter the correct RME Server Credentials
                           If you enter the wrong RME server or IP Address or if the RME server is down, the fix fails. To
                           overcome this, ping RME server from the Campus Manager server and ensure connectivity.
                       •   Enter the correct port numbers for the selected protocols
                           Port number for http is 1741 and for https is 443. The fix fails if you enter the wrong port numbers.
                       •   Enter the valid RME username and password
                           The fix fails when the username or password is incorrect.
                       •   Enter valid SNMP credentials
                           TFTP uses SNMP credentials for RME CWCLI. So ensure that correct SNMP read/write credentials
                           are available while using TFTP as transport protocol in RME.




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                             •   Enter correct Device Credentials
                                 RME CWCLI updates the device configuration with the transport protocols configured in
                                 RME > Admin >Config Management >Transport Settings dialog box.
                                 To update the device configuration, RME uses the protocols in the available order. If the fix fails for
                                 one protocol, RME tries again with the next protocol according to the specified order.
                                 For the fix to succeed, ensure that the correct credentials are set for the devices. The credentials need
                                 to be configured in the CommonServices >Device and Credentials page.
                             •   Ensure that the device on which the fix is applied is managed in RME.
                                 Check whether the device is managed in RME when you are fixing the Discrepancy on a remote
                                 RME Server. If the device is not managed in RME, the job is not created for that device and the fix
                                 fails.
                             •   When RME job status shown Partially successful but fix fails:
                                 When either deploy or fetch configuration is successful, Job Status in RME Jobs/Archive
                                 Management is shown as Partial Success. However, the Fix status in Campus Manager is shown as
                                 fail. Fix is successful only when both deploy and fetch are successful.
                                 For example, when trying to deploy configuration with TFTP, the operation may be successful.
                                 However, fetching configuration may fail because of timeouts for the TFTP operation. This could
                                 happen if the configuration is large.
                                 In this case, select RME > Admin > System Preferences > RME device Attributes and increase
                                 TFTP Timeout in the dialog box.



Viewing Best Practices Deviations Reports
                           To view Best Practices Deviations reports:


                Step 1     Go to the LMS Portal and select Campus Manager > Reports > Reports Generator.
                           The Report Generator page appears.
                Step 2     Select Best Practices Deviations from the list of available reports.
                           The Report Generator page has options to configure the report you want to view. Table 8-6 describes the
                           options that you can configure to generate a Best Practices Deviations Report.




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                       Table 8-6             Generating Best Practices Deviations Report

                        Option                         Usage Notes
                        Device Selector                 •    Click Selection to choose the device groups or devices for which you
                                                             want Best Practices Deviations to be reported.
                                                             A list of all the available System Defined Groups and User Defined
                                                             groups, and devices appears.
                                                        •    Check the checkbox next to the device group or a particular device for
                                                             which you want Best Practice Deviations to be reported.
                        Report Options                  •    Click Unacknowledged to view a report of the best practices
                                                             deviations that are not acknowledged.
                                                        •    Click Acknowledged to view a report of only the acknowledged best
                                                             practices deviations.
                                                        •    Click Both to view a report of both acknowledged and
                                                             unacknowledged best practices deviations.
                        Type Selector                   1.   Select the best practices deviations from Available Types, for which
                                                             you want the report to be displayed.
                                                             You can select multiple entries by pressing Ctrl or Shift while
                                                             clicking.
                                                        2.   Click Add. The selected best practices deviations are added to
                                                             Selected Types.
                                                             You can also double-click on a Best Practice Deviation from Available
                                                             Types to add it to Selected Types.
                                                             To remove a Best Practice Deviation from Selected Types, select the
                                                             Best Practice Deviation and click Remove.
                        Scheduling                      1.   Select the Run Type for the job—Immediate, Once, Daily, Weekly,
                                                             Monthly.
                                                             For jobs with Run Type anything other than Immediate, select the Date
                                                             and Time for the job to run.
                                                             The Job Info and Date fields are disabled when you select Immediate
                                                             as the Run Type for the job.
                        Job Info                        1.   Enter a description for the job in the Description field.
                                                             The text you enter is displayed in the Campus Manager job browser.
                                                             This is a mandatory field.
                                                        2.   In the E-mail field, enter the e-mail ID to which you want the job
                                                             completion status to be sent.


            Step 3     Click Submit to generate the Best Practices Deviations Report.
                       The Best Practices Deviations report appears if you had set the Run Type to Immediate.
                       For any other Run Type, the report is created as a job. For details on viewing, stopping, and deleting the
                       scheduled report job, see Using the Reports Job Browser
                       You can click Reset to clear the values you entered.




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Understanding Best Practices Deviations Reports
                           The Best Practices Deviations Report is displayed in a tabular format. Table 8-7 describes the fields in
                           this report.

                           Table 8-7           Best Practices Deviations Report

                            Field                               Description
                            Acknowledge                         If you have launched:
                                                                 •   Unacknowledged Best Practise Deviations Report
                                                                     You can acknowledge Best Practise Deviations from this
                                                                     report.
                                                                     For details, see Acknowledging Best Practices Deviations.
                                                                 •   Acknowledged Best Practise Deviations Report
                                                                      You can unacknowledge Best Practise Deviations from this
                                                                     report.
                                                                     For details, see Unacknowledging Best Practices Deviations.
                                                                 •   Acknowledged and Unacknowledged Best Practise Deviations
                                                                     Report
                                                                     The Acknowledge column displays Yes for Acknowledged
                                                                     Best Practise Deviations and No for Unacknowledged Best
                                                                     Practise Deviations.
                            Type                                Brief description of the Best Practice Deviation.
                            Severity                            Severity level of the Best Practice Deviation. Campus Manager
                                                                considers all Best Practise Deviations as low severity.
                                                                This column is displayed only in Scheduled reports.
                            Summary                             IP addresses of the devices which are affected by the Best Practice
                                                                Deviation. Click the hyperlink to view more details on the Best
                                                                Practice Deviation.
                                                                For more information, see Viewing Details on Best Practices
                                                                Deviations.
                            Fix                                 States if the Best Practice Deviation can be fixed through Campus
                                                                Manager.
                                                                If the Best Practice Deviation is fixable, a link is provided, clicking
                                                                on which takes you to the Fix Page.
                                                                For details on fixing Best Practice Deviation, see Fixing Best
                                                                Practices Deviations.
                            First Found                         Date and Time when the Best Practice Deviation was first
                                                                discovered by Campus Manager.
                            Remarks                             If a fix has been attempted on the Best Practice Deviation, it is
                                                                shown here. The RME Job ID for the Fix operation is also shown
                                                                here.




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                        Acknowledging Best Practices Deviations
                        You can acknowledge a Best Practice Deviation that you no longer want to see in the Best Practices
                        Deviations Report.
                        If you acknowledge it, it will no longer be available in the report. If you want the acknowledged best
                        practice deviation to reappear in the Best Practice Deviation Report, you need to unacknowledge it.
                        To acknowledge a Best Practice Deviation:


             Step 1     Check the checkbox in the Acknowledge column corresponding to the Best Practice Deviation.
             Step 2     Click Acknowledge.
                        The Best Practice Deviation is not shown in the report, the next time you generate it.



                        Unacknowledging Best Practices Deviations
                        If you want the acknowledged Best Practise Deviations to reappear in the Best Practise Deviations
                        Report, you need to unacknowledge it.
                        To unacknowledge a Best Practise Deviation:


             Step 1     In the report, check the checkbox corresponding to the Best Practise Deviation.
             Step 2     Click UnAcknowledge.
                        The unacknowledged Best Practise Deviation appears in the report, the next time you generate it.




Viewing Details on Best Practices Deviations
                        To get detailed information on a Best Practice Deviation, click the hyperlink in the summary column of
                        the Best Practices Deviations Report. The Best Practices Deviations Details dialog box appears.
                        Table 8-8 displays the following details:

                        Table 8-8             Best Practices Deviations Details

                         Field                          Description
                         Type                           Name of the Best Practice Deviation.
                         First Found                    Date and time when the Best Practice Deviation was
                                                        first discovered by Campus Manager.
                         Description                    IP addresses of the devices which cause this Best
                                                        Practice Deviation.
                         Detail                         Brief summary of the Best Practice Deviation.




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Fixing Best Practices Deviations
                           This page displays information about the Best Practice Deviation detected in the network and helps you
                           fix it through appropriate commands.
                           Table 8-9 explains the Best Practice Deviation Details:

                           Table 8-9           Best Practices Deviations Details

                            Field                                Description
                            Type                                 Name of the Best Practice Deviation.
                            First Found                          Date and time when the Best Practice Deviation was first discovered
                                                                 by Campus Manager.
                            Description                          IP addresses of the devices which cause this Best Practice
                                                                 Deviation.
                            Detail                               Brief summary of the Best Practice Deviation.
                            Recommended Fix                      Campus Manager provides an option to resolve certain Best Practice
                                                                 Deviations.
                                                                 A set of commands is displayed here that will be used to resolve the
                                                                 Best Practice Deviation.
                                                                 You can edit the commands provided by Campus Manager, to suit
                                                                 your network requirements.


                                                                 Caution   Make sure that you do valid changes to the commands.
                                                                           Campus Manager does not check the correctness of the
                                                                           commands, after you edit it. So, if the commands are
                                                                           incorrect, the fix will fail.

                                                                 Campus Manager uses the cwcli interface of Resource Manager
                                                                 Essentials (RME) to resolve Best Practice Deviations.
                                                                 For details on setting RME Credentials, see Setting RME
                                                                 Credentials


                           Notes on Fixing Best Practices Deviation
                           For fixing Best Practices Deviations, Campus Manager uses RME CiscoWorks CLI (CWCLI)
                           framework.
                           Set the following from Campus Manager, to access the RME Server:
                             •   RME Server Name
                             •   RME Server Port
                             •   RME Server Protocol
                             •   User Name
                             •   User Password
                           For complete details, see Setting RME Credentials.




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                       While fixing Best Practise Deviations through Campus Manager:
                         •   Enter the correct RME Server Credentials
                             If you enter the wrong RME server or IP Address or if the RME server is down, the fix fails. To
                             overcome this, ping RME server from the Campus Manager server and ensure connectivity.
                         •   Enter the correct port numbers for the selected protocols
                             Port number for http is 1741 and for https is 443. The fix fails if you enter the wrong port numbers.
                         •   Enter the valid RME username and password
                             The fix fails when the username or password is incorrect.
                         •   Enter valid SNMP credentials
                             TFTP uses SNMP credentials for RME CWCLI. So ensure that correct SNMP read/write credentials
                             are available while using TFTP as transport protocol in RME.
                         •   Enter correct Device Credentials
                             RME CWCLI updates the device configuration with the transport protocols configured in
                             RME > Admin >Config Management >Transport Settings.
                             To update the device configuration, RME uses the protocols in the available order. If the fix fails for
                             one protocol, RME tries again with the next protocol according to the specified order.
                             For the fix to succeed, ensure that the correct credentials are set for the devices. Select
                             CommonServices >Device and Credentials and configure the credentials in the page.
                         •   Ensure that the device on which the fix is applied is managed in RME.
                             Check whether the device is managed in RME when you are fixing the Best Practice Deviation on
                             a remote RME Server. If the device is not managed in RME, the job is not created for that device
                             and the fix fails.
                         •   When RME job status is shown as Partially successful but fix fails:
                             When either Deploy or Fetch Configuration is successful, Job Status in RME Jobs/Archive
                             Management is shown as Partial Success. But the Fix status in Campus Manager is shown as fail.
                             Fix is successful only when both Deploy and Fetch are successful.
                             For example, when trying to deploy configuration with TFTP, the operation may be successful.
                             However, fetching configuration may fail because of timeouts for the TFTP operation. This could
                             happen if the configuration is large.
                             In this case, increase TFTP Timeout in RME > Admin > System Preferences > RME device
                             Attributes.




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Customizing Discrepancies Reporting and Syslog Generation
                           You can customize the Discrepancies Report and Best Practices Deviations Report to display only those
                           discrepancies and Best Practice Deviations about which you want to be notified.
                           To customize the reports:


                Step 1     Select Campus Manager > Administration > Discrepancies.
                           The Discrepancies window appears.
                Step 2     Click Configure.
                           The Configuring Discrepancies dialog box appears.
                             •   To include a Discrepancy or Best Practice Deviation in the Reports, check the checkbox next to it.
                                 Checking all the checkboxes results in a report displaying all discrepancies and Best Practice
                                 Deviations in the network.
                             •   To exclude a Discrepancy or Best Practice Deviation from the Reports, uncheck the corresponding
                                 checkbox.
                Step 3     Generate Syslog messages for the selected Discrepancies and Best Practice Deviations. To do this, check
                           Configure Syslog and click Next.
                           A list of the selected Discrepancies and Best Practice Deviations appears.
                Step 4     Check Send Syslogs and enter the name of the server in the Syslog Server field.
                Step 5     Select the Discrepancies and Best Practice Deviations for which you want to generate Syslog messages
                           and click Next.
                           A summary of the selected Discrepancies and Best Practice Deviations appears.
                Step 6     Click Finish.




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