Syrian Arab Republic
Ministry of Agriculture
Syrian Agricultural Policy
Advisor to the Minister of
Agriculture and Agrarian Reform
Agricultural Policy Forum 2005
22 / 6 / 2005
1. Indicators of the Agricultural Status
2. Agriculture Development Determinants and
3. General Objectives of Agricultural
4. Policies and Strategies Required to
Achieve the Objectives
Indicators of the Agricultural Status
• The Government started, since the sixth five-year
plan (1986 -1990), a gradual process of move
towards indicative planning.
• The yearly plans adopted a participatory approach
and decentralized strategy.
• The agricultural policies kept the government role in
resource allocation, and increased contribution of
private sector in production and marketing.
• The applied policies had positive and negative
A. Positive Impacts
• Increased the irrigated area.
• Attained self sufficiency in strategic crops,
vegetables and fruit to meet domestic demand and
surplus to export.
• Made important steps forward to improve the living
conditions in rural and urban areas.
• Improved the Agricultural Aggregate Output, which
reached 158% in 2003 in comparison with 1992.
• Enhanced contribution of agricultural sector in
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that reached 25-
• Increased export of raw and processed agricultural
production, that reached 16-22% of total export.
• Developed agricultural infrastructure and services
in rural areas.
B. Negative Impacts
• Water shortage.
• Steppe deterioration and desertification in Albadia.
• Holdings fragmentation.
• Legislations and laws do not conform with
agricultural production development.
• Marketing, processing, export, and production
activities do not conform with agricultural production
Agriculture Development Determinants
1. International economic changes.
2. Fragmentation of institutions responsible for
3. Foreign products competition resulting from the
huge subsidies in other countries.
4. High population growth and lack of agricultural
5. Agricultural holdings crumbling.
6. Limited availability of agricultural natural resources
7. Lack of financial resources. 7
General Objectives Of Agricultural
• Increasing the agricultural growth rate and
improving agricultural producers income;
• Optimizing use and conservation of natural
• Meeting the domestic demand for main food
• Providing domestic industries with good quality of
• Developing rural infrastructures, services, and
domestic industries, as well as generating job
• Attracting and enhancing investments in agriculture;
• Developing and modernizing agricultural
• Supporting and improving agricultural processing
and marketing to benefit from the value added.
Policies and Strategies Required to
Achieve the Objectives
• Priority should be given to agricultural
development process and investments;
• Adopting a gradual approach in the process of
adaptation to avoid negative impacts on
• Modernizing agricultural activities and improving
productivity by enhancing research, extension,
training, education, and modern technologies;
• Modifying the rules and regulations in conformity
with the new policy orientations;
• Promoting the establishment of marketing
institutions and companies;
• Following a vertical development (intensification)
for agricultural production, considering natural
• Identifying the different roles for each sector in the
agricultural development process;
• Reviewing credit policies;
• Defining pricing policies for specific products;
• Establishing specific unions and cooperatives for
agricultural production branches;
• Applying appropriate procedures to control
• Applying the Integrated Pest Management -IPM;
• Following agricultural rotations and using crops
combination according to their comparative
B. Execution Strategies
1. Utilization and maintenance of agricultural
• Natural pastures
2. Securing the required food staples (wheat,
legumes, etc) for local consumption and
• Animal production
• Plant production
3. Modernizing agricultural activities and
• Agricultural research
• Agricultural extension
• Training and education
4. Supporting and improving agricultural
processing and marketing
• Agricultural processing
5. Developing financial and credit systems
• Develop the system of the Agricultural Cooperative
• Grant credits to the agricultural sector
proportionally with its contribution in the national
• Increase long & mid term credits. 16
6. Providing primary agricultural inputs and
improving their utilization and distribution
• Providing them at appropriate prices, timing and
• Gradually reducing the control role of the public
sector and allowing for all sectors’ participation
7. Adopting pricing policies as an instrument
for environment conservation and
• Continuation of the pricing policies for strategic
• Establishment of a special fund for strategic
• Distribution of agricultural inputs at market prices.
8. Applying subsidy policies to ensure
compatibility with international procedures
• Syrian subsidies patterns (indirect).
• Forms of subsidies which conform with
• Forms of subsidies which do not conform with
• Acceptable forms of subsidies.
• Applying the requested procedures in conformity
with the international subsidization systems.
9. Adopting structural adjustments to comply
with the development requisites and apply
the suggested agricultural policies
MAAR and its General Establishments
General Peasants Federation
Agricultural Chambers Federation
B. Establishing public bodies to supervise
Agricultural Supreme Committee
Qualitative Unions and Cooperatives
C. Modifying or issuing regulations:
Organic farming - Export monitoring - Public body
for export supervision - Special fund for subsidies -
Al Badia protection - and Land consolidation.