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A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 1 BOOM AND BUST - THE UNITED STATES (1920-1941) Dorothe Lange, Migrant Mother (1936) A LEVEL HISTORY PAPER 5 M.NICHOLS SCIE 2010 A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 2 The Nature of the USA in the early 20th Century The early years of the 20th century (1900-1920) were known as the progressive decades. The US was indulging in some navel-gazing and discovering things about itself it didn‟t like. The nature of progressivism, however, is hard to pin down. De Witt regarded it as a concern with the regulation of big business, and involving definite social and political reforms; Chambers defined it more as a new interventionism, involving instead a belief in principled capitalism and a faith in democracy. After 1920 though, a conservative backlash set in and the US became a more isolationist and hedonistic nation – with a dangerous laissez faire attitude. Use pages 86-96 in „An introduction to American History‟ to fill in the gaps Progressivism Conservatism Main Republicans like McKinley, ___________& Republicans like Harding, ________ and Proponents Taft, and Democrats like ________; middle Hoover; businessmen and large class professionals like doctors, lawyers corporations; isolationists, and after the and academics, but also ordinary people; horrors of _____ , many ordinary people; Aims To regulate big business _________; the Post-WWI, Americans craved order and prevention of ________ and cartels; to stability; the ______Revolution, the 1919 oppose political _________; to promote the Boston _______ strike, the wave of extension of democracy, including female strikes and race riots, along with _________, direct elections and the use of anarchist bombs, all had created a referenda; an establishment of welfare climate of fear and mistrust; people were organisations and direct _______ schemes interested in their everyday problems and to pay for it; a religious aspect was also not vague concepts like the League of apparent in the _____ ______ movement; _________ or internationalism; Methods Muckraking journals like „______Magazine‟ Many ____-wingers were rounded up and exposed corruption; „clean‟ candidates held without trail; foreigners were opposed „dirty‟ ones; Unions like the deported, and like _______ and Vanzetti moderate, anti-socialist ____ were formed; framed for murders they may not have legislation through Congress was also committed; laissez faire politics and enacted and new parties created; economics became fashionable again; Successes Influenced the idealistic ethos of Wilson The Republicans dominated the and his aims for the post-______ world: presidency from 1921-33; an unparalleled Roosevelt‟s Bureau of _________ in 1903 period of ________ saw the US economy investigated several industries, successfully boom: chemicals, electricity, radio and dissolving a monopoly trust in 1904; he cars: by 1929 there were 27 million ____ supported striking ______ in 1902 and was in the USA, one for every five Americans; something of a conservationist; the 1906 it employed 447 000 workers and ___________ Act protected the public from stimulated other industries; construction exorbitant rail fares; meat inspection and boomed, the US became the nation of food labelling laws in the same year helped sky_________; workers saw their wages to protect the interests and health of the rise, their hours decrease and facilities consumer; Taft carried on with anti-Trust improved; union membership fell from 5m legislation; Wilson introduced the first in 1920 to ___ m by 1929; textile workers, permanent _______ tax, a central banking miners and farmers, however, did not system, and anti-trust legislation; low-cost prosper; the proposed help for ________ loans to farmers, attempts to curb child- was vetoed by ________ who disliked labour, sick pay, ___ hour days and _____ bureaucratic and interventionist federal suffrage were all supported by Wilson; agencies and „big government‟; Failures By 1910, under __% of the workforce were The anti-trust laws were no longer unionised, and the whole nature of enforced, and business, and even ________ was never exposed or criticised; government, became corrupt again, with so, was it just well-meaning tinkering? the „_______ gang‟ under Harding, e.g. A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 3 Prohibition Perhaps the most infamous, and short-sighted, governmental act in US history was the imposition of an effective ban on alcoholic consumption from 1919 by the 18th Amendment or the Volstead Act. Why was prohibition introduced? The US was a religious nation, and even as late 1900, still an essentially rural and conservative society; many saw booze as the Devil‟s instrument of corruption; long before 1919, many states were already dry; while many believed America could legislate its way to morality, so besides attacks on drink, there had also been attempts to curb petting, restrict contraceptives and introduce censorship; The influence of temperance societies like the Anti-Saloon League had been apparent since the later 19th century; they equated drink with moral decay and domestic problems, and ran very effective propaganda campaigns against the „demon drink‟; Many women especially were pro-prohibition; drinks companies in fact had even campaigned against female suffrage afraid that women would be anti-drink, which often did prove the case; WWI had alienated many, as the beer companies tended to be German owned; drinking beer became unpatriotic, while grain was seen as being needed for food, rather than brewing; Bigotry and prejudice also played a role, as immigrant and ethnic communities like the Catholic Irish were regarded as the biggest consumers of alcohol; Law enforcement organisations also welcomed prohibition believing it would reduce crime; Employers supported prohibition, because they believed it would reduce absenteeism and improve efficiency; Small towns were reasserting their moral values over the decadent ones represented by the cities and metropolises; the US was becoming urbanised, but not without a struggle from the rural communities; The Successes of Prohibition In some rural areas, prohibition did reduce crime and domestic violence, and could be enforced in many small towns; Presidents like Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover did set an example and abstained from all alcoholic drinks; However, on the whole, prohibition was both a failure and a disaster for the nation. Where do you think you‟re going? A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 4 The Failures and Disasters of Prohibition In large cities prohibition was virtually impossible to enforce; there were too few agents and they were so badly paid they were easy to bribe; The US was a huge nation with long land and sea borders; not every crossing point could be controlled; Gangsterism flourished as bootleggers smuggled in booze from the Caribbean, Canada and Mexico; bootlegging gangs fought bloody wars with each other over territory and hi-jackings; innocent by-standers were often killed in the indiscriminate spraying of Thompson sub- machine gun fire; murder rates soared and cities like Chicago and New York became organised crime ghettoes; infamous figures like Bugs Moran, Dion O‟ Bannion and Al Capone fought each other and the law; Capone was worth $60m a year in 1927; he murdered opponents by the score: the St. Valentine‟s Day Massacre of 1929 saw seven of his rival Moran‟s associates gunned down, for example; O‟ Bannion was shot dead in his own flower shop; Perhaps most disastrously, ordinary, decent normally law-abiding citizens were turned into criminals; any person who wanted a drink had to visit an illegal bar or speakeasy; 32 000 speakeasies existed in New York alone, ironically twice as many bars as there had been before Prohibition! In these unregulated fire-traps, many also had their first encounters with drugs, prostitution and gaming; The whole of society was corrupted as judges, policemen, journalists and politicians were in cahoots with the gangsters; Government revenue was affected as excise duties and taxes on alcohol was no longer a guaranteed form of income, and in fact the government had to spend money trying to enforce the unenforceable; Illegal (and un-taxable) alcoholic production increased; people made their own moonshine from stills and even brewed beer in their own bath tubs; often what was produced was positively dangerous and many people died or went blind from their home-made alcohol; Prohibition was all part of the process of the increasing conservatism and narrow-mindedness of US society. Even after Roosevelt abolished the disastrous experiment of Prohibition in December 1933, seven states would vote to retain it! ”Roll out the barrel…” A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 5 1920S AMERICA – A TOLERANT SOCIETY? Use your text book to briefly describe the following examples of intolerance. Event Date Description Immigration Restrictions The ‘Red Scare’ (incl. Palmer Raids) The ‘Monkey Trail’ The K K K A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 6 The Jazz Age – All that Wonderful and Daring? Match up the person with what they are saying to gain a more objective assessment of the 1920s, than the myth that is often portrayed. A Woman Politician Movie Star A Flapper Baseball Player Jazz Musician A novelist 1.“I love these dance marathons! We all do the Charleston and Black 2.“The fans love me! Mind Bottom and have a wail of a time. you when I was caught My boyfriend is going to pick me taking bribes in the 1919 up in his new Ford tonight and we World Series to throw a are going to a flag post sitting game, they weren‟t so comp., but we shan‟t drink!” friendly. But the dupes have forgiven me!” 3. “You now see women with make-up, bobbed hair, even smoking in public. We wear less restrictive clothing and can even vote. However, we still earn less than men, when we have jobs; we are still less well educated and have fewer opportunities. At least families are becoming smaller and the new domestic appliances are removing some of the drudgery of our lives” 4. “The white folks love our music and come to our clubs. However, I am still discriminated against and am still not allowed to use the same bathrooms as them or sit where I want on the bus. And the North is even worse than the South!” 6. “I write novels exposing 5. “I am paid a fortune! The the corruption, greed and silver screen has made me a selfish hedonism of this household name and my new age. My fellow photo is in all the papers and writers though seem to be magazines. I suppose I crying in the wilderness – cheer peoples‟ drab lives up. no one is taking any I‟m escapism for them. notice” Morons!” A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 7 The Boom Years – The Economy of the 1920s The 1920s saw an unprecedented rise in US prosperity, as Americans saw their standard of living become the highest in the world. The US had more cars and consumer goods than any other nation. Business made huge profits as production doubled and various industries did especially well. The 16% rise in the nation‟s population also necessitated more houses and so gave a spurt to the construction industry. Unemployment declined from 12% in 1921 to 3.2 % by 1929. Chemicals Electricity This industry did Electricity consumption particularly well more than doubled; especially in the electrical household items manufacture of synthetic like ovens, irons and textiles and plastics. fridges came into general use. Radio Automobiles In 1920, KDKA in Pittsburgh The car industry stimulated the growth of many began the first regular others: rubber, glass and petroleum industries, as broadcasts; radio often well as road–side diners, motels and drive-in featured advertising and by cinemas. In 1914, Henry Ford was pricing a new 1927 there were 732 radio Model T at the affordable figure of $360. By 1925, stations; by 1930, nearly half Ford was producing a car every 10 seconds using of all American families his revolutionary assembly line methods of possessed a radio. production at his purpose-built River Rouge plant; the ownership of cars leapt from 9 million in 1920 to 27m by 1929; in 1929 the USA produced 5m vehicles: 10 times the total produced by Germany, France and GB combined! A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 8 However, not everything or everyone did well in the roaring twenties, despite the optimism of right-wing historians like Paul Johnson. The older, heavy industries like coal-mining and textile production (often concentrated in the South) did not prosper as well, the latter hit hard by foreign competition and even changes in fashion, as skirts and dresses became less modest. Farming also continued to suffer after the boom of the War years when America had been feeding the world. Some farmers supplying the growing towns with fruit and vegetables, and dairy products did well, but most, especially in the South and Midwest, continued to suffer. They were not helped by deteriorating environmental conditions, which literally saw their land turn to dust and blow away. These „dustbowl‟ conditions would only contribute though to the even greater economic catastrophe that was brewing. The US remained an intolerant and bigoted society; In the early to mid 1920s the KKK had reached 5 million; African-Americans could not drink from the same fountains as whites nor use the same bathrooms or lunch-counters. Communists, socialists and trades unionists were hounded by the FBI, which was led by J. Edgar Hoover, a cross-dressing homosexual bigot, who kept files on everyone he deemed a threat to the American way of life. At the same time he dismissed ideas of the Mafia and organised crime as unrealistic! Women, African and Native Americans all remained second class citizens in the minds of men like Hoover. Corruption was endemic and reached the highest levels. The head of the Veterans‟ Bureau under the hedonistic Harding had misappropriated or wasted $250m. Pardons to law-breakers were sold by government ministers like Jesse Smith, and Secretary of the Interior, Albert Fall, was involved in the „Teapot Dome scandal‟ and became the first US cabinet minister to ever be jailed. The „Florida Land Boom‟ saw many cases of fraud and embezzlement, and ordinary people lost their life savings in bogus schemes. Fraudsters abounded in the US of the 1920s, playing on peoples‟ greed for get rich quick schemes. Charles Ponzi (a devotee of whom is Bernie Madoff!), Clarence Hatry and William Durant engaged in practices like insider dealing and the issuance of fraudulent stock. Perhaps peoples desire for wealth was understandable in a society where the top 27 000 families received as much money as the poorest 11 million! The US may have seemed to have been a prosperous, stable society, but the reality was that it was heading for an economic and social melt-down of unprecedented proportions. “Anyone seen my lipstick?” A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 9 Major Figures of the 1920s – Mix N’ Match Exercise Use your text book to find the correct description of these major figures of the 1920s FIGURE ACTIONS Margaret Sanger Defence attorney for John Scopes at the infamous „Monkey Trial‟; he cleverly revealed the absurdity of fundamentalist beliefs in the Bible, such as the world being created in 4004 BC, by his attacks on the prosecutor, William Jennings Bryan. Carrie Chapman Southern writer from Oxford, Mississippi who used his hometown as inspiration Catt for his earliest works and who later went on to become one of the greats of American literature. Sinclair Lewis A macho writer of „muscular prose‟ who wrote novels about his experiences in WWI, France, Spain and the Caribbean. Became one of the icons of American literature. F. Scott Fitzgerald Suffragette and political campaigner who advocated radical and direct action as a way of obtaining the vote. She also wanted equal pay and rights for women to be enshrined in the constitution – not achieved until the 1970s. Clarence Darrow A Jamaican-born black leader who advocated segregation of blacks from their white oppressors, a new „Negro nationalism‟ and ultimately a return to the African homeland. Alice Paul Poet and mentor of other writers, he was a modernist who lived in self imposed exile in Europe and would in the later 1940s be prosecuted for his pro- Mussolini views. Ezra Pound Feminist and socialist, campaigner for contraception for women to free them from the misery of huge families. Coined the term „birth control‟ and opened the first family planning clinic in 1916, in New York T. S. Eliot Wrote the novel „Main Street‟ in 1920, which depicted the banality of small town American life and helped set a trend for later novelists to follow Ernest A Southerner who wrote against the “Victorian morality and the Bourbon Hemingway aristocracy of the South”, but never completely severed his roots with the area. A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 10 Thomas Wolfe Princeton educated writer who wrote about the lives of the wealthy during the 1920s and coined the term „the Jazz Age‟. His most famous novel is „The Great Gatsby‟ a brilliant evocation of the materialistic life of a mob-connected bootlegger. William Faulkner Talented writer and poet, Harvard-educated, thoroughly modernist and rather pessimistic in his views. His „Waste Land‟ (1922) became a leitmotif for a disaffected generation Marcus Garvey Social worker from a Quaker background who created Hull House, in Chicago, and later other cities, to encourage community spirit and co-operation amongst the poor and immigrants. Jane Addams Suffragette campaigner and founder of the NWSA, whose organisation helped to get women the vote by 1920. She was typical of the new kind of woman growing up in post-WWI America A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 11 Major Figures of the 1920s – Mix N’ Match Exercise – The Answers Use your text book to find the correct description of these major figures of the 1920s FIGURE ACTIONS Margaret Sanger Carrie Chapman Catt Sinclair Lewis F. Scott Fitzgerald Clarence Darrow Alice Paul Ezra Pound T. S. Eliot Ernest Hemingway Tom Wolfe William Faulkner Marcus Garvey Jane Addams All correct? A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 12 The Reasons for the Great Depression The Great Depression was one of the most dramatic events in US history. A disaster in many ways, it also brought progress and great benefits for ordinary American people and changed the fundamental nature of the relationship with their federal government. The Great Depression was not caused by the Wall St. Crash. That itself was a symptom of the nation‟s underlying economic weaknesses, rather than a cause. Only 5% of Americans owned shares. The crash did take money from business, but the really serious crashes did not happen until 1931-32. The real reasons can be summarised as: Overproduction US industry was simply too efficient. It was over-producing commodities and ran out of customers. This was partly due to the fact that even many Americans could not afford to buy consumer durables, and also due to the US‟ own protectionist trade policies, which meant it could not export to survive. Equally, US agriculture was far too successful and its own over-production problems were driving down prices for already hard-pressed farmers. Innate poverty Income was not fairly distributed. The richest 5% owned a third of its income, while 71% of Americans lived below the poverty line ($2, 500 p.a.). The poor simply could not sustain the type of production the US was engaging in. Credit Systems Many Americans bought goods on hire purchase (HP) and even shares on credit („the margin‟). The boom was, therefore, fuelled by credit - rather by real money. When those debtors were required to pay by their creditors many could not do so and the creditors went bankrupt. The Banking System Many think the US banking system was both a weak link in the economy and disastrously corrupt. David Kennedy even claims that “American banks were rotten even in good times”. Unregulated, far too small and lacking in resources, they were vulnerable to panic. The Federal Reserve Bank did little to help banks in trouble, which helped to set off a banking panic when it refused to bail out the New York City Bank in 1930. By 1933, 5,500 banks had failed, with losses over a whopping $3 000 000 000. Many lost their life savings. Easy come…easy go A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 13 However, the Great Depression was not just an American product. Many global factors also came into the equation: Global Overproduction The world was producing far too much food, driving down prices. Chaotic Fiscal Situation in Europe The issuing of short-term loans to economies like Germany, by US financiers, was disastrous as when these loans were called in, the German economy slumped badly. Added to this, American banks held large stakes in German and Austrian banks, which collapsed in early 1931. Britain’s Abandonment of the Gold Standard Many claim GB‟s repudiation of the gold standard in September 1931, helped to ruin 500 US banks. Protectionism The US had since the Civil War had protectionist trade barriers. Woodrow Wilson had been the first president to reduce them. In the mid-1920s, the Fortney-McCumber tariffs however had reinforced the idea of selfish trade policies, as did the 1930 Smoot-Hawley tariffs. The USA, however, was not the only nation with protectionist tariff barriers and should not bear the burden of blame alone. A Protectionist Barrier? A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 14 Complete the flow diagrams on the causes of the Great Depression A. POVERTY & INDUSTRIAL OVERPRODUCTION 1. MOST AMERICANS CAN‟T AFFORD CONSUMER GOODS 2. INDUSTRY LAYS OFF WORKERS 3. UNEMPLOYMENT RISES 4. 70% OF AMERICANS ON POVERTY LINE IN 1920s; 5% OF POULATION OWN 1/3 OF COUNTRY‟S WEALTH! 5. ASSOCIATED INDUSTRIES LIKE COAL ALSO SUFFER 6. OVERPRODUCTTION OF GOODS – MARKET WAS SATURATED B. AGRICULTURAL PROBLEMS 1. MORE FOOD PRODUCED; MORE EFFICIENTLY 2. FARMERS CAN‟T PAY DEBTS SO TAKE OUT LOANS & MORTGAGES 3. MECHANISATION OF FARMING (INCL. TRACTORS & COMBINED HARVESTERS) OFTEN HAS DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT 4. FARMERS CAN‟T REPAY LOANS = BANKS POSSESS FARMS AND FARMERS THROWN OUT 5. PRICES OF FOOD DROPS (BASIC SUPPLY AND DEMAND FACTORS) 6. TOO MUCH FOOD PRODUCED = SURPLUSES OF MEAT AND VEGETABLES AND FRUIT C. TRADE PROBLEMS (LACK OF FREE TRADE) 1. US CANNOT EXPORT ITS SURPLUSES 2. FOREIGNERS RETALIATE WITH THEIR OWN HIGH TARIFFS AND TRADE BARRIERS 3. US IMPOSES HIGH TARIFFS & TRADE BARRIERS ON FOREIGN IMPORTS IN MID-20S 4. US PRODUCTS CANNOT BE SOLD OVERSEAS –TOO EXPENSIVE! D. STOCK EXCHANGE COLLAPSE 1. INDUSTRIES BECOME MORE DEPRESSED AS LOSE INVESTORS MONEY 2. INDUSTRY GOES INTO DECLINE DUE TO OVERPRODUCTION, TRADE BARRIERS, ETC. 3. MASSIVE BUYING OF SHARES WITH BORROWED MONEY („ON THE MARGIN‟) 4. PANIC SELLING RESULTS IN WALL ST. CRASH & BANKS CANNOT RECOVER LOANS 5. AS CONFIDENCE IN INDUSTRY DECLINES, SHARES LESS POPULAR & LOSE THEIR VALUE A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 15 The Effects of the Great Depression on the USA Using your acquired knowledge of US geography put (a summary of) the following statements into the correct box: 1. The major cities of the US experienced high levels of unemployment. Chicago and New York were especially badly hit and saw breadlines and soup kitchens set up; 2. Much of the MidWest, already hit by environmental disasters like the dustbowl effect, were hit hard again by the decline in farm prices and the ruination of many farmers who were then forced to go to California in search of work picking fruit. Such scenes were immortalised in John Steinbeck‟s „Grapes of Wrath‟; 3. The Deep South experienced hardship as both its agricultural and textile industries collapsed; cotton was left to rot in the fields and many farmers left the land; 4. The nation‟s capital became the centre of the Bonus Marchers riot. 22,000 WWI veterans desperate for their money marched on Washington D.C. in 1932 and in the ensuing riot two were shot dead by an over-zealous, General Douglas MacArthur; 5. Armed, Western farmers blocked roads in a desperate attempt to reduce the amount of food reaching the cities and so try and increase its price; 6. Some states saw an increase in crime and the activities of notorious bank-robbers like Bonnie and Clyde who, because they stole from the banks, became (underserved) folk heroes; A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 16 The Great Depression – Some Statistics US trade fell from $10bn in 1929 to $3bn, by 1932; Industrial output was ½ of what in was in 1929, by mid-1932; Unemployment rose from 1.5m in 1929 (3% of the workforce) to 7m by December 1930 (nearly 15%) to well over 12 million two years later (25%); eventually it would reach over 15 million (30%); some historians even believe it reached 50%! Weekly earnings fell by 1/3 on average for those lucky enough to have a job; Farmers suffered especially badly: wheat fetched $1.05 in 1929 and only 39 cents by 1932; cotton fell from 17 cents a pound in 1929 to 6 cents a pound by 1932; farmers‟ incomes plummeted from $6bn in 1929 to $2bn in 1932; Counterfactual History – The What Ifs? YES NO POSS. PROB. REASON If no Wall St. Crash - no Depression? If more Americans above poverty line – no Depression? If US had not been so protectionist -no Depression? If US had more interventionist presidents? If Democrats not Republicans been in charge? Would we have lost so much, if…? A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 17 What did Herbert Hoover Do? ”if a man has not made a million by the time he‟s 40 he is not worth much” Hoover began as one of the most popular presidents in US history. He ended as one of the most reviled. He has often been accused of having done too little, too late. In his defence, he did do something. US presidents had never been expected to interfere in the actions of states‟ governments nor had the USA any real history of welfare provision or bureaucratic structures that could allow it to cope with an unprecedented disaster like the Great Depression. Hoover was a self-made man. Widely travelled, and a skilled and successful mining engineer, he had become a millionaire by his early 40s. He had successfully run various government departments during WWI. He was the natural Republican successor to Coolidge and easily won the 1928 elections. He had promised to rid the US of its poverty and ensure that every American citizen would have “a chicken in the pot and a car in every garage”. However, his actions during the Depression years suggested that he consistently underestimated the disastrous consequences of the Great Depression and was seriously out of touch with the sufferings of ordinary people. Instead, he tended to play up the political dangers of communism and socialism, and stressed the values of “rugged individualism”. He believed in placing the onus on voluntary organisations, on the states, on employers and the banks - anyone but the Federal government. By the elections of 1932 he was widely seen as uncaring and lacking in solutions. He was heavily defeated by the far more charismatic, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR). Hoover‟s „lame duck‟ months saw a further nose-dive in the economy and a later change to the constitution (the 20th Amendment) to reduce the often disastrous interregnum between presidencies from 5 months to 2 ½. Was the USA ever in any danger of revolution? YES! NO! A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 18 Hoover reduced government spending in 1931 and then raised ________ the following year, which only made matters worse The Federal Reserve Hoover claimed in Board refused to 1931 that the increase the amount of Depression‟s causes HOOVER’S NEGATIVES money in circulation, lay _________ the US which really only - and so the US could benefited those do little about them! with________, which retained its value Hoover was seen as distant and cold; so the shanty He signed the Hawley-Smoot Tariff towns of the homeless Act which further raised tariffs and became „___________‟, old was disastrous for __________ trade newspapers „Hoover blankets‟, margarine, „Hoover Butter‟, etc. Hoover was not a bad man; he cared, was incorruptible, honest (he obeyed ________________) and not prejudiced; he worked tirelessly to alleviate the suffering of his people – albeit in ineffective ways He cut taxes and HOOVER’S In 1930, he secured a favoured lower POSITIVES pledge from employers ________rates to try and to maintain wage rates increase consumer- and avoid lay-offs; he spending and so urged __________ to ____________ the increase their spending economy and increased federal spending on Through his Federal Farm Board he tried to bolster prices for infrastructure projects grain, cotton and other farm goods; in 1932 he set up the like bridges and roads, Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) to lend money to and most famously the industry and commerce; the Glass-Steagall Banking Act Hoover _______ expanded credit facilities; the Home Loan Bank Act which gave loans to building societies; the Relief and Construction which empowered the RFC to lend state governments $1.5bn for public Hoover‟s measured paved the way for the spending and works; Hoover massively increased government d the federal _____was the highest it had ever been in US history; Hoover‟s measures paved the way for the______ ______, claim Farmer and Sanders Deficit-Hoovervilles-Outside-Stimulate-New Deal-Taxes-Money-Global-Prohibition- Dam-States-Interest A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 19 FDR and the New Deal “The cripple in the Whitehouse” Roosevelt came from a highly privileged and wealthy background. Educated at Groton and Harvard he had been a very young navy minister, but had experienced a severe attack of polio in the early 1920s. This nearly killed him and left him bed-ridden for years. Crippled, his experiences perhaps made him the compassionate and determined figure he was to become. A complex and contradictory character, he could be conservative, yet radical, moralistic, yet pragmatic, charming, yet remote. He liked to present an enigmatic persona, yet at the same time appear all things to all men. Ted Morgan has described him as “part lion, part fox”. He was Democrat governor of New York from 1928 and did more than any other to try and deal with the Depression. This helped to get him elected in 1932, along with his promise to repeal prohibition and his effective electioneering, which included using the song “Happy Days are Here Again”. He would become the only US president to be elected four times to office. His aims in office were: To get the US out of Depression and on the road to recovery; To effect major social reforms to benefit the „have nots‟; To be more interventionist than Hoover‟s government; He wanted to save, and not destroy capitalism, and he had no intention of introducing socialism; FDR was helped by a number of like-minded individuals many of whom were much more radical than himself, and he even included both women and blacks in his government, a rarity for the time. His advisors thus included: The „Brain Trust‟ of academics, lawyers and journalists like Samuel Rosenmann, Rexford Tugwell and Raymond Moley; The cabinet included radicals like Frances Perkins and Harold Ickes; Congress was dominated and controlled in both houses by Democrats; FDR was open-minded, prepared to innovate and he was good with the press and media, who warmed to his wit and good humour. He established his „fire- side chats‟ on radio and was a masterful politician. However he could also be arrogant, vacillating, and he was a poor administrator. His wife, Eleanor, was both a great personal and political asset. A compassionate, loyal and fair-minded woman she stood by FDR even through his illnesses, marital infidelities and political slumps. She was, at times, more loved than the president – and just as reviled by the rich who saw the privileged Roosevelts as „traitors to their class‟. A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 20 The Hundred Days – The Good, the Bad and the Ugly Once in power, in March 1933, FDR set about taking action. He was concerned to improve confidence and famously declared “we have nothing to fear, but fear itself”, a speech which William Leuchtenberg has called the “greatest single contribution to the politics of the 1930s...”. His famous „alphabet agencies‟ would start to do more in three months than Hoover had done in four years, and save capitalism. FDR aimed to curb the power of the destabilising stock market and by devaluing the dollar by 40% he made US goods more competitive abroad. However, much of what was done was, in Farmer and Sanders‟ words, full of “contradiction, duplication and overlap”, and Michael Parrish says “arose from no master plan”, but was instead expedient and erratic. Even so much of it worked well, though there were also serious limitations and flaws. Anti-GOP Poster A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 21 The Good – Sort Out the Mix Up! Action Positive Impacts The Beer Act 1. A 40 000 sq. miles of territory covering 7 states was provided with dams both to protect its farmland and to provide cheap power. This was perhaps the greatest large scale project of the new regime. It dramatically improved the quality of life of people in the area. The Banking Crisis 2. FDR accepted unemployment relief was a federal responsibility. Harry Hopkins wanted to give people paid jobs to preserve their self-respect rather than just hand dole money. FDR agreed. It indulged in road repairs, improvements to schools and parks and playgrounds. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) 3. 300 000 young men by the summer of 1933 had enlisted to help in the countryside fighting fires, constructing bridges, roads, etc. National Industrial Recovery Act 4. Under Harold Ickes‟ close scrutiny, public works projects (NIRA) helped to provide work and new hospitals, roads, bridges and airports. It completed 34 000 projects including: the Golden Gate Bridge, Grand Coulee Dam and La Guardia Airport, New York. Public Works Administration 5. FDR‟s Emergency Banking Relief Bill was a Hoover (PWA) idea that effectively placed banks in a position to prove they were solvent enough to re-open, and placed them under federal control. In his first „Fireside Chat‟, FDR persuaded Americans that their savings would now be safe in bank vaults – and they believed him. Federal Emergency Relief Act 6. Farmers still made up 30% of the US population and (FERA) they were helped by being encouraged and paid for reducing production by destroying crops and slaughtering livestock (8.5m pigs were butchered, for example). Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) 7. FDR had promised to repeal prohibition and did it quickly once he was in power. This helped to curb crime and brought in much needed tax revenues. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 8. Aimed at regulating prices and wages; codes of practice were encouraged such as outlawing the use of child labour and the right to form trades unions; participating firms were allowed to display the Blue Eagle of the NRA. A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 22 Action Positive Impacts The Beer Act The Banking Crisis Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) Public Works Administration (PWA) Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA) Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 23 The Bad and the Ugly Action Negative Impacts The Beer Act 1. Many of the jobs created were pointless and demeaning, and known contemptuously as „boondoggles‟. The Banking Crisis 2. Even the flagship of FDR‟s alphabet agencies was not without its limitations. Cheap electricity did not attract industry to the area in the way it was hoped it would. Agricultural Adjustment Act 3. Led by the energetic, but tactless and hard-drinking (AAA) Hugh Johnson, the NRA was used by big business to put pressure on its smaller rivals who relied much more on sweated labour. Trade unionists continued to be persecuted and Henry Ford refused to allow unions or the „Roosevelt buzzard‟ on his premises. National Industrial Recovery Act 4. The more prosperous farmers tended to gain from this. (NIRA) Poor sharecroppers, especially blacks, benefited very little. Many people were also appalled by the destruction of so much food when people in the cities were starving. Farm prices went up, but only partly due to the AAA. The decline in the value of the dollar, and environmental and meteorological factors pushed up the price of the resulting, scarcer food. The reduction in production also resulted in more unemployment for farm labourers and tenant farmers. Other organisations like the Commodity Credit Corporation, which encouraged farmers to store crops until the price rose, and supported them with loans until they did, were far more effective than the AAA. Public Works Administration 5. This organisation was restricted to young men (18-25) (PWA) and supplied them only with a small amount of pocket money, rather than a living wage. Women and ethnic minorities were once again the least likely to benefit. Federal Emergency Relief Act 6. Harold Ickes was too rigorous in judging where money (FERA) should be spent and this resulted in money being invested too slowly to give immediate relief. Civilian Conservation Corps 7. Critics pointed out that if FDR had co-operated with (CCC) Hoover during the latter „lame duck‟ period 1100 bank closures might have been avoided as well. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 8. The abolition of Prohibition also abolished some of the achievements of the act such as the reduction of domestic violence in rural areas. A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 24 The Bad and the Ugly Action Negative Impacts The Beer Act The Banking Crisis Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) Public Works Administration (PWA) Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA) Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) The Overall Conclusion On the whole though the first Hundred Days were a success. As David Kennedy says: “Taken together the accomplishments of the Hundred Days constituted a masterpiece of presidential leadership unexampled then and unmatched since (unless in the second Hundred Days)”. The achievements can be summarised as: A halting of the banking panic; The largest public works programme in US history; New institutions to resurrect industry and agriculture; Conservation and environmental protection measures; Relief for the unemployed; An increase in average earnings and business profits; Farm-mortgage debts and business failures started to decline; A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 25 Critics of the New Deal FDR‟s measures were not, however, entirely welcomed. His critics covered the whole range of the political spectrum, and given the massive amount of expenditure and the still huge numbers of unemployed, his detractors had ample scope for complaint. The Right Conservatives “Initially we liked him –he was saving _______! Now I hate FDR and his New Deal! Government should not interfere in peoples‟ everyday lives. The costs and the budget deficits are horrendous. I will be joining the American __________ League of Al _______ and John _____, and protesting against Roosevelt‟s regimentalising and Sovietising policies. He‟s turning our great nation into a socialist dictatorship – and raising our _________ ”. The Supreme Court “The government is becoming too ______. What it is doing is unconstitutional. We have destroyed the ____ and the NRA and will do more. Federal government is taking too many powers away from the states. The Democrats and their dangerously radical president need to be stopped. I hope Alf __________ wins the „36 elections”. The Business Community “What is the cost of all these New Deal measures? The ____ codes are restricting my ability to make profits and the unions, backed by the government, are demanding higher ______ and better working conditions. My newspaper has it right: Roosevelt is turning into a populist demagogue”. A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 26 The Left Radical Politicians “Roosevelt has been in power a year and there are still over 11m unemployed! He needs to do more! Governor ________ of Minnesota has rightly called for state ownership of mines, transport and public utilities. Huey _____ in Louisiana („the Kingfish‟) has the right idea. He is improving roads, education and making taxes more equitable. He wants to tax the wealthy to guarantee a minimum wage in his Share-Our-Wealth scheme. I will be voting for him in the 1936 elections and so probably will the 8m who share his views”. The Old “A Dr. Francis _______________ demanded that pensioners be paid $______ a month. I agree with his ideas, though some say they make no economic sense. 5m old people have already flocked to join ___________ Clubs. Let‟s hope FDR listens to us” The Church “Father Charles ____________ and his National Union for Social Justice are demanding the nationalisation of banks and so forth. In his popular weekly _____ programme he reaches out to 30m people. However, people are saying he is an anti-Semite and sounding more and more like the Italian dictator __________ every day, than like a true Man of God” A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 27 Sourcework on Opposition to FDR 1. What is the cartoonist trying to say about FDR? 2. Who might have produced this cartoon? Explain their possible motive. 3. Can we trust this cartoon for evidence about opposition to FDR‟s policies? A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 28 The Second New Deal The 2nd Hundred Days came about in 1935, and were even more dynamic than the 1st, according to some historians. Michael Parrish has commented that “The Hundred Days may have saved capitalism, but 88 days in 1935 literally changed the face of America for the next half century”. FDR was under pressure from the Left and felt compelled to introduce some of the ideas of long and Townsend into his agenda. The Republican- appointed Supreme Court had been attacking and striking down some of his previous measures and FDR wanted to replace them. What did he do this time? The Works Progress Administration The Social Security Act (WPA) The WPA aimed to provide work relief and eventually This act created a compulsory national system employed 8.5m people and spent $11bn. Under Harry of old-age pensions and a joint federal-state Hopkins‟ dynamic leadership it was responsible for system of unemployment insurance. However, 250 000 projects including roads, schools and hospitals. It it was system based solely on contributions also had an enormous cultural impact on the nation and so people had to wait to get access to providing work for artists, students, writers, dancers and pensions. Benefits were low and proportionate even puppeteers. However, it was criticised by the Left for to previous income rather than being based on doing too little (it couldn‟t help 2/3 of the unemployed; it minimum subsistence needs. Millions were paid low wages and didn‟t help those unable to work); on exempted including farm labourers and the Right it was predictably criticised for wasting resources domestic servants. State to state benefits also and for its boondoggles. Legitimate grievances included its varied creating a system of bewildering wastefulness and political favouritism. complexity and inequality. But it did do something and would be the foundation for all future welfare systems. The Wealth Tax THE SECOND NEW DEAL The National Labour Relations Act FDR wanted high taxes imposed on inherited wealth, corporate profits and rich people. The wealthy hated it and termed it a „soak the successful‟ tax. The brainchild of the more radical Senator Wagner than FDR‟s motives were primarily pragmatic: FDR himself (as he always distrusted unions) allowed to gain the votes of left-wingers who workers to form and join trade unions, and was meant to liked Long and Townsend‟s policies. replace the NRA, which had been destroyed by the Supreme Court. It tried to stop companies drawing up blacklists, and helped increase union power and membership. The pragmatic Wagner hoped that the higher wages gained would be translated into benefits for the economy, generally. A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 29 FDR’s Second Term – More Trouble Roosevelt won a second term, because his Republican enemies were divided; a third party rival never materialised once Huey Long had been shot dead (FDR was always rather lucky); many people liked what FDR was trying to do and had benefited from his reforms; Catholics and Jews, large immigrant communities, tended to be solidly Democrat, while the trades unions were pro-Roosevelt as well. FDR Supporters Republican Supporters Middle-class liberals The Wealthy Catholics Businessmen Jews Newspaper tycoons African-Americans The Supreme Court Small Mid-West farmers Conservatives Urban poor Racist groups like the KKK Poor Southerners Libertarians Roosevelt fought a bitter, class-based campaign and was re-elected in 1936 by 60.8% of the popular vote; he carried every state except two and lost only 8 electoral votes. He promised much at his inaugural speech. However. Farmer and Sanders have said his second term was an “anticlimax”. He faced more opposition and his own standing within Congress and his Democratic Party declined. Roosevelt took a confrontational approach to the nine old men of the Supreme Court (average age 71) and their laissez faire and arch-conservative views. FDR aimed to pack the court with six new appointees more favourable to his policies, so increasing the number of justices to 15. His actions were an unpopular disaster: He was accused of seeking to increase his executive powers by over- riding the independence of the judiciary; many even took to calling him a dictator; Democrat leaders were angry that he made no effort to consult them on the matter; He was accused of misleading electors as he had not mentioned his plans in the 1936 elections; Even those sympathetic to FDR disliked his devious approach to the Court; His proposals divided the Democrat party along North-South lines; FDR should have bided his time and let the „old men‟ simply drop dead. In the end the Supreme Court capitulated and upheld key measures such as the Social Security Act and the National Labour Relations Act. FDR had to back down about his packing idea, but he had got his way in the end. However, he had seriously damaged his standing in his party, especially amongst more conservative Southerners and after 1937 he found it hard to win support in an increasingly suspicious and nervous Congress. Conservative Democrats despised the type of liberal and free-thinking people who surrounded FDR; they disliked his supposed pro-Northern sensibilities, his seemingly dictatorial tendencies and his relatively liberal, racial policies. Others were states rightists (plus ca change…!); while some revered a balanced budget and so distrusted his fiscal policy. A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 30 Even the labour unions had started to turn against their mentor. Union membership had jumped from 2m in 1933 to almost 9m by 1938. However, the working classes can always be guaranteed to turn on each other and the main union, the elitist AFL disliked the prospect of unskilled labourers also being organised. So in 1935, the CIO was started to give protection to all workers. In 1936-37, a wave of strikes by unions determined that companies like US Steel and GM would recognise them. Such strikes would previously have been ruthlessly crushed by the government. This time it was employers and local police who did the dirty work. In Chicago, on 30th May 1937, the Memorial Day Massacre took place, in which police killed ten and injured 75 strikers at a steel plant. Strikers responded by intimidating non-unionists, employers gangsters and organising novel, but effective tactics like „sit-downs‟. The activities of the racketeer and Communist influenced CIO did not go down well in „Middle America‟ and FDR received the blame. FDR, ever the political opportunist, did not support strikes, but was afraid of alienating his working class supporters, and so did not give much of a lead on the matter. FDR‟s actions in cutting government spending in 1937 sent the economy into a recessionary spin and by 1938 unemployment had risen again to 11.5m. FDR really only did something, asking Congress for money when mid-term elections threatened not to go his party‟s way. Farmer and Sanders like most historians ultimately do not give FDR much credit for ending the Great Depression. “ … the threat of War, not enlightened New Deal policies, forced government expenditure at levels previously unimagined”. “So! What do you think of me and my New Deal then...? A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 31 The Role of WWII And I need WWII… It was WWII that brought an end to the economic turmoil within the USA. Roosevelt had done his best to alleviate the suffering of the American people, but he had never completely solved the problem of unemployment, which as late as 1939 remained at 9.5m or over 17% of the workforce. By 1939, FDR had run out of steam. His third term would see no New Deal domestic policy proposals. His oratory about the Four Freedoms (from want, freedom of speech, religion and fear) was rarely matched by action, as John Morton Blum has observed. Helped by the war boom, FDR would win an unprecedented third term in 1940 by gaining 55% of the popular vote, and only losing 82 electoral college votes; he would win again in 1944 and so die in his fourth term of office. Worn down by his efforts since 1933 (and by his smoking), FDR, however, would die an exhausted man in April, 1945, not seeing the victory he had worked so hard for. WWII brought a number of economic benefits to the US. It: Reduced unemployment to 670 000 or 1.2% by 1944; The personal income of farmers more than doubled between 1940-45; Business profits rose from $6bn in 1939 to $10.5bn by 1945; The war led to co-operation between big business and government and a belated realisation that both could work together productively for the common good; Over 7.2m US servicemen would serve in the War; Between 1940 and 1945 the US produced for the War effort: 100 000 Tanks 300 000 aircraft 93 000 ships Was it the New Deal or WWII that solved the US’ problems? Role of the New Deal Role of WWII A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 32 Was the New Deal A Success or Failure? The Successes & Achievements The Failures & Limitations Rural Electrification Administration – X NRA – was unpopular with many employers when FDR established this agency, in May who resented the strict conditions and disliked 1935, fewer than 20% of farms had having to allow their workers the right to electricity; by 1945 this had risen to over collective bargaining. Many small companies 90%. Michael Heale has argued that could not possibly cope with its myriad of “Probably no other single measure of the regulations and excessive bureaucracy. It was New Deal was as responsible for struck down by the Supreme Court in 1935 as transforming life in the American South” unconstitutional (Schechter Bros.) Emergency Relief Appropriation Act – X AAA – was hated by many as it was authorised the largest sum in US history destroying food at the very time that many in ($4.8bn) and helped to prop up agencies like the cities had to join breadlines and soup the PWA and CCC kitchens simply in order to survive Public Utilities Holding Company Act – X CCC – helped only young men and did helped provide cheap power nothing for women or married, older men Resettlement Administration - provided X Wealth Tax – like many of FDR‟s measures some aid to displaced tenant farmers this one was diluted in Congress Home Owners’ Loan Corporation (HOLC) - X The Supreme Court – not only destroyed helped those in towns with mortgages to pay some of the New Deal, but FDR‟s attempts to and so they kept their homes pack it resulted in a loss of support Farm Security Administration – was X The Roosevelt Recession - in 1938, due to designed to help small farmers and migratory FDR‟s innate fiscal conservatism and his labourers consistent refusal to indulge in budget deficits, FDIC – designed to protect peoples‟ savings a new recession hit the US Wagner-Steagall Act – tried to deal with X Unemployment – was never solved by slums by knocking the worst ones down FDR, but by the coming of WWII Fair Labour Standards Act – established a X Strikes – Roosevelt was not a fan of strikes, minimum wage, a maximum working week but his political pragmatism meant he was (44 hours) and forbade some forms of child- afraid to criticise the unions in case he lost labour; the act was especially beneficial to worker support; he was always first and badly paid Southerners foremost the consummate politician TVA - environmental protection and an X Propaganda – FDR always over-estimated economic boost for a huge previously the dangers of revolution in 1933, in order to blighted area was one of FDR‟s best acts justify his actions CCC - provided both work for unemployed X The Minorities – FDR only provided limited young men and improved the nation‟s help and did not fundamentally change the environment position of blacks in the USA AAA - helped to stop the panic in agriculture X Post-First Term – After 1936 FDR did less by reducing overproduction and raising and less and the radicalism of the 1st and 2nd profits farmers gained Hundred Days was never repeated WPA - gave the jobless self-respect through X Federal Power – FDR expanded the work schemes and even benefited the US government‟s power at the expense of the culturally by aiding writers, dancers and states and he created administrative anarchy artists with his numerous alphabet agencies FERA - The first works-relief organisation X Luck – FDR was fortunate that Huey Long that left a lasting legacy of new schools, died in 1935 and that no third party emerged to parks and playgrounds deprive him of votes in 1936 NRA - did something to improve working X Previous Foundations – FDR did build on conditions and allow labour to organise itself some of the groundwork done by Hoover Social Security Act - at last Americans had X Rhetoric – FDR often promised much as in a safety-net & would no longer have to worry his 1944 „Economic Bill of Rights‟, but he as much about unemployment & old age frequently failed to deliver on his promises A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 33 How were different groups in US society affected by the New Deal? Native Americans Afro-Americans Women The Wealthy Small Farmers Southerners 1. “The New Deal agencies are not fair at 2. “In some ways the New Deal helped us all! They are designed to help men, not down here, but in other ways it did not. The us. We can still be paid less than men - TVA was a godsend and he helped our and the NRA codes allow this! Married poorest people. However, he still tended to women are regarded as the favour the Yankees over us - and he was far responsibility of their husbands and the too sympathetic to the Negroes. Many of my Social Security Act gives no protection to fellow Democrats feel FDR has too many servants nor housewives. We are still dictatorial characteristics and is leading the very much second class citizens!” country down the road to socialism, and as for that damn Negro-loving wife of his…” 3. “That Roosevelt fella gave us some help. They lent us money to keep afloat and tried 4. “In 1934, Roosevelt ended the forced to raise the prices we got by fixing quotas assimilation of my people into white and hoarding our products until they society. He encouraged us to establish reached a decent price. The administration our own self-governing bodies and was even willing to pour away milk and valued our ancestral traditions, rather slaughter livestock. However, I found the than denigrating them, as the white man latter policy offensive and I have to say the had always done previously. However, government‟s policies helped the wealthier we still remain the poorest and least landowners more than it ever did us!” advantaged group in modern America” 5. “Damn that man and his policies! He is a 6. “We won and we lost. The NRA excluded demagogue. A modern Caesar, that‟s all. He us from skilled jobs and paid us lower has put 30% of Negroes on welfare and wages! We were kept segregated when we created worthless jobs in his WPA or „We joined the CCC. FDR will not do anything to Piddle About‟, as we prefer to call it. His protect our civil rights, and as sharecroppers Wealth Tax, though not as high as we feared, we have received little help. However, to his has penalised the successful - in aid of losers! credit, he did give us welfare relief, and he His plans for the Supreme Court were a even gave some of us folks places in his disgrace and the unions are out of control. government. Mary MacLeod Bethune He‟s a friend of the Jews and papists, and headed the National Youth Administration. he‟s leading us into another major war in Fancy that! His wife, bless her, was also a Europe, mark my words. Bring back the decent sort. They say that in 1932, 75% of Republicans, I say – and damn the phoniness us voted Republican, but by 1936, 75% of of the „New Deal‟ ”. us were voting Democrat”. A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 34 Historiography on the New Deal Historians, like contemporaries, are sharply divided on FDR and his New Deal. Some admire it, others denigrate it. As with most things, those that take a balanced and via media approach seem to have the most valid things to say. Use the internet and sites like (but not solely!) http://newdeal.feri.org to find more views, evidence and historiography about FDR and his policies Critical Voices Farmer and Sanders argue that the New Deal “at best brought about only partial recovery” and that the poor remained poor and that GB and Germany handled the problem of unemployment much better than the USA; they even say that “arguably whatever economic success there was occurred despite New Deal policies not because of them”; Complimentary Voices Farmer and Sanders point out that FDR had brought “jobs, electricity and hope”, much needed controls on banks, etc. and that his New Deal laid the foundations for the American welfare system; they claim FDR restored national morale and while FDR‟s government did little to redistribute wealth, it did re-distribute power between capital and labour more in favour of the latter; A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 35 HISTORIOGRAPHY ON THE NEW DEAL & FDR Use your text books to find the answers. J. M Blum Kenneth C. Davis Hugh Brogan Ted Morgan Samuel Rosemann Alan farmer Michael Heale 1. Claims that FDR was a gifted politician who 2. The Roosevelt “could make half a loaf administration was staffed [of bread] sound like a with a wealth of ability and feast”. skills never matched before or since. 3. Emphasises how 4. Describes FDR as: modern America is a “evasive, cold, occasionally product of a change in brutal…boundlessly patient thinking begun by FDR. and generous”. 6. Criticises FDR by 5. Argues many of claiming there was, during FDR’s experiments WWII, little substance failed, but that he behind his oratory about was always prepared further reforms. to give new ideas a go. 7. Claims many of FDR’s aims were conservative: designed to save capitalism, not destroy it. A Level History M. Nichols SCIE 2010 36 Past Paper 5 Questions on the 1920s and the New Deal Evaluate the effectiveness of Progressivism on the United States politically, socially and economically from 1901 to 1916. [N. 2004] „The revolt of small town Americans against the cities‟. Discuss this assessment of the 1920s. [N. 2003] How far were the 1920s in the United Sates, a period of prosperity and optimism? [N. 2002] Account for the dramatic rise and fall of the revived KKK in the 1920s. [N. 2004] Why did the Wall Street Crash occur in 1929? [M. 2003] Why was opposition to the New Deal so fierce? [N. 2004] Will you get one?
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