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					CONFIDENTIAL                                                          AP/APR 2006/QSD133/QSM403




                                 UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
                                     FINAL EXAMINATION




     COURSE                             PRINCIPLES OF STRUCTURES
     COURSE CODE                        QSD133/QSM403
     EXAMINATION                        APRIL 2006
     TIME                               2 HOURS




INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1.          This question paper consists of six (6) questions.

2.          Answer four (4) questions only. Start each answer on a new page.

3.          Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the
            invigilator.

4.          Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of:

               i)   the Question Paper
              ii)   a one-page Appendix
             iii)   an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty
             iv)    a two - sheets graph paper- provided by the Faculty




                     DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO
                            This examination paper consists of 7 printed pages
© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA                                             CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL                                     2             AP/APR 2006/QSD133/QSM403



QUESTION 1


a) Explain the following terms:

    i)     dead load
    ii)    imposed load
    iii)   wind load
    iv)    ultimate design load
                                                                                   (10 marks)

b) Figure Q1b shows a simply supported reinforced concrete beam size 300 mm x 600
   mm. The beam is required to carry a 300mm thick solid clay brickwall throughout its
   span, calculate:

    i) the ultimate design load of the beam
    ii) the reactions at support A and B.

    Given:
    The unit weight of reinforced concrete           24kN/m3
    The unit weight of brickwall                     22kN/m3




                                                                               /N

                             300mm thick brickwall                                  2.5m


                                                                               v
                               300mm x 600mm reinforced concrete beam          v 0.6m
              s:
              A                                                          B
                          4m                            6m
                                           <
                                           Figure Q1b
                                                                                   (15 marks)




© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA                                        CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL                                                             AP/APR 2006/QSD133/QSM403



QUESTION 2


Based on Figure Q2a, Q2b, Q2c and Q2d, determine the reactions at each support.


                                 20 kN                           30 kN



                                                                                       10 kN




                                                    + 50 kN
                              2m             2m               2m         2m
                        <               ><         > «-         -> <          >

                                                  Figure Q2a
                                                                                          (6 marks)

                                                          8kN



                      2.0m

                      1.0m




                      1.5m


                      1.5m


                                              SSKSSKS

                                                   Figure Q2b
                                                                                          (6 marks)



© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA                                                CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL                                                       AP/APR 2006/QSD133/QSM403



                                        10kN
                                                                             $5


                                   15kN/m                   30kN/m



                              <
                                  1m
                                         ><
                                               1.5m
                                                      >
                                                              2m            I
                                               Figure Q2c
                                                                                    (7 marks)



                                                                   12kN/m




                                               Figure Q2d
                                                                                     (6 marks)


QUESTION 3


a) Using suitable sketches, explain the behaviour of beams when they are under loading.

                                                                                    (10 marks)

b) Figure 3b shows the cross-section of a singly-reinforced concrete beam.

    i)   Using Chart 1 (BS 8110) as per Appendix 1, estimate the maximum bending moment
         that the beam can carry.
                                                                              (10 marks)

    ii) If the beam is simply supported over the span of 6m and carrying a uniformly
        distributed load throughout its span, what is the maximum load that the beam can
        safely carry?
                                                                                 (5 marks)




© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA                                           CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL                                                              AP/APR 2006/QSD133/QSM403



                                                         200mm
                                             <                       >\

                                                                                10mm 0 top steel
                                                 i                  ir
                                500mm
                                                                               10mm 0 link




                                                 ft ft-                      32mm 0 tension steel


Given:
Concrete cover - 25mm
Concrete grade - Grade 30
Reinforcement - mild steel
                                                           Figure 3b


QUESTION 4


a) Give the definitions of moment.
                                                                                                 (5 marks)

b) Based on figure Q4b. Calculate the reactions at support A and B and draw the shear
   force and bending moment diagrams.

             10kN                                                                           15kN



                   '
                       30kN/m                                    50kN/m                      i
                                i                                                  i




                            A                                                  E

                       1m               2m                         3m                  1m
                   <         ><                      >                        ->

                                                 Figure Q4b
                                                                                                 (20 marks)



© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA                                                   CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL                                        6                     AP/APR 2006/QSD133/QSM403



QUESTION 5


a) Using suitable sketches explain the following terms:

    i) one way-slab
    ii) two-way slab
                                                                                            (8 marks)

b) Figure Q5b shows a one way reinforced concrete slab which is subjected to an ultimate
   moment of 50kNm/m including self-weight. Using Chart 1 (BS 8110) in Appendix 1,
   determine the following:

    i) the spacing of the main bars
    ii) the size and spacing of the distribution bars.

    Given:
    Concrete cover - 25mm
    Concrete Grade - Grade 30
    Reinforcement - mild steel


                                   1000mm
                       <-                                         •   >




    300mm

                                                                             -16mm 0 main bars
                v

                                              Figure Q5b

                    Areas of round bars reinforcement spaced at various centers
                                        (mm2 per 1m width)

    Diameter                   Spacing (mm)
    (mm)     75             100     125     150    175    200    225         250    275    300
     6           377  283           226     188    162    141    126         113    103    94
      8          670  503           402     335    287    251    223         201    183    168
     10          1047 785           628     524    449    393    349         314    286    262
     12          1508       1131    905     754    449    393    349         314    286    262
     16          2681       2011    1608    1340   1149   1005   894         804    731    670
     20          4189       3142    2513    2094   1795   1571   1396        1257   1142   1047

                                                                                           (17 marks)




© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA                                                 CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL                                             7                 AP/APR 2006/QSD133/QSM403



QUESTION 6


a) Using suitable sketches explain the behaviour of columns when they are subject to:

    i) axial loading
    ii) eccentric loading.
                                                                                               (5 marks)

b) A short braced reinforced concrete column is required to support an ultimate axial load of
   2000kN.

    i)   Calculate the required size of a square column and choose the suitable main bars.

                                                                                              (10 marks)

    ii) Calculate the required diameter of a circular column and choose the suitable main
        bars
                                                                               (10 marks)

    Given:
    N = 0.4 feu (Ag - Asc) + 0.75 Asc fy
    Concrete cover - 25mm
    Concrete grade - Grade 30
    Reinforcement - mild steel
    As = 2% Ag

                                     Areas of round bar reinforcement (mm2)

Diameter                           Number of bars
 (mm)               1          2      3      4      5         6      7     8       9


    6        28      57            85     113     142        170    198    226     255
    8        50      101           151    201     252        302    352    402     453
    10       79      157           236    314     393        471    550    628     707
    12       113     226           339    452     565        678    791    904     1017
    16       201     402           603    804     1005       1206   1407   1608    1809
    20       314     628           942     1256   1570       1884   2198   2512    2826
    25       491     983           1474    1966   2457       2946   3439   3932    4423
    32       804        1608       2412    3216   4020       4824   5628   6432    7236
    40       1257       2513       3770    5027   6283       5740   8796   10053   11310




                                          END OF QUESTION PAPER



© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA                                                      CONFIDENTIAL
    CONFIDENTIAL                                              APPENDIX 1                            AP7APR2SHB«Q9D133/OS»



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