MICROMOUSE by zhangyun


									…..Technovanza ‘08
 Prototype of a 3-Dimensional motion crane to be
  implemented on port for cargo handling of size
 Crane used to load and unload cargo from ships to the
 Automation of crane using microcontrollers to follow
  exact X,Y,Z coordinates entered
 Prototype of automated railed carry truck to transport
  containers from jetty to cargo hub based on separate
 Perfectly timed execution by communication between
 Control motion of the huge crane
 Efficient algorithm to make the crane reach exact XYZ
 Microcontroller interfacing with hardware
 It was the first attempt at VJTI to make working
  prototypes in the technical festival
 It gave a lot of exposure to actual Mechatronics
 It was a great learning experience to mix the
  programming with digital circuits and the Machine
 We learnt what does it mean by ‘burning midnight oil’
VJTI’s First Attempt
What is Robocon?
 The ABU Asia-Pacific Robot Contest or ABU
  ROBOCON is an annual international project
  organized by the ABU.
 Doordarshan Robocon India started in the year 2002
  with four teams participating from reputed institutes.
Who can take Part?
 Engineering and Diploma Students are allowed to
  participate in the competition. under standardized
  rules, entrants test their creativity and technology in
  an open competition.
 About 40 teams turned up at Robocon 2008, each
  having paid an entry fees of Rs. 8000
Common Misconceptions
 Robocon is more about learning than about
  competition and winning. We learnt a lot, not only in
  the field of robotics but also about project
  management and most importantly about team work.
 Robocon is not a festival. There are
   No Food Courts
   No array of Random Events
   No Informal Events
   No Song and Dance
   It isn’t a conference - there are no talks, no presentations
   No invited guests other than the judges and the sponsors
    and at times a few political bigwigs.
So What is it?
 Robocon is a grueling 4-5 day period, and that
  doesn’t include the 4 months before you get there.
 Very Little food whenever we get a chance to walk
  to the place they give food.
 Very little sleep here and there in the pit area,
  with a rather thin carpet/rug/whatever its called
  separating you from the bare ground of one of
  MIT's playground, a heated Soldering Iron 6
  inches from your head, and someone using a
  Power Drill about 3 feet away.
Why all the stress?
 In this time, teams from all the colleges work
  round the clock reassembling, testing, and
  retrofitting robots to add functionality and fine
  tune their strategies, targeting individual teams
  and adapting their game plan according to what
  they think the opponent will do at each match.
  Things break, and need to be fixed.
 Bugs show their ugly faces, accidents happen, and
  tempers are usually on a very short fuse.
Why go through that much
 Robocon somehow pulls you back. Its been barely six
  months since we’re back and we’re all enthusiastic to
  go for the finals in Pune over the weekend.
 The most attractive thing is the amount of talent
  under one roof, always gives something or the other to
VJTI at Robocon 2008
 Although it was VJTI’s first attempt, we pulled off
  a fairly decent standing.
 In the preliminary rounds, we faced an uphill task
  because of our autonomous machine giving us
  unexpected problems, due to an array of reasons.
 However we managed faced all odds to beat one
  team comprehensively, lost out narrowly to IIT
  Madras on violations and lost against MIT, the
  current India runners up.
 Driving in heavy traffic has become cumbersome in major
 Autodrive is a way of mitigating this issue.

 It is an attempt to improve safety, comfort and economy
 through automation.

 Its an innovative traffic solution system.
 The auto-D feature comes into play in high traffic region where
 the car usually shifts between the 1st and the 2nd gear, invoking
 partial automation.
 In this phase partial control of the car is shifted to an onboard
 This involves automation of car control systems : brake, clutch,
 accelerator and the gear box.
 Sensors help incorporate Collision avoidance system and
 autobraking override to improve safety

Servo motors are calibrated to bring about proportional changes
in pedal angles via pulley arrangement.
Servos connected to fork system to control the gearbox.
Sensors mounted on front and rear of the car.
 The avia is a venture into aerial surveillance:
A flying machine which is capable of hovering
and moving with 6 degrees of freedom as well
     as go for long range surveillance with real
                            time video transfer.
 The avia will be capable of vertical take-off
  and landing with short distances.
 The wings will allow for efficient long distance
  reconnaissance coupled with highly
  maneuverable recon. For short distances.
 The avia will be able to detach the wings
  during short range surveillance.
 Real time video transfer will form an integral
  part of surveying.
  Whats being done..
 The first prototype with hovering abilities is
  ready with further developments being carried
 The final bot will be a rotorcraft equipped with
  a set of wings for power efficient, long
  distance surveillance.
 The live video transfer will enable the pilot to
  control the avia with ease as well as help in
  transferring data on the go.
Whats been done…..
 Here are a few pics and video of the first prototype..
  Whats next
 The machine is to be refined further and every
  degree of freedom is to be achieved step by step.
 Real time video transfer is to be perfected.
 Stability of the craft is to be maintained at all times.
                               And finally..
 The avia is sure a promising beginning for
  aeronautics in vjti..
 Micromouse is an autonomous self contained machine designed to get
    to the centre of a maze in shortest possible time.
   A Micromouse essentially comprises of a drive motor or motors to
    move it.
   a steering and turning method.
    sensors to detect the presence or absence of maze walls.
   sensors or control logic to oversee the action of the rest and keep the
    vehicle 'on track' or to solve the maze.
   batteries to provide power.
 The premise of the MicroMouse contest is simple: design
  and build a small, autonomous robot that will find the
  center of a maze.
 The mouse that makes it to the center of the maze is the
  winner. If more than one mouse makes it, then the mouse
  that gets there the fastest will be the winner.
 Contestants are given 10 to 15 minutes to solve the maze, so
  many return to the start cell to make multiple runs. The
  fastest of these runs becomes the official time.
 Championship-level mice can make it from the start cell to
  the finish cell in well under 20 seconds with top speeds
  averaging 2 meters/sec, now that's a fast mouse!
The maze
Micromouse at IIT TECHFEST
this is how its really done…!
 Other than the locations of the start and destination cells,
  nothing else is known about the paths within the maze.
 The walls of the maze can be set up in any configuration by
  the judges in charge of the contest. You will find that there
  are always several solutions to the maze.
 This prevents robots from simply following the left or right
  walls to solve the maze (try it in the example above, it
  worn't work), and it makes the contest more interesting
  since "smarter" mice will look for the quickest path.
 Computing Power
 Propulsion
 Sensors
 Chassis
 Batteries
 When your mouse can move about the maze reliably, it
  must then be able to solve the maze. There are several
  popular algorithms for doing this.
 The wall follower
 Depth Search First
 The Flood-Fill Algorithm
 The Modified Flood-Fill Algorithm
Whats all the noise about
• Arthros is a project which deals with the creation of robots
  which make use of jointed appendages for locomotion.

• These include
     •   Biped Humanoid Robots
     •   Quadraped Robots
     •   Hexapod Robots
     •   Octapod Robots

                                 …… the list goes on and on and on
Why even bother
 The very fact that 97% of the terrestrial population of
 the world requires legs for locomotion makes it
 imperative that robots master the skill of walking.
 These mechanical arthropods would have to run, jump
 and climb in the cities of our future
 Unlike conventional robots which use motors and
  wheels for locomotion these bots explore a whole new
  dimension in robotics
 Thus these bots help us and apply understand
  concepts about balance and gait
 These bots are extensively used for unmanned
  terrestrial exploration of treacherous terrains
 Examples of these include the Mars rover (we
  obviously aren’t sending any of our bots to mars but
  then again it doesn’t to hurt to imagine now does it!)
  and bots used to explore active volcanoes.
Getting Down and Dirty
• We intend to work initially on making a manually
  operated hexapod capable of moving over uneven
  terrain and future prospects could be-
1. Making it completely autonomous .
2. Making it capable of recognizing its environment on
    the basis of temperature, pressure sensors and image
Image Processing
 Nature is the best engineer
 Thus it’s the best source of inspiration for any
 Sight is found in most complex living creatures.
 Eyesight is one of the most complex forms of sensory
What’s the big deal?
 At first glance, sight seems very easy
 Imagine being able to differentiate based on colour,
  intensity, hue, saturation, shadows!
 Now imagine doing this in a matter of a few
  microseconds, all the time!
 Needless to say the potential is really large, but the
  complications mind boggling.
How can we do this on a
 Camera = Eye
 The camera is a fairly good eye
 But we need something that figures out what the
  camera is showing!
 So if you see someone you know on the screen, you
  know its him, your PC just knows where to put the
  pixels and the RGB values
Where is the Brain?
 To emulate the brain, we accept images and code in a
  software called MATLAB
 MATLAB = MATrix LABoratories
 MATLAB is a fairly complex software having many
  toolboxes, one of which is the Image Processing
 Anyone can learn MATLAB, and it is VERY useful for
  engineering applications
 Image Processing using MATLAB can be used to
  recognize colours and shapes.
Image Processing

Using Matlab
MATLAB Provides toolbox for,
 Image acquisition
 Image processing
 Many more…
 Many utility functions for fast image analysis
 Easy interface with any webcam or grabber card
 Excellent for initial experimentation
Image Processing (Contd.)
Colour detection
 Involves finding the pixel within certain range
 Absolute distance, Euclidean distance, etc.
 Choice of colour space is important
 Centroid detection
 Find the pixels comprising the object
 Find the average of X and Y co-ordinates
Cool, Lets Make the Terminator! Or Transformers

 Or we could keep things simple and just make a robot
  that can follow a ball in a controlled environment
 With this, we can play Robosoccer, the intention of
  this project
 We intend to combine some codes in MATLAB that
  process images quick enough, along with a robot
  which carries out a required algorithm.

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