Industrial Revolution

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					Industrial Revolution-WWII

       Midterm Review
 Why did business owners favor few
     restrictions on immigration?
 Immigrants were
  cheap sources of labor
 What is a laissez-faire, free-market
 Businesses are free
  from government
Why did wealth become concentrated in
 the hands of fewer people in the late
                  The rise of big business
                  owners (i.e. wealth
                  monopolists) like John D.
                  Rockefeller and Andrew
What did the location of industrial cities
   illustrate in terms of transportation
   and population?
 They must be near major transportation
 Population will be the largest near the
  industrial cities; and was often very
Describe 5 ways Industrialism made an
impact on American workers or society.
 Changed workers from skilled to unskilled
 Society went from agricultural to industrial
 Goods went from being handmade to mass
 The working class became the middle class
  in American society
 Goods were cheaper because of mass
  production techniques
How did the Haymarket Riot of 1886
          affect unions?
    •Unions began to be viewed as radical,
    dangerous, and slowing down production.
Why did Congress pass both the Interstate
Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust

 It wanted to gain more control over
 Congress began to believe in fair
  competition and the “evil” of monopolies
Why did both the political parties support
        tariffs until the late 1800’s?
They were needed to
  protect American
  industry from foreign
Describe the impact of industrial growth
      on urban and rural populations.
 Dramatic increase in urban population due
  to industries locating in or near major cities.
 Decline in rural population due to rise of
  mechanized farming, thus, less need for
     Describe some of the conditions
        immigrants had to deal with
 Anti-immigrant
 Poverty
 Poor working
 Describe leisure activities and why they
  grew in popularity during this period.
 Urban families had more opportunity for
  diverse leisure activities than did rural
 Baseball, football, basketball, theatre
  (vaudeville) became popular
 Books were written about everyday life
 In an effort to assert government control
over the nation's banking system, Wilson
and Progressive members of Congress
 created the Federal
  Reserve System
    Which of the following opinions did
          Progressives share?
 It was permissible for
  the government to
  increase their role in
  regulating businesses
What were some common characteristics of
        Progressive reformers?
                     College Educated
                     Middle or Upper
                      Class Professionals
                     Urban
                     Native Born
Reasons for
    Isolationism to Imperialism
 Causes for expansionist attitudes:
  – Overproduction resulted from periodic
    economic depressions that demonstrated need
    for new markets, especially overseas.
  – As industry expanded, new sources for raw
    materials were needed by business.
  – America increasingly looked to Latin America
    and East Asia for new markets and sources of
Closing of the American Frontier
 The census of 1890 observed that the
  American frontier had come to a close.
 A crisis of overcrowding would perhaps
  occur because there was now no outlet for
  the many immigrants coming to America.
    John Hay

  Author of the
“Open Door Notes”

What did they say?
Allow the United States to trade
                            Hint: See

                            Answer: China
(I was going
 to use this
   pic, but I
didn’t think it
Who’s this?   Grrr..
What was his foreign policy
                  Speak softly
                  and carry a
                   big stick!
                  (Bully, bully, bully)
This was Teddy’s “Big Stick”
Where was Teddy’s “Big Ditch”?
What officially
  made the
United States
 an Imperial
                  Spanish-American War, 1898
Where were most battles of the
Spanish-American War fought?
Identify 2 Reasons Why the US
          Entered WWI
              1. Unrestricted
                submarine warfare

              2. Sinking of the

              3. Zimmerman Note
Identify 2 Reasons Why the US
          Entered WWI
              4. Wilson wanted the
                world to be safe for
  Identify 2 Reasons Why the US
            Entered WWI
5. $2.25 Billion vs. $27 million

By 1917, American loans to the Allies had soared to $2.25 billion; loans to Germany
     stood at a paltry $27 million.
Identify 2 Reasons Why the US
          Entered WWI
              5. U.S. And British
Whose “Fourteen Points” were supposed
      to bring a “lasting peace”?
What’s this
spot on my                  Who am I?
 (I hope it
doesn’t give
me a stroke.)              My 14 points
                        announced to the
                       world that the United
                         States was now
                          willing to take a
                        more active role in
                       international affairs.
      No more

 Q. Why would Wilson make
 this one of his 14 Points?

A. He thought that alliances
(especially secret alliances)
were a leading cause of The
         Great War!
  Q. What has been our government’s
view on personal liberties during times of

A. Personal liberties must remain intact to protect
   the rights of our citizens.
B. The security of the nation comes first and
   individual rights second.
C. The government needs to collect as much as
   possible from the citizenry to finance the war.
D. American citizens rarely enjoy personal liberties
   regardless of war or peace.
In Schenck v. United States the Supreme
  Court ruled that Charles Schenck violated
  the Espionage Act when he sent out leaflets
  through the mail that urged young American
  men to resist the draft.

Could this happen today if the draft was
    Q. Before negotiations began at Versailles,
  representatives of the Weimar Republic (gov’t of
     Germany) were forced to agree to this…
Hint: It was a shock to them and something
 they were unwilling to admit.
Another hint: forced them to admit that the
 Great War was all their fault.
Answer: The War Guilt Clause
   How did the Treaty
      of Versailles
  contribute to another
       world war?
 In 1922, a loaf of bread cost
  163 marks.
 By September 1923, this
  figure had reached
  1,500,000 marks and at the
  peak of hyperinflation,
  November 1923, a loaf of
  bread cost 200,000,000,000
What caused this?
    What happened to the price of
    automobiles from 1909-1927?
A. Prices remained the
B. Prices increased a
C. Prices increased a
D. Prices decreased.
Henry Ford’s assembly line allowed automobiles to be produced much quicker
(and much cheaper too). Ford passed this price cut on to the consumer.

           The Model T cost $950 in 1908 and $290 in 1927.
            Henry Ford’s assembly line.
Impact of mass-production
Prices of finished products cost
Basic Supply and Demand
Henry Ford and his assembly line
             I hope he ain’t     “A’hm a farmer. I ain’t
              gonna hit me        got no cash money.
                 with that          Where’s William
             pitchfork again.          One part of
                                 Jennings Bryan when
                                    you need him?”
                                       Society did
                                       success of
                                       the roaring
Remember, there’s nothing funny about domestic violence!
Economic weakness of the booming
   Farmers suffered losses (agricultural sector)
   Mining Industry did not expand
   Growing Incoming Gap
   Buying too much on credit
   Iron & Railroad industries suffered losses
                The Flappers
   Carefree
   Nonconformist
   Bobbed Hair
   “Short” Dresses
   “Wild” Dancing
   Fringe & Long Beads
    Money $ Money $ Money $
 Writers like F. Scott Fitzgerald and Sinclair
  Lewis criticized America for being too
  materialistic and narrow-minded
      Be Afraid… Be Very Afraid
 Response to “Un American” influences of
  the early 1920’s
  – Red Scare of 1919
  – Emergency Quota Act (1921)
     Limit immigration
  – Rebirth of the KKK
Causes of the Great Depression
   Industrial and Agricultural Overproduction
   Maldistribution of Wealth
   Speculation
   Debt from buying on installment plan
   Old and Decaying industrial base
   Bad Government Policies
        “The Grapes of Wrath”
 Written by John Steinbeck
 Plight of the “Okies” during the Great
      “Okies” lost and displaced individuals during the days
       of the Depression, mostly from Oklahoma
            Fireside Chats
 Innovation technique developed by FDR to
  encourage support during the Depression
 FDR spoke directly to the people of the
  United States
 Designed to boost confidence in the
 New Deal Program developed by FDR
 Designed to cut farm production
  – Farmers paid to destroy crops, leave fields
    empty, destroy livestock (sorry-Babe)
  – Goal was to lower the supply, which would
    increase farm prices (Basis Supply and
 Identify One New Deal program and
 summarize its impact on US Society
Bullet your answer
Restate the prompt
Make sure you identify and summarize the
    New Deal = Welfare State?
 Many historians claim that The New Deal
  created a welfare state
 What is a welfare state?
  – When government assumes the responsibility to
    assist the needy
 Major criticism of FDR and the New Deal
     Fascism –Multiple Choice
 Fascism is based on
  – A. teachings of Karl Marx
  – B. idea that Jews are inferior
  – C. idea of the supremacy of the state over the
  – D. idea of world domination
   Weaknesses of the League of
 No attempt to stop aggressive
 Many Nations did not join (USA)
 Examples of weakness
 –Hitler’s occupation of Czech.
 –Italy’s actions in Ethiopia
 –Japan’s invasion of Manchuria
Japanese world domination-Multiple

 Which nation did the Japanese see as the
  greatest obstacle to their goal of conquering
  all of East Asia in the 1930’s
  – A. China
  – B. Canada
  – C. Soviet Union
  – D. United States
         American Neutrality?
 During WWII the USA moved away from a
  strict policy of neutrality
 Needed to supply help to the Allied Nations
 First step in this direction
  – “Cash and Carry”
  – Lend-Lease Act
 Atlantic Charter
                           WWII (The Big One)
                           (Good Guys)               Axis
   United States                                    (Bad Guys)

   Great Britain                         Germany
   U.S.S.R                               Japan
   France                                Italy
   As well as…Australia
   Belgium
   Bolivia
   Brazil
   Canada
   China
   Denmark
   Greece
   Mexico
   Netherlands
   New Zealand
   Norway
   Poland
   South Africa
   Yugoslavia
          WWII (The Big One)
 Main U.S. Strategy
  – Concentrate first on defeating Germany in Europe
     Why?
     They were considered a bigger threat than the Japanese
       – More Population, manufacturing capacity, technology, already
         controlled the vast majority of Europe
  – After defeating Germany America would turn its full
    attention to the Japanese in the Pacific
           WWII (The Big One)
 How did WWII affect
  civil liberties in the
   – American citizens
     placed in internment
          WWII (The Big One)
 Winning the War
  – What was the climactic
    attack on the French
    Coastline? (Normandy)

WWII (The Big One)
          WWII (The Big One)
 Pacific Strategy?

  Island Hopping

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