EMAS for Municipalities Guide by EuropeanUnion

VIEWS: 252 PAGES: 48

									This Guideline reflects experiences gained in the project “Innovative approach in EMAS II implementation in
the local authorities of new member states (EMAS4NewStates)”, which took place in Latvian municipalities from
May 2005 till May 2007. The project LIFE03ENV/LV/63 sponsors are: the EU LIFE-Environment programme and
Ministry of the Environment of the Latvian Republic




                                The project website contains the latest versions of training
                                documents and examples of individual cities and towns:
                                 www.EMAS4NewStates.lv
                                The approach of the implementation process is based on
                                experiences from other European projects described in the
                                following guidebooks:



                                ECOLUP Guidance (Environmental Management for
                                Communal Urban Land Use Planning), Lake Constance
                                Foundation, Constance, 2004
                                EURO-EMAS Project output (LIFE98 ENV/UK/000605), October
                                200


                                B.A.U.M. (Bundesdeutscher Arbeitskreis für Umweltbewußtes Management)
                                Ludwig Karg, Wolfgang Ackermann
                                Osterstraße 58, 20259 Hamburg, DEUTSCHLAND
                                l.karg@baumgroup.de, www.baumgroup.de, www.baumev.de




                                LVPA (Latvian Association for Environmental Management)
                                Natalija Ladutjko
                                Tirgonu street 0-7, Riga, LATVIA, LV050
                                natalija@lvpa.lv, www.lvpa.lv




                                BKG (Biznesa Konsultantu Grupa, Ltd)
                                Alina Dudele
                                Tirgonu street 0-7, Riga, Latvia, LV050
                                bkg@bkgriga.lv, www.bkgriga.lv




                                                                                                           
Acknowledgements

The EMAS4NewStates project team gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the following people who took part and
supported EMAS implementation process in Latvian local authorities:

    Tatjana Resetnikova, Naujene rural municipal council
    Inese Bezane, Daugavpils city council
    Aivars Zeimuls Livberze rural municipal council
    Janis Ile, Berze rural municipal council
    Silvija Jansone, Gluda rural municipal council
    Vladimirs Ivanovs, Preilu region municipal council
    Vija Soldre, Varkava rural municipal council
    Anete Iraida, SIA Advice Consulting
    Jurijs Sergejevs, SIA Baltijas tehnika un vide
    Aija Zunina Zygon Baltic Consulting
    Valdemars Scerbaks SIA Biznesa Konsultantu Grupa
    Aleksejs Sergejevs, SIA Baltijas tehnika un vide
    Maija Anspoka, SIA Zygon Baltic Consulting
    Juris Malers, Latvian Environmental Investments Fund
    Janis Bernats, SIA Leilands un Putnis
    Indra Sveisberga, IK Darba vides konsultācijas
    Vitalijs Sveisbergs, IK Darba vides konsultācijas
    Solvita Lurina, Jelgava city council
    Gunta Lukstina, Latvian Association of Local and Regional Authorities
    Juris Cernavskis, SIA Bureau Veritas Latvia
    Andris Veveris, SIA Bureau Veritas Latvia
    Ilmars Sekacis, SIA VSKB Vide
    Ieva Zelmene, Latvian National Accreditation Bureau




The EMAS4NewStates project team gratefully acknowledges the hospitality and knowledge transfer contributions of the
following people who supported the project during the visit to German local authorities:

    Christian Wucherer, Project Manager Knowledge Management, Kliniken Oberallgäu gGmbH
    Jürgen Kügle, Environmental Manager, Kliniken Oberallgäu gGmbH
    Otto Steiger, Mayor of Blaichach
    Elmar Stegmann, Mayor of Leutkirch
    Hartmut Helber, School Principal, and pupils of Leutkirch School
    Michale Krummböck, Environmental Manager, Leutkirch
    Thomas Nöken, Leiter Stadtplanung & Baurecht, Überlingen
    Jürgen Weisser, Immenstaad
    Martin Wichmann, Amt für Stadtplanung und Umwelt, Konstanz
    Gerhard Worm, Environmental Manager, Island of Mainau
    Daniela Paas, Lake of Constance Foundation




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Contents


1 Environmental Management in Municipalities                                        4
  .      Environmental Challenges                                                 4
  .2      Municipalities and Environment Protection                                5
  .3      The Systematic Approach                                                  6
  .4      The Standardized Approach                                                7
  .5      Joint Implementation of Environmental Management                         9
2 The EMAS4NewStates Project                                                       10
  2.      Project Partners                                                        0
  2.2      Initial Partners Meeting                                                4
  2.3      Awareness Raising/Introduction Seminar                                  4
  2.4      Training in EMAS implementation for local authorities and consultants   5
  2.5      Visit to German local authorities                                       6
  2.6      Implementation Phase                                                    8
  2.7      EU Integration                                                          20
  2.8      Lessons Learned                                                         20
3 EMAS Implementation Step by Step                                                 22
  3.      Setting the Stage                                                       23
  3.2      Initial Environmental Review                                            26
  3.3      Environmental Policy                                                    29
  3.4      Environmental Programme                                                 3
  3.5      Environmental Management System                                         35
  3.6      Internal Audit                                                          38
  3.7      Management Review                                                       40
  3.8      Environmental Statement                                                 42
  3.9      External Validation                                                     44
Appendix in electronic format (CD):
EMAS Implementation Guide for the Step by Step Cluster Approach                    46




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1 Environmental Management in Municipalities

1.1     Environmental Challenges
Mankind is facing major challenges. Most of them are directly or indirectly related to what we call “the environment”.
Even many social problems have their roots in environmental problems. Many people claim that unless we solve the
environmental problems, we will not be able to overcome poverty in the world. Furthermore, we will not be able to stop
terrorism and ensure peace.
As a result of the World Summit 2005 in Johannesburg, 8 Millennium Development Goals set the target. They form a
blueprint agreed to by all countries and all the world’s leading development institutions. They are a set of simple but
powerful objectives that every man and woman in the street, from New York to Nairobi, from Munich to Riga can easily
support and understand.
Environmental sustainability means using natural resources wisely and protecting the complex ecosystems on which our
survival depends. Millennium Goal Nr. 7 “ Ensure environmental sustainability” describes the major tasks. Land is becoming
degraded at an alarming rate. Plant and animal species are being lost in record numbers. The climate is changing, bringing
with it threats of rising sea levels and worsening droughts and floods.
                                                                           In general, we are making bad use of our
                                                                           material resources. We burn fossil material
                                                                           instead of saving it to produce heavily needed
                                                                           plastic material. We incinerate waste instead
          Oil
                                                                           of recovering valuable ingredients. We put
                                                                           valuable goods into landfills instead of reusing
  Uranium                                                                  them as long as possible. Concepts like “Factor
                                                                           0” and the related environmental concept
                                                                           of dematerialization were developed at the
         Gas
                                                                           Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and
                                                                           Energy (Germany). Meanwhile, many countries
        Coal                                                               have “Factor 0 Institutes” to foster better use of
                                                                           resources. Municipalities and businesses can get
                                                                           support to improve their material flows.
         Sun
                                                                           Future energy supply cannot rely on old
                                                                  time     technologies. Oil, gas, coal and uranium will
                                                                           come to their end. Climate change is a reality and
                                                                           it’s up to us to limit it to an acceptable dimension.
                                                                           The less successful we are in fighting this threat,
                                                                           the more we will face worldwide struggles - not
                                                                           only for energy resources but also for land and
                                                                           water. Municipalities, the business community
                                                                           and civil society need to jointly take all chances
                                                                           to reduce energy consumption and implement
                                                                           new means of energy supply.
                                                                           Traffic is not only a major contributor to CO2
                                                                           emissions and to climate change. Emissions
                                                                           from combustion engines can directly affect our
                                                                           health. The recent particulate matter discussion
                                                                           in the EC and many of its countries has shown
                                                                           one of the facets only. Traffic emits a whole
                                                                           bunch of dangerous substances, puts stress on
                                                                           people and induces undue land use.
                                                                           Contamination of air and water directly affect
                                                                           our health. Thus they stay in our minds at least.
                                                                           Contamination of land pops up when we have
                                                                           to deal with abandoned polluted areas while
                                                                           trying to develop new housing areas. In these
                                                                           cases municipalities quickly realize the costs
                                                                           for repairing environmental damage. It’s up to
                                                                           responsible people nowadays not to impose
                                                                           such costs on our children’s generation. And it is
                                                                           up to us to limit land use in general. While land
                                                                           use for housing and traffic is still quite stable in
                                                                           Latvia , other European countries are on a less
                                                                           sustainable track. In Germany every day (!) 00
 see Latvian State of Environment Report, “Environmental Indicators in Latvia 2002”

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hectares of land are sacrificed to roads, parking places, industries and housing. All countries need to make major efforts
to limit land use in order to save land for agriculture (also for production of energy plants!) and to protect ground water
resources.
In Europe we might not yet realize one of the major worldwide threats: we may soon run out of fresh water. While the
proportion of the population using safe drinking water sources is meanwhile up to 80 %, . billion people still use water
from unimproved sources. An estimated 2.6 billion people lack toilets and other forms of improved sanitation. And there
is quite some indication that clean freshwater water resources are diminishing due to climate change and abuse. Nobody
can tell yet what that will mean. We will most probably be faced with worldwide struggles for water with resulting wars
and major migration. We all together are responsible for developing technologies and acting as role-models in using new
technologies for sanitation, waste water treatment and drinking water supply.




1.2     Municipalities and Environment Protection
Local Authorities have a major influence on the environment. Agenda 2, Chapter 28, states that “many of the problems and
solutions being addressed … have their roots in local activities” and it continues: “Local authorities construct, operate and
maintain economic, social and environmental infrastructure, oversee planning processes, establish local environmental
policies and regulations, and assist in implementing national and sub-national environmental policies. As the level of
governance closest to the people, they play a vital role in educating, mobilizing and responding to the public to promote
sustainable development.”
Besides this general assignment of responsibility for the environment, municipalities are facing real pressure. EU and
national laws require local action. The public calls for remediation of contaminated areas and for the establishment of
future prone infrastructure. Restricted budgets demand reductions in costs for energy usage, drinking water supply and
waste water management. And for tourist oriented regions municipalities need to ensure that guests will find nice, neat
places without pollution and with a high diversity of landscapes and species. After all, ever more settling companies and
funding organisations demand environmental soundness.
Municipalities have a wide range of activities and responsibilities when it comes to environment protection. Some impacts
are fully under the direct control of local authorities. For example, they have a town hall and a school. They may run
centralised heat supply systems, transport services, fire stations, a hospital, wastewater treatment and waste management
facilities. Local administrations are responsible for their own procurement. They are responsible for their office management
(use of water, energy, paper, etc.), their waste collection and disposal, their vehicle fleet and travelling and the maintenance
of their parks and greens (use of pesticides, selection of species, etc.)
These activities usually generate significant environmental impacts, in some cases even greater than the impacts of
industrial enterprises. With “green procurement” 2 and proper design and operation of their facilities, every municipality
can start to improve its environmental performance. Beyond their own facilities which the local authority can directly
control, it has a lot of opportunities to indirectly influence environmental protection in its region.
Municipalities set the framework for businesses and private facilities. Local authorities can lay ground and support
environmental development in their region by spatial, city and rural planning and controlling economic development
in their territories. Municipal planning concepts have an impact on the type of traffic in the region, on the operation of
enterprises and the means of energy supply and usage. The framework set by local authorities can influence the type and
effects of tourism. The local government can even indirectly change the way in which farmers produce their food and
possibly support them to establish regional supply systems for food and energy.
There are other means for local authorities to indirectly influence environmental behaviour. It is a prominent task of local
authorities to provide access to the latest legislation and technologies and thus to lead their private and corporate citizens
into the EU family. When local governments and administrations witness their willingness and can show how environmental
protection works in real life, they can stand up as role models and do public relations for better environmental performance.
Local administrations can introduce the latest clean technologies to their region and they can test management tools prior
to giving advice for others. The curriculum of schools provides for multiple opportunities to set the minds and teach pupils
how to preserve their living spaces.
Environmental protection is not just a requirement and burden for municipalities. It really pays back. Reducing environmental
impacts mostly goes along with saving costs. Surveys have revealed that cost reduction by more than 20 % can easily be
achieved by green procurement and better organisation of the use of resources. In energy usage, potential savings in
Germany are said to be in the region of 40 % for municipal facilities. Reconciling social and environmental objectives with
economic goals is a true step towards sustainable development. That is something that municipal employees will honour,
too. It is highly motivating to work for an organisation that preserves its own living space!
A high level of the state of environment is an important base to attract tourists and enterprises. Enterprises do not go for the
best traffic connections and cheapest labour costs only. Obviously tourists do not want to spend their vacations in polluted
areas and unattractive landscapes. So an acceptable environmental situation is the base for all tourism development. As
far as the business community, a German company advertises with “It´s good to work in a place where others want to go
for holidays.” Entrepreneurs love to cooperate with local authorities that define a long-term framework and provide stable
environmental requirements - even if they are high.
2 For green procurement see http://ec.europa.eu/environment/gpp and get the Latvian version of the EC guideline from there.

                                                                                                                              5
1.3    The Systematic Approach
While all municipalities in the world take responsibility for their environment,          environmental awareness
few do it in a truly systematic way. Without underestimating the “lower levels”,
there is a hierarchy of environmental approaches. Activities will have to build            environmental activities
on environmental awareness. While activities can be unrelated and even
counter productive, only a true management approach will lead to efficient
environmental policies. But still, well managed one-shot activities might not be        environmental management
enough. The ultimate goal should be to implement continuous improvement
processes in as many areas as possible.
                                                                                      continuous improvement process

Some examples will explain the differences of these approaches.
                           example: waste                                    example: energy
                                                                             We realize that the climate is changing and
                            We realize that disposal of printer cartridges
environmental awareness                                                      fossil resources vanishing. We adapt political
                            in the city hall is increasing every year.
                                                                             speeches.
                            We establish a collection bin for cartridges     We renew schools’ 30-year-old heating,
environmental activities
                            and send them back.                              using an up to date biomass system.

                            We check the reasons and instruct all
environmental                                                                We implement an energy management
                            departments to reduce the number of
management                                                                   system for all municipal facilities.
                            printed pages.
                                                                             We develop an overall concept with an
                                                                             action plan for future energy supply for
continuous improvement We set a target, check against this target on
                                                                             the entire town, set up implementation
process                a quarterly base and take corrective actions.
                                                                             structures and check progress using
                                                                             indicators.


Many describe a continuous improvement process using the acronym PDCA from the English words Plan-Do-Check-Act.




Such a continuous improvement process needs commitment, a working structure and controlling on a regular basis
If environmental protection is implemented in such a way, we call it an environmental management system. Such a
system
    •    describes the environmental conditions, risks, policies, plans, projects, practices and compliances with
         environmental regulations
    •    allocates tasks and responsibilities to departments, functions and people
    •    defines the period and means to control improvement and to report success (or failure)
    •    describes the process to react on failure and to redefine targets and programmes.




6
Obviously, there are many benefits to systematic environmental management:
    •    A systematic approach uncovers all risks and guarantees full compliance with environmental legislation.
    •    Well defined structures of procedures, programmes, documentation and continual assessment help to act
         efficiently.
    •    A complete assessment of activities and their impact on the environment gives a chance to allocate (the always
         limited) personnel and financial resources in a proper way.
    •    Public relation activities demonstrate commitment and enforce environmental action by stakeholders at the local
         level.
    •    Structured management systems allow for step-by-step improvement. It helps to avoid starting too many projects
         at the same time.
Local governments and authorities have a well defined organisational model. So the systematic approach of environmental
protection can often rely on a stable base. Implementing environmental management then means revisiting established
structures and work processes and checking their performance in terms of environmental protection. However, sometimes
small municipalities have reported unexpected success. They claim that implementing systematic environmental
management helped them to learn more about management in general and contributed to improving performance of
the administration as a whole.
Environmental management is not only a task for the local administration. It requires commitment and close cooperation
of elected local government persons, responsible officials in the administration, management and employees of service
companies, representatives of schools and other municipal entities. Since it can go beyond the direct realm of municipal
influence, it has to take into account structures of businesses and civil society, too. The broader a municipal environmental
management system is, the closer it gets to what we call Local Agenda 2 process or Local Action 2. Many cities have
defined their environmental management system as an integral part of their LA 2 process and implemented it in the
sense of a public-private partnership.




1.4 The Standardized Approach
Every municipality across Europe is different. There are different political processes, different responsibilities, differences
in the administrative system and different management styles. But, on the other hand, they have many similarities also.
They are responsible for the provision of a safe and clean living space for their citizens, they have to follow many strictly
formalized procedures and they tend to have limited resources to fulfil all demands made by enterprises and civil society.
Efficiency is something that politicians frequently request from municipal management. And efficiency often is the result
of standardization.

Schematic Overview of EMAS PDCA Process




                                                                                                                             7
In 993, the European Union published a description of the so called Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) for
systematic environmental management 3. In the beginning, EMAS was meant for enterprises only. Since 200 EMAS has
been open to all public and private services. EMAS is a management tool for companies and other organisations (like
municipalities) to evaluate, report and improve their environmental performance. Participation in EMAS is voluntary for
organisations operating in the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA).

The EMAS standard follows the principle of the above mentioned PDCA. To receive EMAS registration, an organisation must
comply with the following steps (which are pictured in the schematic overview):
    •    conduct an initial environmental review considering all environmental aspects of the organisation’s activities,
         products and services, methods to assess these, its legal and regulatory framework and existing environmental
         management practices and procedures.
    •    formulate the organisation’s environmental policy and have it approved by the “senior management”
    •    in the light of the results of the review and taking in consideration the accepted policy set objectives and targets,
         i. e. define a so called environmental programme
    •    establish an effective environmental management system aimed at implementing the policy and achieving the
         set targets. The management system needs to set responsibilities, objectives, means, operational procedures,
         training needs, monitoring and communication systems.
    •    provide a statement of environmental performance which lays down the results
         achieved against the environmental objectives and the future steps to be taken in
         order to continuously improve the organisation’s environmental performance (first
         create a draft, finalize with external validation)
    •    carry out an (internal) environmental audit, assessing in particular the management
         system in place and conformity with the organisation’s policy and programme as well
         as compliance with relevant environmental regulatory requirements
    •    conduct a management review to involve and get commitment from senior
         management
    •    have the entire system audited, verified and registered by authorized bodies. Receipt
         of the certificate will be published in the EC journal and the owner is then allowed to
         use the certificate and the EMAS logo in its public relations.
The defined system then needs to be “lived” in day-to-day work. So a responsible person like
the EMAS manager or environmental manager needs to carefully implement and watch the improvement process.
After a typical period of three years, the environmental management system must be formally revisited and corrective
actions can be taken to the system. The process requires:
    •    conducting a further environmental review to assess results and prepare updating of targets, actions and the
         environmental system. 4
    •    performing an internal audit i. e. review of the management system to check whether the formerly designed and
         validated system is still valid and what changes need to be applied .
    •    involving upper management again with a management review
    •    updating the environmental statement and go for re-validation of the system.
Only after re-validation can the organisation continue to use the EMAS logo for another three years to prove that it has a
functioning environmental management system.
The EMAS regulation does not force all municipalities into implementing an environmental management system. It rather
describes requirements of doing it properly for those who decide to do it. The regulation basically describes
    •    the minimum contents of an environmental policy: prevention of pollution, compliance with legal and other
         requirements, continuous improvement etc.
    •    the needs for a practical assessment of significant environmental impacts: definition of scope, reasonable process
         of assessment, requirements for feasibility of assessment etc.
    •    the needs for a functional management system: clear responsibilities, documented procedures, understanding of
         training needs, formal means of communication , well defined access to documents etc.
    •    the process for achieving and keeping the certificate: have the system audited by an accredited auditor, run an
         annual review, publish environmental statement etc.
On the other hand, the EMAS regulation leaves a lot of choices and options to the implementer. Amongst those are:
    •    full control of the pace of implementation and improvement process
    •    selection of method to assess the significance of environmental impacts
    •    complete freedom in defining the number and type of targets and selecting measures
    •    no restrictions to document control system, size and type of publishing of environmental statement, means of
         communication, etc.
    •    selection of the external (accredited) auditor.


3 see Regulation (EEC) No 836/93 of 29 June 993 and Regulation (EC) No 76/200 of 9 March 200
4 This is not described as an obligatory step in the EMAS regulation. However, it is a logical thing to assess performance against the set targets and
  the environmental programme. The environmental management system as such should contain a procedure on how to perform the periodic
  environmental review.

8
The EMAS regulation is the result of multiple experiences with practical environmental management systems. As such,
it is not just a regulation but also a recommendation that describes proven elements of an implementation process for
environmental management. Obviously, since many of the experiences stem from enterprises, they need to be adapted
to the needs of municipalities. EMAS takes into account that in municipalities there are many interdependencies between
the operation of the local administration and the local government. The regulation also allows for the implementation of
EMAS in just a part of the entire organisation.

So municipalities frequently decide to implement EMAS for their planning department and planning processes. 5 In an
initial phase the responsible persons have to carry out a scoping process to define the parts of the municipal operations
to be developed and certified.
Besides EMAS there are other standards, however, they are more related to the needs of enterprises:
    •     ISO 400 is a worldwide standard to implement and validate environmental management systems in enterprises.
          In general terms it is a subset of EMAS.
    •     ISO 403 is a standard for Environmental Performance Evaluation (EPE). It contains a description and a set of
          indicators to measure progress.
    •     BS 8555 links ISO 400 and ISO 403 and describes a six step implementation process. 6
Democratic transparency asks for a periodic analysis and review of what has been done and how the municipality is
advancing towards the set goals. This is particularly true in the realm of the environment. EMAS with its formal assessment
and publishing requirements seems to be the appropriate approach for municipalities. Cities that have implemented their
environmental management system using this regulation claim to have had the following benefits:
    •     Environmental management does not only protect natural resources. It also saves costs and leverages
          motivation.
    •     Systematic environmental management is more than just some environmental actions. A formal environmental
          management system helps an administration to better understand a situation and effectively tackle the problems.
          It streamlines and eases administrative activities.
    •     A formal external check guarantees the feasibility of the programme and the functionality of the management
          system. The independent audit creates credibility.
    •     Proven environmental performance improves reputation. It gives international recognition and better qualifies
          for funding and credits.
    •     The Environmental Statement and the certificate can be used in public relations.
    •     A formal system gives a better chance that long term environmental challenges can be met despite the short
          legislative periods of local government.




1.5    Joint Implementation of Environmental Management
Despite obvious differences between municipalities there are many fields of cooperation and exchanges of experience
between them. For example:
   •    waste management including campaigns to raise public awareness focused on separation of waste, management
        of mutual landfills, recycling and reuse initiatives, etc.
   •    common public transportation systems and joint maintenance of roads
   •    campaigns to reduce emission of CO2, e. g. by promotion of improved insulation of buildings
   •    protection of surface waters, forests, meadows, etc.
   •    application for funding for mutual projects focused on environmental improvements.

For the EMAS4NewStates project a cluster approach was the guiding principle. Neighbouring municipalities should join
forces to implement their environmental management systems. Clusters of up to four municipalities allowed for:
    •    learning more about differences and similarities of their members and to create a team spirit
    •    learning from each other and sharing experiences and solutions in introducing EMAS
    •    setting up mutual targets and including mutual/coordinated actions in their Environmental programmes
    •    using trained auditors from neighbouring municipalities to conduct planned internal audits of their systems
    •    benchmarking environmental goals and performance against other cluster members.




5 European funded project ECOLUP (Ecological Land Use Planning) has shown how EMAS can be used in municipal planning. An ECOLUP-Guide has
  been published and presented on the final ECOLUP conference in Constance in 2004
6 This standard was transposed as Latvian standard LVS 37 in 2005.

                                                                                                                                       9
2       The EMAS4NewStates Project




Local authorities in Latvia and other new member states are challenged with many similar socio-economic problems.
These probl are often exacerbated by environmental concerns and impacts such as air, water and soil pollution, waste,
uncontrolled resource consumption, urban decay, etc. As practice shows, not only industries but also local authorities
can be an important contributor to environmental degradation through the services they provide, or in some cases, the
services they don’t provide. As defined by Local Agenda – 2 (LA2), Aalborg Charter and other international documents,
local authorities, being closest to the population, have the greatest role to play in sustainable local development and,
cumulatively, in regional, national and global sustainability. That’s why it is so important to integrate environmental
considerations into all aspects of their activities. EMAS is an important tool of the EU environmental strategy, which
provides local authorities with a systematic approach to solving their environmental problems, increasing the efficiency of
their operations and specifically improving their environmental performance.
The project “Innovative approach to EMAS II implementation in the local authorities of new member states“ or
shortly – EMAS4NewStates was initiated by Latvian Association for Environmental Management (LAEM) and company
Biznesa Konsultantu Grupa Ltd (BKG) in 2004. It has been joined by two Latvian local authorities: Daugavpils city council
and Naujene rural municipal council, and German partner organisation B.A.U.M. (German Environmental Management
Association) which provided expertise in EMAS implementation.



2.1     Project Partners

SIA “Biznesa Konsultantu Grupa” (beneficiary) is a leading Latvian management consulting company established to
provide high quality consultancy services to private companies and public institutions considering significant changes
and improvement of their operations. The business approach of BKG is international co-operation to keep high quality
services for clients. SIA “Biznesa Konsultantu Grupa” offers a wide range of services in management consulting, marketing,
personnel development, logistics, institutional building, regional and national master plans development, training needs
assessment, training program development and delivery, business valuation, company analysis, strategic business planning
and development, environmental and quality management system implementation, marketing concept development,
feasibility studies and investment appraisal.
Latvian Association for Environmental Management (LAEM) - is a non-governmental, voluntary, non- profit organisation,
designed to join efforts of all interested parties in Cleaner Production, Environmental Management and Sustainable
Development principles promotion and implementation in Latvia. The majority of LAEM members are industrial enterprises
of different branches, two municipal councils and consulting companies. LAEM has initiated and implemented numerous
projects focused on the implementation of environmental management systems in industries and introducing new tools
of EM for small businesses.
German Environmental Management Association (B.A.U.M.) with a membership of more than 500 companies of all sizes
and sectors, non-profit organisations and public authorities is the biggest European association promoting environmental
protection and sustainable business management. An interdisciplinary team of B.A.U.M. consultants has extensive
experience in research and consulting public institutions in different areas of sustainable development and runs various
international projects such as for DG Transport and Energy (RENET, Promote 00), DG Employment and Social Affairs
(CapaCity) and Know-How transfer projects on Local Agenda 2 (e. g. between Bavaria and Lithuania).
0
Daugavpils City Council. Daugavpils is the second largest city in Latvia. The population of Daugavpils is 3,450
inhabitants. Daugavpils is located approximately 230 km south-east of the capital of Latvia, Riga, on the banks of the
Daugava River. The city has a favourable geographical position as it borders on Belarus and Lithuania, and is 20 km from
the border with Russia. Daugavpils is a big industrial centre and railway junction. The industry of the city is represented
by energy enterprises and metal-processing plants: JSC “Driving Chain Factory Ditton”, JSC “Dauer-D”, JSC “Locomotive”,
“Zieglera Mashinbuve” Ltd, and others. Apart from that, there are several enterprises of the textile, sewing industry and
food processing companies. More than ,00 trading businesses are operating in the city and virtually all main Latvian
commercial banks have their branches in Daugavpils. Daugavpils City Council has an experience of participation in various
local and international environmental projects.
Naujene municipality is located in the south-east part of Latgale. It territory is 2939.3 ha, including: forests - 3602.6 ha,
arable used land - 6684 ha, arable not used land -2652.7 ha, state owned land -84 ha. Municipal land - 670.9 ha. Number
of inhabitants 5856 people. Naujenes rural municipality economic development is linked to Daugavpils city. There are 53
villages on the territory of municipality. In the villages: Vecstropi, Lociki, Kraujas, Naujene, Dunski un Židino there are 60
residential houses, where 77% of all inhabitants live. Biological wastewater treatment plants are operating in two villages.
Industrial activities are represented by wood processing, food manufacturing (spirit and cakes), grain processing, heat
production, water preparation and supply, transport services. Agriculture – 600 farmlands and 35 farms.

The project EMAS4NewStates was designed with a purpose:
   •    to demonstrate and promote EMAS in local authorities of new member states, using Latvia as a role model;
   •    to introduce new effective tools of EMAS implementation and dissemination;
   •    to assist new member states in their integration process to the EU, introducing EU environmental regulation.

The project was innovative in many senses. Specifically it presented:
   •     introduction of EU environmental regulation in the new member states. The project provided local authorities
         with knowledge of EU regulations and understanding of their role in the protection of the environment.
   •     introduction of environmental management systems in the public sector. The environmentally responsible
         administration must keep its own house in order before telling others what to do. EMAS will help local
         administrations to effect a substantial saving on everyday resources and will also ensure a continuous improvement
         of environmental performance. Due to their new vision and systematic approach to environmental management,
         municipal authorities will influence local communities to create a responsible attitude to the environment.
         Further development of implemented systems and their synergy with Local Agenda 2 will result in better public
         involvement in local sustainable development
   •     introduction of the cluster approach to create “EMAS communities”. Clusters may consist of industrial cities and
         the adjoined rural municipalities, or just of two adjoining municipalities. The cluster approach creates a partnership
         between cluster members, which allows them to co-operate and join efforts for solving mutual environmental
         problems in a more efficient way. Their achievements will be a good motivation for surrounding municipalities.
         The cluster approach may be easily replicated cross-sectorally, for example municipality and industrial enterprises
         may develop a set of mutual objectives and targets, or clusters can be created in other sectors of the economy
         - several industrial companies or service providers can interrelate their environmental management systems to
         achieve mutual targets.
   •     phased approach in EMAS implementation is a simple and logical tool which will significantly reduce paper
         work and make the implementation process clear and controllable. It breaks down EMAS implementation into
         six phases. Assisted by the third party (consultants and foreign experts) after each phase, municipalities assess
         if the requirements of the appropriate phase have been met. Internal or external after-phase audits help local
         authorities to expose weak areas and to avoid further mistakes.
   •     latest knowledge management technology was used to build a community of municipal EMAS users in Latvia,
         the new member states and other countries. The project website does not just display the results of the project
         but it can be used as a knowledge base that allows and stimulates a huge number of partners in many countries to
         exchange their know-how. Consultants, as well as responsible people of Local Authorities, can share their know-
         how in the implementation of environmental schemes with their colleagues through this platform. That will help
         to avoid “reinventing the wheel” in every country and municipality.
   •     changing attitudes and overcoming psychological barriers. Integration into the EU and the adoption of new
         “rules of the game” is associated in the minds of many Latvian inhabitants and those of other new member countries
         with some kind of dramatic changes in their lives (not necessarily positive ones). Publicly available Environmental
         statements and policies, as well as publications in national newspapers and magazines will demonstrate to citizens
         that municipal EMAS is focused on achieving better environmental performance, reducing harmful impacts on
         the environment, thus creating a better quality of life for communities.
After an Introduction seminar on EMAS implementation in local authorities which took place in April 2005, ten Latvian
municipalities expressed their willingness to participate in the project. Together with Daugavpils city council and Naujene
rural municipal council there were in total twelve municipalities which created five clusters.

To create capacity in EMAS implementation in the new member states (NMS) eight NMS consultants were trained together
with their Latvian colleagues and got an access to all information on the common website www. EMAS4NewStates.lv.
                                                                                                                            
All local trainees have received not only theoretical knowledge but also had the chance to learn from the experience of
German local authorities with registered EMAS. A Study tour was organized by B.A.U.M. in October 2005. Trained consultants
created an International Experts’ Group with the purpose of exchanging experience in EMAS implementation.

Latvian local authorities participating in the project

 Cluster               Local authority                                 Person, responsible for EMAS
                                                                       Inese Bezane
                       Daugavpils city council
                                                                       Environmental specialist
 Cluster 
                                                                       Tatjana Resetnikova
                       Naujenes rural municipal council
                                                                       Environmental specialist
                                                                       Aleksandrs Vasiļjevs
                       Jaungulbenes rural municipal council
                                                                       Head of Communal department
                                                                       Anna Vīgante
 Cluster 2             Stradu rural municipal council
                                                                       Chair of rural municipal council
                                                                       Aija Smeile
                       Daukstu rural municipal council
                                                                       Agricultural consultant
                                                                       Aivars Zeimulis
                       Līvbērzes rural municipal council
                                                                       Executive Director
                                                                       Janis Ile
                       Bērzes rural municipal council
                                                                       Chair of rural municipal council
 Cluster 3
                                                                       Kristine Hveckovica
                       Jaunbērzes rural municipal council
                                                                       Librarian
                                                                       Silvija Jansone
                       Glūdas rural municipal council
                                                                       Planner
                                                                       Vladimirs Ivanovs
                       Preiļu region municipal council
                                                                       Executive Director
 Cluster 4
                                                                       Vija Soldre
                       Vārkavas rural municipal council
                                                                       Planner
                                                                       Dace Liepniece
 Cluster 5             Liepājas city council
                                                                       Head of Environmental Department


Geographical location of the clusters.
           Līvbērzes rural municipal council
                                                                                      Jaungulbenes rural municipal council
           Glūdas rural municipal council
                                                                                      Stradu rural municipal council
           Bērzes rural municipal council
                                                                                      Daukstu rural municipal council
           Jaunbērzes rural municipal council




       Liepājas city council
                                          Preiļu region municipal council
                                          Vārkavas rural municipal council

                                                          Daugavpils city council
                                                          Naujenes rural municipal council
2
List of consultants from the new member states of the EU


 Country               Name                            Organisation

 Malta                 Anton Pizzuto                   Cleaner Technology Centre, University of Malta, Director

 Czech Republic        Jiří Student                    CEMC, Executive Director, www.cemc.cz

 Slovakia              Erika Baranova                  SCPC, s.r.o. Bratislava, SK Consultant www.scpc.sk

 Slovenia              Janez Petek                     Steng-National Cleaner Production Centre Ltd. Consultant

 Hungary               Katalin Varga                   Hungarian Cleaner Production Centre, www.hcpc.bke.hu

                                                       Organisation and Management Development Services Bureau
 Poland                Marta Budzynowska
                                                       „System”, Consultant

 Estonia               Katrin Keis                     EMI-ECO Estonia, Consultant, www.emieco.ee

 Lithuania             Vaiva Ramanauskiene             ECAT-Lithuania, Consultant, www.ecat.lt




List of Latvian consultants


 Name                                   Organisation

 Maija Anspoka                          SIA Zygon Baltic Consulting

 Anete Iraida                           A/S Falck apsargs

 Indra Šveisberga                       IK Darba vides konsultācijas

 Vitālijs Šveisbergs                    IK Darba vides konsultācijas

 Jānis Bernāts                          SIA Leilands un Putnis

 Aleksejs Sergejevs                     SIA Baltijas tehnika un vide

 Jurijs Sergejevs                       SIA Baltijas tehnika un vide

 Valdemārs Ščerbaks                     SIA Biznesa Konsultantu Grupa

 Juris Mālers                           Latvian Environmental Investments Fund

 Aija Žuniņa                            SIA Zygon Baltic Consulting




                                                                                                                  3
2.2     Initial Partners Meeting

                                                                                           An Initial Meeting of the Project Partners took place
                                                                                           on December 3, 2004 in Riga. Project partners
                                                                                           discussed methods of internal and external
                                                                                           communication and the project management
                                                                                           structure, detailed Project schedule of activities;
                                                                                           the content of Introduction seminar for Latvian
                                                                                           municipalities, NMS and local consultants.
                                                                                           All partners agreed that an introduction seminar
                                                                                           should be a motivation event for Latvian local
                                                                                           authorities, which will also serve as a training
                                                                                           session for NMS on how to motivate municipalities.
                                                                                           Naujene and Daugavpils municipalities expressed
                                                                                           their expectations regarding the introduction
                                                                                           seminar and training course. B.A.U.M. and LAEM
                                                                                           had additional detailed discussions on the content
                                                                                           and methodology of training, taking in account
                                                                                           the specifics of Latvian local authorities and
                                                                                           necessity of adaptation of German experience to
Participants of the Initial Project Meeting: Natalija Ladutjko, LAEM Project Manager,
                                                                                           local Latvian conditions.
Inese Bezane, Daugavpils city council, Ludwig Karg, B.A.U.M. e.V, Germany, Inta Ruskule,   The Initial Meeting of the Project Partners was very
Naujene rural municipal council, Alina Dudele , SIA BKG Head of Board                      productive and created a basis of further fruitful
                                                                                           cooperation between the partners.


2.3     Awareness Raising/Introduction Seminar
                                                                                           An awareness raising and motivating introduction
                                                                                           seminar took place in Riga on April 29, 2005.
                                                                                           Information about the seminar has been put on
                                                                                           the web page of Latvian Union of Local authorities
                                                                                           and invitation letters have been sent to 26 local
                                                                                           authorities, 27 local consultants and 23 guests.
                                                                                           Geographically the whole country was covered
                                                                                           with invitations.
                                                                                           According to the sign-up sheets in the seminar
                                                                                           participated:
                                                                                                    • 25 local authorities
                                                                                                    • 0 local consultants
                                                                                                    • 9 NMS consultants
                                                                                                    • 0 guest organisations.
                                                                                           Analysis of the seminar attendance:
                                                                                             •      27% of the contacted municipalities
                                                                                                    applied for the seminar and 20% attended
                                                                                                    the seminar
Speakers at the Introduction seminar: Ludwig Karg, B.A.U.M. e.V, Alina Dudele, SIA BKG,      •      50% of the contacted consultants applied
Gunta Lukstina, Einars Cilinskis, Natalija Ladutjko, LAEM
                                                                                                    and 37% attended the seminar
                                                                                             •      44% of the contacted guests applied and
                                                                                                    44% attended the seminar as well.
Mrs. Alina Dudele explained to the seminar participants terms of participation in the project. Mr. Ludwig Karg, B.A.U.M. had
prepared a very motivating presentation focused on three main questions:
    •    What is the role of local authorities in the sustainable development of their region, country and the whole
         planet?
    •    Why does it make sense to implement environmental management systems in local authorities?
    •    What kind of benefits did local authorities get of already implemented environmental management systems?
Presentations are available at: www.EMAS4NewStates.lv
After the seminar there was an additional meeting of the project partners with NMS and local consultants. The purpose
of the meeting was establishing the International Expert Group (IEG) to provide networking, international cooperation
and experience exchange in EMAS promotion and implementation in local authorities of NMS not only in the frame of the
project but in the long-term prospective as well. The list of IEG is available at www.EMAS4newstates.lv.

4
2.4     Training in EMAS implementation for local authorities and consultants

A 5-day training seminar for 5 cluster members, local
and NMS consultants took place on May 30 - June 3,
2005 in Riga, Latvia. It was organized by LAEM and
conducted by B.A.U.M. experts Mr. Ludwig Karg and
Mr. Wolfgang Ackermann. In the training seminar
participated: 2 local authorities, 0 local consultants,
and 8 NMS consultants.
For the training B.A.U.M. developed two types
of training materials: presentations/lectures and
workshops. EMAS implementation process in the
training materials is divided into 8 steps. The training
materials contain a lot of examples which can assist
local authorities in their system development and
implementation. Both presentations and workbooks
are available in Latvian and English languages from         Participants of EMAS Training
the project website.
The seminar participants were seated in working groups consisting of cluster members and assigned consultants. Their
active cooperation started on the very first day of training preparing mutual presentations and working together on
different tasks. Interactive intensive training united cluster participants and consultants and created a good basis for the
future work on EMAS implementation.

The work teams Municipality-Consultant

   Cluster                                 Municipalities                                               Consultants

                  Daugavpils city council                                                Aija Zuniņa
       
                  Naujene rural municipal council                                        Anete Iraida
                  Jaungulbene rural municipal council
                                                                                         Vitalijs Sveisbergs
       2          Stradu rural municipal council
                                                                                         Indra Sveisberga
                  Daukstu rural municipal council
                  Livberze rural municipal council
                                                                                         Valdemars Scerbaks
                  Berze rural municipal council
       3                                                                                 Jurijs Sergejevs
                  Jaunberze rural municipal council
                                                                                         Aleksejs Sergejevs
                  Gluda rural municipal council

                  Preiļu regional municipal council                                      Maija Anspoka
       4
                  Varkava rural municipal council                                        Juris Malers
       5          Liepaja city council                                                   Janis Bernats




EMAS scoping in training session                                  Trainer, Experts, Translator


                                                                                                                         5
During the training, German experts together with Latvian consultants came to the conclusion that the standard approach
designed for big cities may not work in small rural municipalities, where human and financial resources are very limited (for
example 5-8 elected politicians and up to 0 civil servants).
On the final day of training the seminar was visited by Mrs. Inga Gavena, Chief of Department, State Environmental Impact
Assessment Bureau, which is a competent body responsible for EMAS registration. Mrs. I. Gavena explained the registration
procedure to the participants. She was asked many questions and participants clearly understood that Latvia didn’t have
any local EMAS verifier, which would require the involvement of foreign verifiers and coverage of high verification costs.
Consultants from NMS expressed their doubts and concerns regarding the possibility of using the knowledge gained in
their countries without raising awareness, motivation and financial support from the government. But still they promised
to do their best to use newly aquired knowledge back home in their countries.




Members of the International Expert group                              Celebrating successful Training week with EMAS cake




2.5       Visit to German local authorities
Representatives of participating municipalities together with their consultants went to Germany for a one-week study tour.
Participants of the study tour visited Immenstadt hospital, school in Leutkirch, biogas stations, boiler houses operating on
wood chips in Leutkirch, Überlingen, city administrations in Leutkirch, Überlingen and Immenstaad, and a very popular
tourist place – Mainau Island - with implemented EMAS in the tourist sector.
Participants of the tour were introduced not only to EMAS implementation process, but also to technical solutions focused
on the improvement of environmental performance. All speakers emphasized that EMAS implementation is profitable,
especially during the first years when the potentials for improvement is still big.
In Immenstadt Hospital, after a detailed description of the system implementation and operation, the Latvian group was
shown the waste separation system and computer-controlled system of energy management.




        Sensor – operated lighting system in the   Waste separation starts right in the wards. For that purpose is used specially
        hospital corridors                         designed mobile containers with many drawers. Each type of waste is placed in
                                                   the induvidual drawers in accordance with lables, for example: Newspapers and
                                                   Magazines, Syringes, IV lines, Medicine bottles, Gloves, etc.

6
                                                      The Tour organizers did their best to demonstrate to participants the
                                                      main tendencies in urban eco-management. In Germany, great attention
                                                      is paid to alternative energy sources and the use of renewable resources.
                                                      Participants were shown electricity production from biogas at the milk farm
                                                      in the mountains, two municipal boiler houses operating on wood chips
                                                      and pellets, photovoltaic panels mounted on the roofs of schools and other
                                                      municipal buildings. The use of photovoltaic panels for electricity production
                                                      is very popular in Germany. This initiative is actively supported by local
                                                      authorities, which provide free of charge roofs of municipal buildings for
                                                      “solar farms” and by citizens, who are investing their money in the specially
                                                      developed investment programs supporting “solar farming”.
                                                      One more example of electric energy production from biogas was
                                                      demonstrated at a biological wastewater treatment plant in Konstanz. The
The wastewater treatment process is operated by a
processor. It accumulates information on all stages   plant is located on the bank of lake Constance which is a source of drinking
of the wastewater treatment. Used active sludge       water for 4,5 million people in Germany, Austria and Switzerland; therefore,
is utilized for generation of biogas, which then is   requirements to the quality of treated water are very high. The wastewater
burned out to produce electricity.                    treatment process is operated by a processor. It accumulates information on
The facade of the administrative building of the
plant is designed as a solar farm, which produces     all stages of the wastewater treatment. Used active sludge is utilized for the
electricity.                                          generation of biogas, which then is burned out to produce electricity.
                                                      A visit to Leutkirch school, which has implemented EMAS impressed all
                                                      participants. Presentations were made not only by the school principal
                                                      and teachers but also by pupils who were actively involved in the system’s
                                                      development and operation. Some of them were trained in Environmental
                                                      Academy for Children in Stuttgart and became the system supervisors in
                                                      their classes. Teachers and pupils communicated and presented information
                                                      like equal partners.
                                                      The school has implemented a very effective heating control system, which
                                                      operates in strict accordance with the lessons’ schedule. In empty classrooms
                                                      the temperature reduces to +4oC and when it’s necessary comes up to
                                                      +8 oC. The heat energy is produced by the boiler house next door, which
                                                      operates on wood chips and pellets.
                                                      The city council of Überlingen had prepared a very interesting and informative
                                                      presentation on the environmental approach in land-use planning. The city
In an Alpine Dairy, the Mayor of Blaichach, Otto
                                                      is located on the banks of lake Constance in a region where population
Steiger, explains their sustainability process
                                                      density exceeds 500 person/km2. As the lake is the source of drinking water
                                                      for several million people, the city government is responsible for preserving
                                                      water resources.

To solve that and other problems, the city government decided to take part in the project ECOLUP (Ecologic Land Use
Planning) 7 and to implement EMAS in the Land-use planning department.
Implementing the ECOLUP approach, the city administration has discovered new opportunities for increasing the efficiency
of land use without violating environmental norms.




        The roof of the Leutkirch school is covered with photovoltaic      Waste Separation Bins in Konstanz
        panels. The electricity produced is dispatched to the city net.


7 Information about ECOLUP can be found at the project website: www.EMAS4NewStates.lv

                                                                                                                                 7
Land Use Plan of ECOLUP/ EMAS City Überlingen               Wastewater treatment plant at the lake Konstanz




Latvian visiting group on EMAS Island of Mainau             “Innovative gardening” at Mainau Island

The Study Tour to German municipalities was very useful. It extended theoretical knowledge of the project participants
with examples of the best environmental practices and technical solutions and assisted in understanding the main sense
and specifics of urban environmental management.




2.6       Implementation Phase
EMAS implementation in Latvian Local Authorities took about 7 months. It started in August 2005 and has been
accomplished in October - December 2006. The process is described in detail in chapter 3.
The implementation process has been audited and supported by the German experts Ludwig Karg and Wolfgang Ackermann,
who conducted after-phase audits combined with additional consultations with participants. The first intermediate audit
took place in October 2005 during the Study tour to German municipalities. It was focused on selected scopes of work and
environmental aspects.
The second audit conducted by the German experts took place in January 2006 in Latvia. German experts visited all 5
clusters and personally motivated chairpersons, politicians and municipal staff. During presentations they had to answer
many questions from the meeting’s participants. Apart from checking developed system documentation German experts
had prepared presentations for municipal staff and top management. The need for a short training course was dictated by
the lack of support to Implementation Teams in the majority of municipal councils.
The third intermediate audit took place in Riga in May 2006 and was focused on creation of the Environmental Management
Manual. German experts presented the structure and the content of the manual and then all participants were split to
several work groups and were working on the first drafts of different chapters. The draft chapters were discussed and
corrected by experts. Later on these drafts served as models for the project participants when they developed their own
individual manuals in their respective clusters.
In August 2006 all local authorities have been trained in conducting internal audits. Two representatives from each
municipality were invited to participate in the training. The training program was prepared and delivered by BKG consultant
Mr. Valdemars Scherbaks. All trainees were provided with training materials which further could be used as guidelines in
conducting internal audits of their own systems.
8
     2nd intermediate audit with the Implementation Team in Naujene   2nd intermediate audit with the Implementation Teams of
                                                                      Preili – Varkava


Verification of implemented system
In the frame of the project EMAS verification is responsibility of the local authorities participating in the project. But as it
was already mentioned above Latvia up to January 2007 didn’t have any EMAS auditor. Having a clear understanding that
local authorities will not be able to cover costs of the foreign auditor the project managers started to look for a solution
of the problem. Since joining the EU none of the local ISO 400 auditing companies showed any interest to invest in
accreditation of their local EMAS auditor due to lack of demand for this specific service at the market. The EMAS4NewStates
project is the first case of EMAS implementation and actually it’s the first chance for local auditors to get accreditation locally.
Formally Latvian government has made some steps on EMAS introduction establishing accreditation and registration
organisations, but actually one more step was required – accreditation of the local EMAS auditor. In May 2006 the project
managers started negotiations with the Bureau Veritas Latvia on possibility of accreditation at least one local EMAS verifier.
In general Bureau Veritas Latvia has agreed to apply for accreditation but to start the process it was necessary to have a
real verification event.
EMAS verification in two municipalities of Daugavpils and Naujene, by a Swedish verifier, which took place in March-April
2007 has been used for accreditation of two local EMAS verifiers. Accreditation of local EMAS verifiers took totally about
3,5 months and resulted in additional delays in the overall project schedule, but thanks to EMAS4NewStates project Latvia
currently has two accredited local EMAS verifiers.

Hurdles and Delays in the implementation Process
EMAS implementation is time consuming and requires a lot of skills and efforts. In small countryside municipalities with
quite limited human resources it was a big additional burden and in the middle of implementation process four local
authorities decided to resign form the project. That problem is typical for small municipalities and will be addressed in
detail in Chapter 2.8(“Lessons Learned”). A fifth project participant decided to stop EMAS implementation due to missing
support from the city council.
All other participants managed to establish their EMAS system. However, some faced major delays, which can be explained
by the following main reasons:
Internal Reasons:
    •     difficulties in selection of the scope of work and then in identification of external, internal, direct and indirect
          aspects during the initial audit;
    •     local consultants, who assisted local authorities in EMAS development, also experienced difficulties with
          prioritization of direct and indirect aspects, which is different in municipal EM comparing with the industrial one;
    •      inefficient resource management and lack of real support of Implementation Teams (IT) by the top management
          of LA. Developing of EMAS documents requires a lot of time, including collection of information, summarizing it
          and writing papers. The IT members had to combine these tasks with their main duties, which resulted in additional
          non-paid working hours;
    •     Various trained municipal staff were assigned new tasks and had to leave their Implementation Team. External
          reasons:
    •     A structural reform of Local Authorities (LA) is due end of 2005. For that reason Implementation teams (IT) had to
          change many previously developed documents;
    •     Upcoming territorial and administrative reform, which will significantly reduce number of LA in Latvia, doesn’t
          motivate to invest labour and finances in environmental management systems;
    •     As EMAS implementation is a voluntary decision of the LA, which is not initiated / motivated / required by the
          central government or at least the Union of LA, participants felt low pressure to actively drive the project and to
          stay in the project schedule.



                                                                                                                                 9
2.7     EU Integration
Throughout the entire project attempts were made to bring people and cultures
of Europe together. Together with Latvian consultants experts from all other new
member states were trained and supported to bring up their own environmental
management projects. For Latvian partners from municipal administrations it
was extremely valuable to meet those experts. Language incompatibilities were
overcome by professional translators.
A special part of the Integration to the EU Community task of the project has been
accomplished by the Integration Conference for all project participants and other
Latvian local authorities, which took place on April 24, 2007 in Riga.
The conference was focused on providing Latvian Local authorities with information
and access to the European environmental initiatives, projects, organisations,
dealing with the urban EM & SD issues.
The term “sustainable development” is frequently used by all levels politicians, but
what does it mean in the daily life of municipal council? Where from municipalities can
get information about new strategy and priorities of sustainable development?
To get answers to these and other questions the conference organizers have invited
representatives from different European organisations and local authorities with a                    Speakers at the Integration Conference:
big experience in introducing sustainable development principles, such as: ICLEI,                     Uwe Lorenzen, Ludwig Karg,      Annika
Union of the Baltic cities, Union of Danish LA, NUTEK, Sweden, Environment and                        Claesson, Holger Robrecht
Agenda 2 Secretariat.




Annika Claesson, UBC, speaking with her project partners from Riga City   Integration Confrence participants from Latvian municipalities
council


Participants of the conference could learn about:
   •     the main trends/tendencies in municipal sustainable development;
   •     existing tools, instruments, approaches, programs, assisting LA to make real steps towards SD;
   •     relevant European and world organisations and networks dealing with the urban environmental management
         and SD;
   •     the best practices and achievements from the EU municipalities.




2.8     Lessons Learned
In general terms the EMAS4NewStates project went as planned. However, various obstacles need to be overcome. The
project teams reported many learnings and derived multiple recommendations for further similar projects:
    •    EMAS coordinators in project municipalities were very enthusiastic in the beginning and devoted a lot of personal
         time. They contributed with their knowledge about municipal work processes and were very much open to
         learning from international experts and other cities and towns. Often their efforts have not been adequately
         appreciated by their superiors and local governments. Towards its end the project suffered heavily from declining
         motivation.
    •    Latvian visitors to German municipalities said that while in Germany local authorities take a lead in sustainable
         development, Latvian local authorities are still mainly focused on providing basic communal services. Their
         tasks are challenging their administrative staff a lot and there is not much room left for specific efforts in local

20
    sustainable or environmental development. Since central government doesn’t motivate local authorities to
    implement systematic preventive approaches to protect the environment either, there is little motivation to
    introduce systematic management of the environment. A strong movement towards systematic environmental
    management on the municipal level would require either explicit legislation (like with Local Agenda 2 in
    Scandinavian countries) or attractive incentives (like more and better funding or less governmental control). Since
    time and the qualifications of administrative staff is the critical bottleneck, a well trained group of external experts
    - paid by the government or by a special fund - could provide the necessary resources for cities and towns.
•   EMA S implementation is a full-time job. None of the local authorities participating in the project has properly
    allocated resources required for EMAS implementation. In all cases persons who were responsible for EMAS
    had to combine a very time-consuming EMAS implementation process with their main responsibilities as
    planners, ecological specialists, executive directors, librarians, agricultural specialists, etc. For that reason EMAS
    implementation took 7 months instead of the planned 2 months and 5 local authorities decided to resign from
    the project.
•   For small local authorities which have a staff of about 0 people traditional EMAS implementation methods create
    too much of a burden. Implementation takes too much time, requires a lot of paperwork and specific knowledge.
    Simplified methods of implementing environmental management need to be developed. EMAS-Easy (based on
    Ecomapping) or BS 8555:2003 could lead the way. However, both approaches are very much oriented towards
    enterprises and do not take municipal needs into account.
•   EMAS by itself does not give enough benefit to practitioners and political representatives. For municipalities,
    getting a certificate and an environmental statement for use in public relations is not as important as for enterprises.
    Looking at the EMAS municipalities, one can easily see that most of them are related to tourism - and in this case
    a clean environment with a guarantee by an EMAS certificate obviously pays.
•   EMAS regulation is not at all obvious to municipal practitioners. Some claim that the process and means
    described are implemented in municipalities anyway and that there is little point in describing everything once
    more. Workgroups and EMAS coordinators have been very much focused on developing EMAS documents and
    introducing the systems within their structures. Mostly, tangible results in terms of savings or environmental
    improvement are missing. Some complained about missing directive on “real environmental protection”. EMAS is
    perceived as a “paper tiger”,which will have little impact on real improvements in environmental performance.
•   External experts tried to encourage participants of the project to come up with real projects and put them in the
    environmental programme. However, to develop and decide upon such projects would have needed more time
    - and time is the most critical obstacle to implementing environmental management on the local level.
•   The cluster approach has great potential. Joint EMAS implementation provides better understanding of mutual
    goals and tasks of bordering municipalities and results in the creation of a team spirit between EMAS teams, which
    simplifies the organisation of joint activities, programmes, initiatives.
•   While EMAS II regulation strongly calls for assessing direct and indirect aspects, most municipal organisations
    heavily concentrate on their internal environmental effects (like using less paper and separating the waste in
    their offices) instead of their external and indirect effects (like sustainable rural development or municipal waste
    or waste water management). While the ECOLUP project gave some good examples of implementing EMAS in
    municipal planning, there are still not enough examples of feasible EMAS scopes that go beyond trivial internal
    aspects. EMAS4NewStates Municipalities tried hard to put the emphasis on external and indirect aspects as well.
    But dealing with those very quickly becomes an overwhelming task which asks too much of an average local
    administration when doing it within the framework of the EMAS regulation. Nevertheless, the EMAS master
    manual (see EMAS4NewStates toolbox) gives hints for dealing with those aspects.
•   In Latvian municipalities central functions with heavy environmental impacts (like waste collection and disposal,
    water supply, road repair and public transport) are outsourced to service providing enterprises. Only in few cases
    are these companies publicly owned and directly controlled by the local authorities. Implementing EMAS either
    means reducing the management system to building environmental requirements into the service contracts - or
    convincing or forcing the service companies to establish their own environmental management system. The latter
    is said to have little chance since the enterprises often have a monopoly and it is hard to put pressure on them.
•   The project had a broader than expected impact on the introduction of Environmental Management in Latvia. It
    has built up a capacity for EMAS implementation in Latvia - not only in municipalities. The improved readiness of
    the country to introduce EMAS can be estimated by the following main factors:
              - availability of accreditation and registration bodies;
              - availability of trained consultants;
              - availability of accredited local EMAS verifiers.
    When the project started in 2005 Latvia had only registration and accreditation bodies. The project has prepared0
    local consultants. And 2 local verifiers have been accredited in Latvia.
•   Verification costs are high compared to the benefit that municipalities can see from their EMAS certificate. Some
    claim that they could imagine paying for the external audit once but not every three years. Without public
    subsidies for the verification there is little chance that many municipalities in new member states will go for EMAS
    certification. In the case of the EMAS4NewStates municipalities, after subsidizing the audit by 50 %, some but still
    not all decided to call for the external auditor.

                                                                                                                         2
     •   Employees of local administrations often lack language skills. While in the EMAS4NewStates project trainings,
         workshops and the study tour went quite well with professional translators, it was impossible to translate all
         relevant material into English or vice versa. So external experts had only a limited chance to assess the quality
         of the material and often could not give appropriate advice on details. Language skills of municipal employees
         definitely need to be improved in order to let them participate in the EC integration process.
     •   Participating municipalities have been really dedicated to the project. Seven of twelve municipalities succeeded
         in having their environmental management systems ready for validation by end of the project. Even those who
         had to give up due to limited resources claimed that they had benefited from the experiences of other cities and
         towns. While the project team really tried hard to lead all municipalities up to the summit of the EMAS mountain,
         one has to clearly admit: if the weather is bad and there is little chance of surviving the trip for mountain climbers,
         it is wise to give up in time and come back for another try!




3 EMAS Implementation Step by Step
For local authorities, establishing and implementing an environmental management system according to the requirements
of the EMAS regulation (EC) No 76/200 is not an easy task. However, many cities and towns all over Europe have done
it. Amongst those, the partners of the EMAS4NewStates project in Latvia. With respect to the experiences in Latvia and a
special focus on the problems of local authorities, this chapter explains step by step how to draw up all the elements of
an environmental management system according to EMAS II, as well as the procedure to introduce the system in a local
authority. Examples are taken from project partners in Latvia and since EMAS4NewStates relied on a cluster approach, the
chapter also refers to cluster related experiences in Latvian municipalities .
Implementation of EMAS can be widely facilitated by a good toolkit with simple management instruments like tables,
forms, Excel sheets etc. EMAS4NewStates project produced a ready-to-use toolbox with all training and working material
used in the project. A description of the toolbox can be found in the appendix of this implementation guide. The tools
are available on CD – ROM and also from the project website www.emas4newstates.lv and on the website of INEM, the
International Network for Environmental Management www.inem.org.
In order not to re-invent the wheel, elements of other guides have been used and adapted in creating this chapter. Relevant
support tools have been provided by following the most important projects:
    •    EURO-EMAS
         Pan European Local Authority Eco-Management and Audit Scheme, 200, with the support of the European Union
         LIFE Programme
    •    UNEP / FIDIC / ICLEI
         Urban Environmental Management: Environmental Management System (EMS) Training Resource Kit. Editors:
         The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Federation of Consulting Engineers
         (FIDIC) and the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI); 200, Version 
    •    ECOLUP-GUIDANCE
         Environmental Management for Communal Urban Land Use Planning. A publication of the Lake Constance
         Foundation, Constance, 2004, with the support of the European Union LIFE Programme. www.bodensee-
         stiftung.org, www.ecolup.info
    •    EMAS Peer Review for Cities Project: EMAS Implementation Guidebook for Municipalities in the European Union;
         UBC (Union of the Baltic Cities), 2004; Eco-Management and Audit Scheme – Toolkit for Local Authorities; Global to
         Local Ltd; 2004; http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/emas/local/pdf/la_toolkit_commission_020204.
         pdf
    •    EMAS Toolkit, developed by INEM for the use especially in EU based Small and Medium Sized Companies
         (see www.INEM.org, chapter “tools”).

The step-by-step approach systematically addresses the requirements of the EMAS regulation. To meet the challenges, the
implementation process is broken down into eight phases with three intermediate audits. In the EMAS4NewStates project,
intermediate audits were carried out by experienced B.A.U.M. consultants from Germany. During intermediate audits, the
results of the elapsed phase(s) were checked against the EMAS requirements and municipalities were assisted in planning
the next phase’s activities.




22
Phases of EMAS implementation process with references to chapters of the implementation guide




3.1       Setting the Stage
When, after careful consideration of the pros and cons, a municipality decides to implement an environmental management
system, it first runs a so-called scoping process to select the organisation for which it wants to implement the system. Then,
working structures need to be defined and management has to be involved in supporting the implementation process.


3.1.1    Selecting the Scope
In most cases it is not recommended to do EMAS for the entire local authority. Only in small municipalities (fewer than
0.000 citizens) with a small administration (fewer than 30 – 50 employees) can this be managed. In all other cases it is
better to start with selected units. Selection criteria can be:
    •    organisational units where environmental aspects play a major role,
    •    a multiplication function can be achieved and
    •    quick and good success (e.g. identification of easy financial savings) can be expected.
According to the EMAS Regulation, 8 an organisation may register units smaller than one site (subdivisions) under the
following circumstances:
    •    the subdivision of the organisational location produces clearly
         defined products, performs services or undertakes activities
         of its own and the environmental aspects and effects of the
         subfield can be clearly identified and differentiated from those
         of other, non-registered parts of the organisation location
    •    the subdivision possesses its own executive management
         and administration by means of which to organise and check
         its Environmental Management System and the effects on
         the environment and to undertake corrective measures if
         necessary
    •    the subdivision has been allocated clearly defined
         responsibilities so that it can achieve sufficient standards for
         approval and maintain the approved environmental standards
         thereafter.                                                           First ideas of a common scope in the Berzes Cluster
A typical scope for EMAS is an organisational unit such as:
    •    city hall or specific department(s) of administration
    •    school
    •    sewage plant or
    •    boiler house.


8 For more information see the “Guidance on Entity Suitable For Registration to EMAS”, COMMISSION DECISION of 7 September 200 on guidance for
  the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 76/200

                                                                                                                                           23
The scoping process can be supported by using managing tools like a “Weather Map” or a “SWOT Analysis”. Both help to
identify those administrative units that most urgently need treatment with environmental management. For templates
and a description of these tools see the EMAS4NewStates Toolbox (Workbook to Step ) on the project website
www.emas4newstates.lv.


 Example for Cluster Approach
 For EMAS4NewState project, the neighbouring municipalities Daugavpils and Naujene formed a cluster. Daugavpils
 selected to consider all activities of the communal services and real estate department. In Naujene the EMAS team
 selected the planning and communal services department. This selection allowed for joint assessment and planning
 for a common part of the landscape, the Lake of Stropi. Together, Daugavpils and Naujene want to preserve the famous
 lakeside area and apply for the blue flag tourism certificate. In addition the cluster developed a common approach for
 a waste separation site and the deposition of sludge from their waste water plant.

Weather Maps to Select a Scope



Use of raw materials

Use and choice of energy

Use of water and wastewater

Prevention and reduction of waste stream

Recycling and selective separation of waste

Air pollution, dust and odours

Reduction and control of noise and vibrations

Storage of products

Mobility and transport of employees and goods
                                                      Energy suplly
Green planning for products and services
                                                      Energy consumption
Health and safety in the workplace
                                                      Fresh water
Prevention of environmental accidents
                                                      Waste water
Environmental   information (internal and external)
                                                      Surface water (rivers, lakes)
Communication with suppliers and subcontractors

Neighbourhood (dialogue and implication)
Figure “Scoping process” shows how local scoping in every municipality and for an entire cluster can be woven onto each
 Motivation of managers
other. In order to gain maximum benefit from the cluster approach, the scoping process should have as many crossovers of
 Motivation of employees
the local scopes as possible. Figure ”Cluster scope” shows reasonable cluster scopes with various overlaps in organisational
 Environmental management practices
units.

Scoping process in clusters




                                                                                      Possible EMAS units in a cluster scope




24
3.1.2   Getting commitment from the head of municipality
Sometimes it might be necessary to convince the decision makers to get the commitment to take part in the EMAS process.
Therefore, the following steps are necessary:
   •    Selecting people who should be convinced and involved
   •     Meeting with key decision makers to
   	    • describe pressure and present list of benefits of EMAS
        • take away threats
        • discuss result of scoping
        • get commitment for allocating work force
        • get order to prepare a kick-off meeting and invite key players
   •    Meeting with other key players, presenting first results and inviting for kick-off meeting.
To convince decision makers it is important to outline benefits, clearly state what the EMAS regulation requires and how
many choices the implementers have (see chap. .3 and .4).




3.1.3 Establishing Management Structures
At the beginning it is indispensable to establish some management structures to have enough (wo)manpower to drive the
EMAS implementation process. In fact, this is not a requirement of the EMAS Regulation but a recommendation based on
the experience of many EMAS projects:
    •    Appointing an EMAS Coordinator
         The EMAS Coordinator is the project manager. He/she must have clearly defined responsibilities and authorities,
         must also have skills and capacity to drive the process and is responsible, for example, for the definition of
         work steps, tasks, schedules and for developing the roll-out strategy. He/she should have a good overview of
         the municipal administration’s organisational structure and be familiar with the responsibilities and means of
         influence associated with the environmental aspects of municipal activities.

   •    Involving an EMAS Consultant
        Unless there is vast management and project experience with the EMAS coordinator, he or she should get
        assistance from an experienced and EMAS-trained support person. It was one of the goals of the EMAS4NewStates
        project to build a team of such experts for Latvia and other New Member States.

   •    Establishing a Municipal EMAS Team
        The Municipal EMAS Team is a flexible group of members depending on the respective tasks and steps. The
        permanent members of the team should be the EMAS Coordinator, the EMAS consultant(s) and responsible
        representatives of all departments or units within the project scope. The EMAS Coordinator is the leader of the
        EMAS Team. The EMAS Team should comprise organisational knowledge, interpersonal and communication skills
        and project management ability.

        The EMAS Team should support the EMAS Coordinator during the
        - environmental evaluation (performance, compliance and system audits)
        - establishing of environmental goals and measures (environmental programme)
        - integration of the environmental management system in the municipality’s administrative structure
        - regular evaluation of the environmental programme
        - internal audits, if necessary

        The EMAS Team should consist of representatives of all relevant authorities and interest groups so that both the
        expert knowledge the project requires as well as all interested parties are involved. After all, it makes sense to
        report regularly to the town council on the project’s progress. The council and the mayor as executive powers
        are responsible for environmental management and adopting the environmental policy and programme, as well
        as the environmental statement. So there is quite some reason to invite upper management persons to become
        members of the EMAS team.

   •    Establishing an EMAS Cluster Team
        The underlying idea of the EMAS4NewStates project was the
        cluster approach. If municipalities decide - which is highly
        recommended! - to jointly implement EMAS, it might be helpful
        to formally create an EMAS Cluster Team for the coordination of
        managing tasks.



                                                                              Work Structure for a Cluster of Municipalities

                                                                                                                               25
  Summary of Steps
    . Do an initial analysis of areas of interest (use weather maps and/or SWOT analysis)
    2. Prepare a list of all locations / facilities and units in the municipality
    3. Select possible scopes, i. e. check which locations / facilities / units are most related to identified areas of
        interest
    4. Assess possible scopes against requirements of EMAS regulation
    5. Assess personnel resources of possible scopes
    6. establish an EMAS team and develop a project plan
    7. prepare and run a motivating kick-off workshop
    8. get final decision and commitment in kick-off workshop


  Key Points and Hints
     a select a feasible scope:
     	    •	relevant but not too big
     	    •	eligible according to EMAS regulation
     	    •	pilot unit with opportunity for expansion
     a convince decision maker(s) to support you in political and technical terms




3.2    Initial Environmental Review
The Initial Environmental Review (according to the definitions in article 2 of the EMAS Regulation) “shall mean an initial
comprehensive analysis of the environmental issues, impact and performance related to activities of an organisation”.


3.2.1 Goals and Requirements
There are two main goals of the Initial Environmental Review :
     •    Collecting all necessary information needed to identify and assess the significant environmental aspects: Objective
          is to provide baseline data to allow preparation and development of an Environmental Policy and Programme.
     •    The Initial Environmental Review also has to provide the basis for the Environmental Management System to be
          installed in the upcoming steps. This means that a review of the existing environmental management practices and
          procedures is necessary. The objective is to identify areas of strengths and weaknesses in existing environmental
          management practices and structures.
Therefore, EMAS Regulation Annex VII requires that the Environmental Review should cover five key areas:
(a) legislative, regulatory and other requirements to which the organisation subscribes;
(b) identification of all environmental aspects with a significant environmental impact in accordance with Annex VI (EMAS
Regulation), qualified and quantified as appropriate, and compiling a register of those identified as significant;
(c) description of the criteria for assessing the significance of the environmental impact in accordance with Annex VI (EMAS
Regulation), point 6.4;
(d) examination of all existing environmental management practices and procedures;
(e) evaluation of feedback from the investigation of previous incidents.
Concerning the environmental aspects, EMAS Regulation explains in Annex VII that “an organisation shall consider all
environmental aspects of its activities, products and services and decide, on the basis of criteria taking into account the
Community legislation, which of its environmental aspects have a significant impact, as a basis for setting its environmental
objectives and targets.…An organisation shall consider both direct and indirect environmental aspects of its activities,
products and services.”


3.2.2 Environmental Assessment Process
Local authorities often have limited knowledge of the aspects and impacts of their activities and services on the
environment. The Initial Environmental Review enables the local authority to focus on the most important issues, leading
to an Environmental Management System that is likely to be complete and effective.
The Initial Environmental Review should cover activities under both normal and abnormal conditions, as well as possible
emergency situations, for example fire. All environmental aspects of the selected scope shall be considered. The
significance of these aspects is determined by evaluating the significance of the environmental impacts that resulted from
the aspects.

26
    Definitions from EMAS regulation

    Environmental impact
    shall mean any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an
    organisation’s activities, products or services
    Environmental aspect
    shall mean an element of an organisation’s activities, products or services that can interact with the environment, (Annex
    VI); a significant environmental aspect is an environmental aspect that has or can have a significant environmental
    impact
    Direct environmental aspects:
    These cover the activities of an organisation over which it has management control and may include, but is not limited
    to:
         (a) emissions to air
        ….
        (d) use and contamination of land
        (e) use of natural resources and raw materials (including energy)
        …
        (g) transport issues (both for goods and services and employees)
        …
    Indirect environmental aspects:
    As a result of the activities, products and services of an organisation, there may be significant environmental aspects
    over which it may not have full management control. These may include, but are not limited to:
        (a) product related issues (… development, packaging, … use and … disposal)
        …
        (d) choice and composition of services (e.g. transport or the catering trade)
        (e) administrative and planning decisions
        …
        (g) the environmental performance and practices of contractors …and suppliers




3.2.3 Assessment of Aspects
It is not necessary to conduct studies and evaluations to assess the relevance of environmental aspects. It is enough to use
simple forms like forms 2.3 and 2.4 in the Workbook to step 2 9 with the following information:
     •     activity (with relevance to environmental aspects)
     •     all environmental aspects of each activity (short text, type and description)
     •     assessment of importance and influence
     •     evaluation of significance dependant on importance and influence
For the EMAS4NewState project all teams selected the following criteria for the evaluation of the significance of aspects:
     •     importance to the environment in five levels:
           () insignificant importance
           (2) minor local importance
           (3) major local importance
           (4) national importance
           (5) international importance
     •     influence of the municipality in five levels:
           () unit has very minor control over the impact
           (2) unit has a minor influence
           (3) unit has a medium influence
           (4) unit has a major influence
           (5) unit has direct control
Many other kinds of criteria could also be selected. As described in annex 6.4, the EMAS regulation offers quite some
leeway to implementers. But for the final audit the EMAS coordinator needs to be able to clearly explain the system used
to assess the significance of all aspects!



3.2.4 Collecting data with environmental relevance
For practical purposes it makes a lot of sense to maintain a database of key figures on
   •     water and energy consumption
   •     waste production
   •     input and output of consumables etc.
9    see toolbox on project website www.emas4newstates.lv

                                                                                                                             27
With those figures it will be much easier to make the required assessment of significance and to establish a reasonable
environmental programme and management system.
For EMAS4NewState, an Excel based Environmental Data Sheet was developed, which can be used to monitor key figures
for multiple years and so to assess the development of the environmental performance of the municipality. The Excel
Environmental Monitoring Data Sheet contains conversion and emissions factors and performance indicators will be
calculated automatically. They will help to increase clarity, transparency and comparability of the information.


                                                              EMAS4NewStates




                                                        Local authority environment data


                              Infrastructure data                           Input / Output                       Conversion factors


                               Base data of the                                                                Conversion factors for
                                                                Input                         Output
                                 municipality                                                                     CO 2 emissions

                            Base data of selected                                                                Conversion factors
                                                             Energy (1)                      Waste (1)
                                      unit                                                                              units

                                 vehicle eet                 Water (2)                   Waste water (2)

                                                             Hazardous
                                                                                        CO 2 emissions (3)
                                                           substances (3)




                                             Menu Screen of the Excel Environmental Monitoring Data Sheet




3.2.5 Visiting the sites and selected units
The Initial Environmental Review should comprise a visit to the units of the administration taking part in the EMAS process.
The visiting tour shall include in particular interviews with personnel. For a systematic approach, checklists can be used
that help to ensure completeness of the review process. Where necessary, photos can be taken to document good and
bad examples.
It might be very helpful to use another practical tool to analyse and manage the environmental performance of small units,
called Ecomapping 10. Under the motto “One little picture says more than a long speech!” it is a very simple and visual tool
which is easy to understand by all persons concerned.




                                                                                                             • aspect identification
                                                                                                             • root cause analysis!
                                                                                                             • action required
                                                                                                             • significant aspect




                                            Simple example of an EcoMap

0 Ecomapping was developed by Heinz Werner Engel in Brussels and is supported by INEM - International Network for Environmental Management.
   For more information see www.inem.org

28
3.2.6 Legal Compliance Audit
EMAS requires an index that includes all legislation relevant to the environment that the community is obliged to observe.
The index needs to be updated at regular intervals.
In the so-called compliance audit, the community’s conformity to legal standards, i.e. the observation of this legislation, is
to be assessed.
During the Initial Environmental Review, the following questions have to be answered:
    •    Has the local authority identified and understood the environmental legal and regulatory requirements applicable
         to its activities?
    •     Has the local authority established and does it maintain a list of all environmental laws and regulations pertaining
         to its activities?
    •    Does the municipality have procedures in place to track changes in environmental legal and regulatory
         requirements?
    •    How does the municipality communicate relevant information on environmental legal and regulatory requirements
         to employees?


3.2.7 Initial Environmental Review Summary Report
Though it is not obligatory, it makes good sense to summarise the most important results and problems at the end of the
Initial Environmental Review process. Such a report should include all findings, their significance and recommendations for
solutions. At the end of the implementation process, the EMAS verifier will greatly appreciate such a report!

   Summary of Steps
     . Collect all municipality´s activities and data with environmental relevance
     2. Evaluate municipality´s activities and data and assess the environmental significance (on the basis of
         selected and well documented criteria)
     3. Select the activities and environmental impacts with most significant importance
     4. Create a list of relevant legislation and check the legal compliance
     5. Visit the sites and selected units of municipality´s administration
     6. Summarise all results in a written report

   Key Points and Hints
      a During the Initial Environmental Review it is essential, to select important from unimportant things.
      a Important: purpose of review is to gather, record and analyse data in broad terms, not infinite detail.
      a Legal compliance is key to environmental performance. It is essential for certification.
      a It is quite normal if the Initial Environmental Review takes a lot of time, some weeks or even some months.
           But the effort pays off: at the end all information will help
                    a) to establish objectives and targets for the Environmental Programme
                    b) to develop an action programme with reasonable and cost effective measures
                    c) to establish the Environmental Management System
                    d) to write the Environmental Declaration for the public




3.3     Environmental Policy
The Environmental Policy (according to the definitions in article 2 of the EMAS Regulation) “shall mean an organisation’s
overall aims and principles of action with respect to the environment including
   • compliance with all relevant regulatory requirements regarding the environment and also
   • a commitment to continual improvement of environmental performance;
   • the environmental policy provides the framework for setting and reviewing environmental objectives and targets.”



3.3.1   Goals and Requirements
Annex -A.2 of the EMAS Regulation  sets up more detailed requirements: The head of the local authority “shall define the
organisation’s environmental policy and ensure that it
   •    is appropriate to the nature, scale and environmental impacts of its activities, products or services;
   •    includes a commitment to continual improvement and prevention of pollution;
   •    includes a commitment to comply with applicable legal requirements and with other requirements to which the
        organisation subscribes which relate to its environmental aspects;
 Text identical to ISO 400 figure 4.2

                                                                                                                           29
     •    provides the framework for setting and reviewing environmental objectives and targets;
     •    is documented, implemented and maintained
     •    is communicated to all persons working for or on behalf of the organisation, and
     •     is available to the public.”


3.3.2     Work process
The writing of an environmental policy is the logical starting point for establishing an Environmental Management System.
The policy can build on the overall ambitions of the municipality as well as on the findings of the Initial Environmental
Review. However, policy writing is quite a task, as it has to bring together the vision and mission of the municipality and its
senior management with the problems of everyday life in terms of the environment.
To produce a first draft document of consistent style and quality it is advisable to create a small team from all relevant levels
of the administration. This team is responsible for identifying and analysing the various issues and writing a policy which
reflects these.
Writing the policy, it will be necessary to think very clearly about who will be the “customers” for the policy text. It is likely
that the policy will be used to communicate with a wide range of people including
    •     all staff at all levels within the authority
    •     elected members
    •     the authority's suppliers, contractors and customers
    •     the general public.
To effectively communicate with these groups, the policy will need to be short, non-technical and general in character but
provide for the foundation for objectives, programmes of work and operational targets. In essence, the policy must contain
the vision and mission of the Council as far as the environment is concerned.
A quick review of other policies, both from the public and private sectors, may help to avoid "re-invention of the wheel".
There are many policies to be found in the Internet.
The purpose of the policy is to summarise a strategic discussion of concerned parties. The first groups that will need to
see the draft will almost certainly be the mayor of the local authority and the heads of the departments or units taking
part in the EMAS process. Discussion can be held in a meeting or in a corporate briefing system (e.g. managers collect
comments in team meetings). A consultation amongst staff should also be done by an internal newsletter or Electronic
Mail via Intranet.
Whether an external consultation with a number of stakeholders is needed should be decided depending on the local
activities of external stakeholder groups like environmental groups or residents. Perhaps consultation of the draft of the
Environmental Policy can be done as part of a Local Agenda 2 process.
To establish the Environmental Policy as a binding document, the finalised policy will need to be approved by the Head of
the municipality and the deputies of the council.


3.3.3     Policy dissemination
Once approved, it is important for the policy to be circulated widely amongst staff with appropriate information so that it
is fully understood and accepted. In addition it should also be circulated to environmental and other organisations in the
wider community (especially suppliers) and be made available to the general public. Both of these forms of dissemination
are requirements of EMAS and the EMAS verifier may want to know how they have been carried out.


     Summary of Steps
       . Write a draft policy on the basis of the analysis and assessment of the Environmental Review.
       2. Consult and first involve key members of local government and administration and revise the draft policy
           of necessary.
       3. Finally get formal approval at the highest levels of local government.
       4. Disseminate the policy to inform partners and get their buy-in.


     Key Points and Hints
        a Keep the policy slim!
        a However, the Environmental Policy must reflect the key environmental issues and responsibilities of local
             government as well as the EMAS requirements.
        a Read policies of other EMAS municipalities to get some inspiration of size, format and contents.
        a Involve administration, the council and (perhaps even) the public when discussing the draft policy.
        a Stay realistic and achievable (in terms of political support).




30
  Example: Environmental Policy of Naujene rural municipal council

  Naujene rural municipal council is a local administration body, which has the right to set up environmental policy on
  its administrative territory.
  Naujene municipality goal is to promote the wellbeing of its inhabitants, to ensure the preconditions for sustainable
  and balanced development of the municipality. Complying with the environmental legislation of the Republic of Latvia
  and with the integration principles of the European Union to promote diverse economic development, to ensure a
  healthy, favorable and safe environment for economic development and all inhabitants of the municipality.
  To achieve these goals, the Naujene rural municipal council has developed the Territorial Planning of the Naujene rural
  municipal council up to 205 and started its implementation.
  Naujene rural municipal council resolves constantly to reduce the negative environmental impacts of municipal
  activities within the limits of its financial and technical resources:
      . To make decisions that are aimed at improving the environmental quality in the municipality by prevention
            of pollution, including the reduction of environmentally hazardous emissions to the air, soil and water,
            prevention of hazardous waste penetration into the environment, promotion of waste separation, reduction
            of the consumption of energy, water and materials, increase the efficiency of heating systems;
      2. To develop an environmental protection plan for the municipality, based on the requirements of legislation of
            the Republic of Latvia, with the goal to align the requirements of environment protection and the development
            programme of the municipality with the interests of inhabitants;
      3. To educate and involve employees, inhabitants, entrepreneurs and students of the municipality in the
            environmental management process and environmental problem solving, thus promoting a more responsible
            attitude towards the environment;
      4. To promote rational and economical use of natural resources by promoting the implementation and use
            of environmentally friendly technologies in municipal institutions and enterprises located on municipal
            territory;
      5. To cooperate with non-governmental and research institutions on a local, regional, and national level in
            order to solve environmental problems together and to attract investment for the solution of environmental
            problems.
  We recognise that in addition to a Policy Statement, actions and improvements are needed. To help with putting
  the environmental policy into practice and achieving continual improvements of environmental performance an
  environmental management system has been developed.




3.4   Environmental Programme
For better understanding of the management instrument “Environmental Programme”, first some definitions from article
2 of the EMAS Regulation:
Environmental Objective shall mean an overall environmental goal, arising from the environmental policy that an
organisation sets itself to achieve, and which is quantified where practicable.
Environmental Target shall mean a detailed performance requirement, quantified where practicable, applicable to the
organisation or parts thereof, which arises from the environmental objectives and which needs to be set and met in order
to achieve those objectives.
Environmental Programme shall mean a description of the measures (responsibilities and means) taken or envisaged to
achieve environmental objectives and targets and the deadlines for achieving the environmental objectives and targets.


3.4.1   Goals and Requirements
With the above definitions, most of the important requirements have already been mentioned. The Environmental
Programme shall contain Environmental Objectives, targets and measures to meet those targets. The Environmental
Programme has to describe what action the local authority plans to take in order to comply with its policy and to ensure
continual improvement in its environmental performance. This “action” programme is designed to deliver the commitments
made in the policy and to manage the significant effects identified during the Initial Environmental Review.


3.4.2   Work process
The EMAS Team possibly together with an external consultant will have the task of outlining a draft of the Environmental
Programme. This programme will be based on the problems which are obvious or were detected during the Initial
Environmental Review. It shall be related to the overall objectives of the Environmental Policy and contain targets and
measures.
                                                                                                                        3
Thinking about the targets the EMAS Team has to make ensure that these targets are concrete and point to actions.
They need to be SMART:

Specific:          clear, unambiguous and easy to understand by those who are required to achieve them
Measurable:        must have means to assess achievement of target (in terms of substance and time)
Achievable:        must be linked to realistic measures and must have a reasonable timescale for achieving the target
Relevant:          related to work area of those who will be required to meet them; addressees must have enough control
                   over their work to be able to meet their targets
Timed:             set timescales for achieving the target; open-ended targets will not encourage focused effort on
                   improving performance


Measures in the action programme need to be related to the targets. The EMAS Team should find a balanced mix of three
types of action:

Control Activities related to aspects which are already being managed. All that is required are controls to ensure continuing
compliance.

Improvement Action addressed towards weaknesses identified during the review, or areas where existing management
needs to be improved.

Further Analysis Detailed review for areas or effects that could not be fully assessed during Initial Environmental Review
phase.

While municipal administrations other than production companies have little chance to directly spoil the environment with
their day-to-day work, the influence of their work on the environmental performance of enterprise and private households
can be large. So a good Environmental Programme will address both realms. The programme of a planning department
will most probably contain an activity like “make double sided copies” as well as “define a means to optimize plans for
housing areas to allow for maximum use of solar energy”.
Perhaps there can be some projects or activities which can be done in Public Private Partnership. A business and
municipality partnership is a systemic act of co-operation between the public and private sectors with a sharing of risk,
responsibility and reward, and with an expected net benefit to both partners.


  Example for Cluster Approach
  Bērzes, Līvbērzes, Jaunbērzes and Glūdas municipal councils formed a cluster in the EMAS4NewStates project. When
  developing their Environmental Programmes together, they formulated targets and activities such as:
     a establishing a common facility for sorting waste
     a preserving the quality of a river that runs through all four municipalities
     a planning and implementing a common polder system to attack annual floods
     a jointly preventing splitting of land and vast sales for housing of citizens from nearby big cities
     a cooperating in planning and maintaining roads


Last but not least, the programme has to be planned in the light of competing resource priorities. It is, therefore,
important to be realistic in developing the size of the programme. The authority cannot expect to manage everything at
once. Identification of the available environmental management resources, both in terms of staff resources and financial
provisions, is, therefore, essential. However, reasonable goals and measures should not be deleted from the programme
simply because the municipality lacks funds for the time being. EMAS also allows for a long-term realisation of an
environmental concept, i.e. longer than the validation period of three years.



3.4.3     Fitting the Environmental Programme to a structured format
It is up to the individual local authority to decide upon the structure of the environmental programme. In some cases it
may be appropriate to adopt the format or approach of existing plans or programmes, such as business plans or quality
programmes. One possibility is given with forms 4.4 and 4.5 in the Workbook to step 4. 2




2 see project website www.emas4newstates.lv (workbooks)

32
3.4.4   Involving Affected Parties
Writing a programme can be achieved relatively quickly.
However, getting commitment from all concerned parties
can take much longer. There will be at least a need for
the programme to be circulated to different levels of
administration of the municipality. If the action programme
contains measures that can be implemented with the support
of enterprise or civil society there might be a need to invite
those parties for a formal consultation.
                                                                  Involvement of key players establishing the Environmental Programme



3.4.5     Management Control of the Environmental Programme
After approval of the programme by the highest level of the municipality (mayor or council deputies) it is essential to ensure
that the implementation of the Environmental Programme will be initiated and controlled by the EMAS Coordinator or the
EMAS Team. Otherwise, even the best planned programmes will fail.

The main management control considerations are:
   •    How will we know if the actions have been completed?
   •    How will we ensure that individual actions are completed?
   •    What evidence will be used to demonstrate that an action has been completed (e.g. memo, minutes, report etc)?
   •    Who will initiate corrective action if an action has not been completed?

The procedure for management control of the implementation of the Environmental Programme must be a part of the
Environmental Management System (see chapter 3.5) and should be integrated into existing structures as far as possible.
The Environmental Programme is not a static “one-off “. It should be seen as a dynamic and “working” action plan as it will be
revised as a result of Environmental Audits (see chapter 3.7) and Management Reviews (see chapter 3.8), when actions are
completed or when new projects are launched. This on-going revision will require a degree of co-ordinated management
control but will ensure that continuous improvement in environmental performance is achieved.

  Summary of Steps
    . Write a Draft Environmental Programme on the basis of the analysis and assessment of the Initial Environmental
         Review
    2. Derive objectives and targets for the list of significant aspects.
         • In a creative process, develop means and measures to meet the targets
         • Decide upon the most effective projects and put those in the programme
         • Involve all concerned parties and get their buy-in for the programme.
    3. Get formal approval from the highest levels of local government and administration.

  Key Points and Hints
     a Don´t forget that the Environmental Programme should be a dynamic on-going instrument and that a
          procedure within the Environmental Management System is needed to track the implementation of the
          Environmental Programme.
     a Clearly distinguish between objectives and targets. Define SMART targets. Try to set quantified aims wherever
          possible. Clearly assign tasks to functions (or people)
     a Add objectives/targets/activities for direct/internal and indirect/external effects as well.
     a Develop a realistic set of activities. Use tools to prepare and make decisions like SWOT analysis, decision
          matrix (see EMAS4NewStates Toolbox).
     a Bear in mind that a local authority is free to decide the number of environmental objectives to be covered.
          The decisions might well be related to available budgets and other resources.

Environmental Programme of Naujene rural municipal council (Draft)
   Significant                                                                                                  Responsible
                            Targets                       Activities                    Time frame
    impacts                                                                                                       person
                                      The Development and Planning Department
                                               Purchasing energy efficient
 Electricity use    Rational use of                                                 0.2007 – 2.2009        Housekeeper
                                               bulbs and equipment
                    electricity on
                                               Informing employees and
 Lighting of        department premises.
                                               nomination of a person                                        Environmental
 premises           To reduce electricity                                           0.2006 – 2.2009
                                               responsible for turning off                                   specialist
                    consumption by 2%
                                               lighting and equipment

                                                                                                                                  33
     Significant                                                                                         Responsible
                            Targets                       Activities                 Time frame
      impacts                                                                                               person
                    Purchase and use           Purchasing of energy efficient                          Computer
                                                                                  0.2006 – 2.2009
 Office             of environmentally         computers                                               engineer
 equipment          friendly office            To use refilled cartridges for                          Computer
                                                                                  0.2007 – 2.2009
                    equipment                  colour printing                                         engineer
                                               Purchase for department needs
                                               recycled paper – 20% of total      0.2008 – 2.2009    Housekeeper
                                               needs
                                               To separate paper from other                            Environmental
                                                                                  04.2006 – 2.2009
                                               waste and to send for recycling                         specialist
                    To reduce paper
                                               To write instructions for                               Environmental
 Paper use          consumption in the                                            Till 04.2007
                                               effective paper use                                     specialist
                    department by 0%
                                               To start registration of
                                                                                                       Head of
                                               paper consumption in the           06.2006 – 2.2009
                                                                                                       Department
                                               department
                                                                                                       Head of
                                               To purchase two-sided printer      Till 2. 2008
                                                                                                       Department
 Project            To attract investments
 management         for the large scale        To attend seminars which are                            Personnel
                                                                                  0.2007 – 2. 2009
 and                projects with positive     improving project writing skills                        Manager
 coordination       environmental effects
 Elaboration of                                                                                        Head of
                                               Development of the review          Till 09.2007
 environmental      To elaborate an                                                                    Department
 review for the     environmental review
                                               Based on the environmental
 territorial plan   for the territorial plan                                                           Environmental
                                               review to elaborate                Till 09.2007
 up to year of      up to the year 205;                                                               specialist
                                               environmental action plan
 2015
     Significant                                                                                          Responsible
                            Targets                       Activities                  Time frame
      impacts                                                                                               person
                                        The Real Estate Management Department
 Electricity use                               To purchase energy efficient
                    Rational use of                                               0.2007 – 2.2009    Housekeeper
 Lighting of                                   bulbs
                    electricity on
 premises                                      To distribute reminders of
                    department premises                                           0.2007 – 2.2009    Housekeeper
                                               energy saving (orally, stickers)
                                               To change old vehicles for
                                                                                                       Head of
                                               new ones with effective fuel       0.2007 – 2.200
                    More efficient use of                                                              Department
                                               consumption
 Use of             municipal transport,
                                               To introduce registration log of                        Head of
 transport          to reduce fuel                                                0.2006 – 2.2009
                                               transport use                                           Department
                    consumption by %.
                                               To design united transport                              Head of
                                                                                  0.2006 – 2.2009
                                               routes                                                  Department
                                               To keep in order recreation
                                                                                                       Head of
                                               areas at historical places and     0.2006 – 2.2009
                                                                                                       Department
 Elimination of     To reduce generation       villages
 unauthorized       of unauthorised            To promote conclusion
 dumps              dumps.                     of agreements for waste                                 Environmental
                                                                                  0.2007 – 2.2009
                                               management in enterprises and                           specialist
                                               private sector
                                               To gradually exchange small
                                               architectural forms made of                             Head of
                                                                                  0.2007 – 202
                                               metal for wooden and plastic                            Department
                    To carry out works         ones at Children’s playgrounds
 Municipal
                    on the territories’
 territories                                   To use ecologically friendly                            Head of
                    management and                                                0.2007 – 2.2009
 management                                    materials in improvement works                          Department
                    improvement in an
 and                                           Maintaining greenery to replace
                    environmentally
 improvement                                   use of chemical fertilisers with   0.2007 – 2.2009    Housekeeper
                    friendly way.
                                               organic ones
                                                                                                       Head of
                                               To replace old mowers              0.2007 – 2.2009
                                                                                                       Department
34
3.5     Environmental Management System
According to EMAS Regulation article 2, the Environmental Management System (EMS) “shall mean the part of the overall
management system that includes the organisational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures,
processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing and maintaining the environmental policy.”
That sounds difficult and means in simpler terms: the organisation shall clearly describe what management means; it
ensures that environmental aspects are taken care of. In many cases most parts of that management system are already in
place and the EMS can refer to existing structures, procedures, etc. If there are missing pieces - particularly in those realms
for which the Environmental Review has shown significant aspects - the implementation process for EMAS must close the
gaps.


3.5.1    Goals and Requirements

To ensure that its Environmental Management              EMAS Regulation, Annex I
System is understood by all relevant parties and         I-A. Environmental management system requirements
operating effectively, an organisation should                    (structure)
develop and maintain adequate documentation.
                                                         I-A.1. General requirements
The purpose is to provide necessary information
to employees and other interested parties as             I-A.2. Environmental policy
appropriate. According to EMAS regulation,               I-A.3. Planning
Annex I-A.4.4, the environmental management                      I-A.3.. Environmental aspects
system documentation shall include:                              I-A.3.2. Legal and other requirements
   “(a) the environmental policy, objectives                     I-A.3.3. Objectives, targets and programme(s)
        and targets;                                     I-A.4. Implementation and operation
   (b) description of the scope of the                           I-A.4.. Resources, roles, responsibility and authority
        environmental management system;                         I-A.4.2. Competence, training and awareness
   (c) description of the main elements of the                   I-A.4.3. Communication
        environmental management system                          I-A.4.4. Documentation
        and their interaction, and reference to                  I-A.4.5. Control of Documents
        related documents;                                       I-A.4.6. Operational control
   (d) documents, including records, required                    I-A.4.7. Emergency preparedness and response
        by EMAS and
                                                         I-A.5. Checking
   (e) documents,        including      records,
                                                                 I-A.5.. Monitoring and measurement
        determined by the organisation to
                                                                 I-A.5.2. Evaluation of compliance
        be necessary to ensure the effective
                                                                 I-A.5.3 Nonconformity, corrective action and preventive
        planning, operation and control of
                                                                 action
        processes that relate to its significant
                                                                 I-A.5.3. Control of Records
        environmental aspects.”
                                                                 I-A.5.4. Internal audit
For practical purposes, these documents                  I-A.6. Management review
are contained or referred to by a so-called
Environmental Manual. An overview of the (minimum) contents of the Environmental Management System (EMS) and
the Environmental Manual can be obtained by looking at the structure of EMAS Regulation Annex I.

Benefits of a well-documented Environmental Management System (EMS) are:
    •     Good environmental practice is incorporated into the culture of the organisation and no longer seen as
          peripheral.
    •     Implementation of EMS is seen as the responsibility of all staff, and not just the Environment staff.
    •     The Environmental Policy and Programme will be implemented and regularly updated.
    •     Good practice will be maintained even if committed staff leave the organisation.
    •     New activities will be subject to Environmental Review and incorporated into the EMS if they are environmentally
          significant.
    •     Corporate environment working groups and committees are given a clear role and this motivates staff and
          councillors to participate.
    •     The local authority can readily demonstrate that it is meeting legislative requirements.
Environmental Management Systems in general and EMAS in particular are not as complicated as they appear at first.
All that is needed is a well-structured manual and a notion of how the general and technical formulations in the EMAS
Regulation can be transformed into everyday practice.
The EMS should be integrated into overall management. There is no use trying to slot the administration of a local
authority into the configuration of the EMAS Environmental Management System requirements. A modern approach to
implementing a management system looks at the business processes and then designs the management system around
existing structures and processes. Instruments should be co-ordinated and integrated for the objectives of the EMS. Thus,
acceptance by all levels of municipality staff and decision makers can be reached much better.
                                                                                                                            35
3.5.2 Work process and Documentation
                                                         Structure of the EMAS4NewStates Master Manual
Since documentation is the Alpha and
Omega of the EMS, first there needs to                      1 Introduction
be a decision on how to develop and                         2 Organisation
maintain an Environmental Manual and all                    3 Environmental Policy, objectives, targets and programmes
related documents. The documents of the                     4 Internal Environmental Work
Environmental Management System can be                           4.      Internal waste management
managed in any medium (paper, electronic,                        4.2      Technical and structural facilities
photos, posters) that is practical, legible,                     4.3      Procurement
easy to understand and accessible to those                       4.4      Management of Resources
who need the information contained therein.                      4.5      Travelling
There can be advantages to maintaining                           4.6      Health and Safety
documents electronically, such as ease of                        4.7      Emergency Handling and Prevention of Hazards
updating, controlling access, and ensuring
that all users are using the valid versions of              5 Working in municipal framework
documents.                                                       5.      Nature and Landscape
                                                                 5.2      Development, Planning and Building
Usually the Environmental Management                             5.3      Transport and Mobility
System is documented in a manual which                           5.4      Administration and Operation of Real Estate
reflects all relevant regulations of EMAS, like                  5.5      Energy Supply and Usage
    •     Overview of the organisation                           5.6      Water Management
    •     Organisation’s profile and scope of                    5.7      Soil Protection and Brownfields
          services and products                                  5.8      Public Waste Management
    •     Roles        and        responsibilities:              5.9      Business Development
          Management hierarchy and how                      6 Communication, Documentation and Training
          responsibilities for environmental                     6.      Internal communication
          management          fit     into     the               6.2      External communication, environmental statement
          organisation                                           6.3      Competence, training and awareness
    •     Procedures and instructions for                        6.4      Control of documents
          all topics according to the EMAS                       6.5      Maintaining Legal Register
          requirements.
Since all municipalities which are                          7 Checking- and Monitoring System
implementing EMAS must cover more or                             7.      Direct and Indirect Environmental Aspects
less the same topics, there will undoubtedly                     7.2      nternal Audit
be a lot of similarities between these EMAS                      7.3      Management Review
Manuals in different municipalities. Therefore,                  7.4      Validation with External Verifier
in the EMAS4NewStates project an EMAS
Master Manual was developed and used as a
template by all participating municipalities 3.
While chapters 2, 3, 6 and 7 describe structures and procedures that are very much related to the EMAS regulation,
chapters 4 and 5 describe “the real work” of the organisation. Chapter 4 concentrates on internal aspects, i. e. on how
the administration organises its office and shop floors in an environmentally friendly way. Chapter 5 describes typical
municipal activities with external and / or indirect effects. While any administrative unit selected for the EMAS scope will
most probably have very similar entries in chapter 4, the respective contents of chapter 5 will depend on the selected unit
and the tasks that are considered to be significant for the environment.

3.5.3 Procedures for environmental key processes
For effective management of its environmental key processes (i.e. those related to its identified significant environmental
aspects), an organisation should establish procedures that describe, in appropriate detail, a specific way of carrying out
each process. These procedures are either contained in the Environmental Manual or stored at a specific place and referred
to by the Manual.
Normally the EMAS management system will contain the following processes and according procedures:
    •    collecting, identifying and assessing environmental aspects and impacts (i. e. a description of how to continue the
         work started during the Initial Environmental Review)
    •    identification and maintenance of legal and other requirements (i. e. how to ensure legal compliance, see chap.
         3.2.6)
    •    developing and achieving objectives and targets and the management of the environmental management
         programme (i. e. how to develop and control an Environmental Programme, see chap. 3.4)
    •    handling and/or disposal of hazardous materials
    •    operational control and maintenance
    •    internal and external communication
3 The EMAS Master Manual is part of the EMAS4NewStates Toolbox which can be obtained from the project website www.emas4newstates.lv and the
   website of INEM, the International Network for Environmental Management www.inem.org (section “tools”).

36
   •     environmental training
   •     documenting, recording and controlling the EMS system
   •     auditing, reviewing and continuous improvement (i. e. how to run internal audits and involve the upper
         management level, see chap. 3.6 and 3.7).
Most of these processes and procedures are very much related to the systematic approach of EMAS and will be new for the
organisation. However, there are proven ways to run those processes so a municipality can rely on existing examples and
adapt them to their needs. The EMAS4NewStates Master Manual contains reasonable templates for those procedures.
For many other activities most probably there will be procedures already in place. For example for waste disposal or use
of hazardous chemicals, it is very likely that there is a written procedure in place. For many other activities that have been
found significant for the environment, such as what to do with used oil and batteries from vehicles or how to respond to a
planning application on contaminated land, there will be some typical way how to do it, but the procedure will probably
not be formalised and public to everybody. This is where during the EMAS implementation process a formal procedure has
to be written and stored.


3.5.4 Instruments for Environmental Management Systems
An Environmental Management System is not just some written chapters in a manual. The manual rather gives an overview
and refers to all kinds of instruments used to organise environmental interests in the whole administration of the local
authority.

For example, instruments used to describe responsibilities and duties are:
   •    organisational flowcharts
   •    simple listings of tasks for each department or single persons / functions
   •    job descriptions
   •    a matrix with tasks and responsibilities of different persons / functions.

Example for a task and responsibility matrix

  No.   task                                   responsible       cooperation with     Information to     decision by

        Selection of (one or more) waste       Executive         Environmental                           Chairman of the
  ()                                                                                 LA employees
        management operator(s)                 director          specialist                              council
        Organisation and execution             Waste
                                                                 Environmental
  (2)   of separation, collecting and          management                             LA employees       Executive director
                                                                 specialist
        transportation of municipal waste      operator
                                                             Waste
        Control of waste container filling     Environmental
  (3)                                                        management
        and removal schedule                   specialist
                                                             operator
        Handling of hazardous wastes
                                               Waste
        (declaration, agreement with                             Environmental
  (4)                                          management                             LA employees       Executive director
        licensed waste management                                specialist
                                               operator
        companies)

As mentioned above, many processes are already fixed in existing procedures or work instructions. These existing
regulations may be used and the EMAS manual can refer to them without doubling.

For the external verifier, management systems will have to prove that they are implemented and work well. Therefore,
records are needed to demonstrate conformity to the requirements of the management system. Wherever possible,
existing documentation instruments should be used, such as:
    • annual records of the consumption of water, gas and electricity held in the bookkeeping department
    • machine logs e. g. in boiler houses or in sewage plants
    • folders with certificates for training and instruction of staff in the personnel office.

Existing planning instruments should be integrated, such as:
    • simple tables to plan inspection and control of plants and machines
    • annual training plans for the entire staff.
Furthermore, existing communication structures like daily meetings or notice-boards can be used and supplemented with
environmental interests.
For all the mentioned tools, the Environmental Manual shall only refer to their existence and name the responsible function
or person who has to ensure that these tools are used and adapted as needed. However, while referring to them in the
manual, the EMAS coordinator should make sure that the tools provide for enough environmental performance. Otherwise,
the verifier of the system might not accept them as being part of a functioning Environmental Management System.

                                                                                                                           37
  Summary of Steps
    . Charge the EMAS coordinator with the design, writing, circulation of drafts etc. of the Environmental
        Management Manual chapters and procedures.
    2. Decide upon the format and document storage for the Environmental Management Manual
    3. Select the relevant issues that must be managed by the EMS and , by that, define the contents of the
        Environmental Manual.
    4. Establish small working groups for the work on each element of the EMS involving those people who will
        have to implement the regulations.
    5. Decide to use existing or develop new regulations or procedures to manage tasks related to significant
        aspects. Choose practical instruments for each element of the EMS.
    6. Assign tasks to draft chapters and procedures to experts in the administration. The EMAS coordinator and, if
        available, external consultant shall help those experts to prepare chapters of the Environmental Manual so
        they will be accepted by the external verifier.
    7. Get the whole manual with all supplementing documents set into force by the senior management of the
        administration.
    8. Make the manual available to everybody and make sure that management and employees understand and
        follow the new Environmental Management System.

	 Key Points and Hints                                                                                                     	
      a    Keep it brief!
      a    Rely on the EMAS4NewStates Master Manual!
      a    Wherever possible, simply write down what you are already doing. But reconsider that you are doing it in a
           reasonably environmental friendly way!
      a    The key to success is to integrate environmental responsibilities into the general management system of the
           municipality and into the responsibilities of staff on every level, from the Mayor to the street cleaners.
      a    Wherever possible, integrate existing instruments into your environmental management procedures. Many
           administrative instruments may originate from existing fields of activity (i.e. spatial planning methods).
      a    Involve staff in designing those parts of the system which they will have to implement.
      a    Feel free to change your current system if it is not working well.




3.6    Internal Audit
Audits ensure that the activities carried out by an organisation are being conducted in accordance with their established
procedures. The audit may also identify any problems with those established procedures or any opportunities for improving
them. EMAS requires two levels of audit:
   •     Internal audits and Management Reviews (see chap. 3.7) are conducted as the responsibility of the organisation
         itself. They are part of the Environmental Management System. Both have to be conducted in a formal way, which
         has to be described in the Environmental Manual.
   •     External audits are conducted by an independent, certified environmental verifier (see chap. 3.9).
A reasonable auditing schedule is demonstrated below. While external audits happen every 3 years, internal audits and
management reviews shall be done every year. However, the internal audit need not cover all realms of the organisation.
Topics for the audit can well be split over the years.
For the EMAS4NewsStates project it was decided that
   •     extra audits during the implementation phase shall be done (see EMAS implementation chart) . This approach
         proved to be very valuable since external EMAS experts (in this case from B.A.U.M. in Germany) could help to
         develop the system in a feasible and effective way rather than making too much effort and still getting into trouble
         when the external verifiers arrive.




38
Time Schedule for EMAS Audits and Reviews




3.6.1 Goals and Requirements
In the EMAS Regulation, the entire Annex II is devoted to the Internal Environmental Audit. It says: “The objectives shall
include, in particular, assessing the management systems in place, and determining conformity with the organisation’s
policy and programme, which shall include compliance with relevant environmental regulatory requirements.”
It is not the role of the Internal Environmental Audit, for example, to produce monitoring reports on the environmental
programme, or on trends in the environmental impact of the municipality. This kind of monitoring has to be incorporated
into the Environmental Management System, where it is specified what information will be collected, who will collect it,
and when and where the results will be reported and assessed. The purpose of the internal audit is only to check that such
records are being kept, that the statistics reported are accurate and that there is a feasible procedure in place to react. In
that, the Internal Environmental Audit differs very much from the Initial Environmental Review. It focuses much more on
the checking of the functioning of the Environmental Management Systems than on the environmental performance.
While it is not the task of the Internal Audit, most organisations use the opportunity of the audit to also check the
environmental status and performance of the organisation. One might want to call that an Environmental Review and do
it much like the Initial Environmental Review (see chap. 3.2) . However, it is important to understand that from a formal
point of view these reviews are different and that reports need to be kept separate.



3.6.2    Work process

Audit Programme
An Internal Environmental Audit normally starts with the preparation of an audit programme containing
   •    the objectives of the audit, such as assessing the management system in place and the compliance with relevant
        environmental regulatory requirements,
   •     the overall scope of the individual audits, such as subject areas covered; activities to be audited; environmental
        criteria to be considered and the period covered by the audit,
   •    the plan for interviews with responsible managers and staff, reviews of documentations and records and inspection
        of operating conditions and equipment.
The audit programme has to be announced in good time and to everybody, particularly to the people concerned.

Audit Team
Internal audits shall be carried out by persons sufficiently independent of the activity being audited to ensure an impartial
view. They may be carried out by employees of the organisation or by external parties (employees from other organisations,
employees from other parts of the same organisation or consultants). In either case, persons conducting the audit should
be competent and in a position to do so impartially and objectively. One advantage of the cluster approach can be to
form an audit team with members from other municipalities in the cluster who are familiar but still independent from the
organisation being audited.
After selecting an audit team leader and the other members of the audit team for the first (and other) audits there should
be training to get the needed competence.


                                                                                                                           39
Preparing the Internal Environmental Audit the audit team has to
   •     create checklists,
   •     identify the audit reference criteria (e.g. applicable procedures, standards, laws and regulations, management
         system requirements, contractual requirements) and
   •     familiarise themselves with the activities and the situation of the unit to be audited.
Audit activities
Audit activities shall include discussions with personnel, inspection of operating conditions and equipment and
reviewing of records, written procedures and other relevant documentation. Inter alia, spot-checking of compliance
with the Environmental Management System requirements should be used to determine the effectiveness of the entire
management system.
The Internal Environmental Audits should normally consider the following questions:
   •     Does the environmental policy of the local authority meet the requirements of the EMAS regulation?
   •     Does the environment programme and the management system meet the commitments made in the
         environmental policy?
   •     Does the environment programme and the management system manage the significant environmental effects?
   •     Are all statistics or results reported accurately and based on auditable records, i.e. can the accuracy be checked?
   •     Is the Management System being followed?
   •     Is the local authority or the operational unit complying with all relevant environmental legislation and
         regulations?

Audit Report
The results of the audit are to be documented by the audit team or its leader in a written audit report. The fundamental
objectives of this report are:
    •     to document the scope of the audit;
    •     to provide management with information on the state of compliance with the organisations' environmental policy
          and the environmental progress at the organisation;
    •     to provide management with information on the effectiveness and reliability of the arrangements for monitoring
          environmental impacts of the organisation;
    •     to demonstrate the need for corrective action, where appropriate.
The audit report has to be communicated by the audit team leader to the senior management, the EMAS coordinator and
to all responsible persons, who were interviewed during the audit.

Audit follow-up
At the end of the audit process there shall be a plan of appropriate corrective action.

  Summary of Steps                                                                                                   	
                                                                                                                     	
    . Select an audit team leader and members of the audit team by decision of the EMAS coordinator or the senior
        management. In case of a cluster approach, ask EMAS coordinators of other cluster members to join the
        team.
    2. Train the audit team, prepare checklists and announce the audit.
    3. Assure a real audit situation according to the EMAS requirements, with interviews, document checks and site
        inspections by competent and independent auditors.
    4. Document the audit results in a written report and suggest corrective actions to be discussed with the people
        concerned and the responsible persons of the management.

  Key Points and Hints                                                                                            	
     a Interviews should be conducted during normal working hours and, where practical, at the normal workplace 	
          of the person being interviewed.
     a Use effective interview methods:
  	       	        •	Use short and precise questions!
  	       	        •	Avoid redundant questions (questions, with no additional information)!
  	       	        •	Avoid using closed question, i. e. no questions that can be answered with “yes” or “no”!
  	       	        •	Avoid sub-questions and chain questions!
  	       	        •	Avoid leading questions!
     a The Internal Environmental Audit should be seen as a chance for improvement and as the last possibility to
          detect problems before the external verifier detects them!




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3.7   Management Review
The management review involves senior management in the definition and controlling of the Environmental Management
System. It creates buy-in and gives the EMS “power of position”. According to the typical audit schedule, the Management
Review goes along with the Internal Audits (see chap. 3.6).
The Management Review closes the plan-do-check-act loop (see chap. .3), upon which an Environmental Management
System is based. When properly implemented, the management review will contribute to a successful and sustainable
EMS, which will bring many other benefits to the local authority.

3.7.1    Goals and Requirements
The Management review is described in detail in the EMAS Regulation Annex I-A.6. There it says: “Senior management shall
review the organisation’s environmental management system, at planned intervals, to ensure its continuing suitability,
adequacy and effectiveness. Reviews shall include assessing opportunities for improvement and the need for changes to the
environmental management system, including the environmental policy and environmental objectives and targets. … The
outputs from management reviews shall include any decisions and actions related to possible changes to environmental
policy, objectives, targets and other elements of the environmental management system, consistent with the commitment
to continual improvement.” EMAS regulation also requires that records of the management reviews be retained.

3.7.2     Work process
It is most appropriate to do the Management Review after the evaluation of the internal audits and after having collected
and evaluated the relevant environmental data of the previous year. It is recommended the Management Review should
be integrated once a year in a meeting of the senior management (Mayor / town councillor / parliament). Based on
the Management Review, the senior management shall determine the actions required to improve the Environmental
Management System (EMS) to meet environmental policy, objectives and to ensure continual improvement.
The EMAS coordinator should prepare and attend the review meeting and formally present the basic information:
     •    results of internal audits and evaluations of compliance with legal requirements and with other requirements to
          which the organisation subscribes
     •    communication(s) from external interested parties, including complaints
     •    the environmental performance of the organisation
     •    the extent to which objectives and targets have been met
     •    status of corrective and preventive actions
     •    follow-up actions from previous management reviews
     •    changing circumstances, including developments in legal and other requirements related to its environmental
          aspects and
     •    recommendations for improvement.
The agenda must include the above mentioned topics. For every topic the group should reflect on
     •    present situation and results
     •    assessment in terms of compliance and needs to react
     •    recommendations for improvement
     •    measures to control the effectiveness of corrective and preventive actions.
Results of the discussion (particularly decisions on corrective actions and preventive actions) must be recorded in a
(formless) protocol.

  Summary of Steps                                                                                                  	
    . Put Management Review on the agenda of a senior management meeting not less than once a year.
                                                                                                                    	
    2. Prepare an agenda with relevant topics to discuss. Don´t forget to follow the obligatory topics according to
        the EMAS requirements.
    3. Document the results including corrective actions and preventive actions and have them signed by senior
        management.

  Key Points and Hints                                                                                             	
     a Regular involvement of the senior management is one of the most important steps to keeping an
                                                                                                                   	
          Environmental Management System alive and successful. Convince management to consider EMS as an
          important task and to allocate enough time to the Management Review.
     a Do not concentrate on formal Environmental System Topics only, but take the chance to discuss environmental
          performance and situation with upper management.
     a Describe the schedule and process of Management Reviews as part of the Environmental Manual and follow
          this process every year.




                                                                                                                      4
3.8    Environmental Statement
The environmental statement is a tool for communication and dialogue with the public and other interested parties regarding
environmental performance. It summarises the most important aspects of the Environmental Management System (EMS)
and describes the organisation’s performance. It can be used for public relations and as a means to communicate with
partners. While other types of EMS (like ISO 400) do not require such a public statement EMAS formally requests such a
document. However, EMAS implementers are quite free in designing size and format.

3.8.1 Goals and Requirements
EMAS Regulation Annex 3 explains in detail the objectives and the required content of the Environmental Declaration or
Environmental Statement:
“The aim of the environmental statement is to provide environmental information to the public and other interested parties
regarding the environmental impact and performance and the continual improvement of environmental performance of
the organisation. … Environmental information shall be presented in a clear and coherent manner in printed form for
those who have no other means of obtaining this information. Upon its first registration and every three years thereafter,
the organisation is required to make available the information detailed under point 3.2 in a consolidated printed version.
…The organisation shall consider the information needs of the public and other interested parties when writing and
designing the environmental statement.”
The minimum requirements for the contents of such a statements are:
   •    A description of the organisation/operational unit and a summary of its activities, products and services and its
        relationship to any parent organisations as appropriate;
   •    A copy of the environmental policy and a brief description of the environmental management system of the
        organisation;
   •    A description of all the significant direct and indirect environmental impacts, and an explanation of the nature of
        the impacts;
   •    A description of the environmental objectives and targets in relation to the significant environmental aspects and
        impacts;
   •    A summary of the data available on the performance of the organisation against its environmental objectives and
        targets. The summary may include figures on pollutant emissions, waste generation, consumption of raw material,
        energy and water, noise etc.
   •    Other factors regarding environmental performance including performance against legal provisions with respect
        to their significant environmental impacts;
   •    The name and accreditation number of the environmental verifier and the date of validation.


3.8.2     Work process
Normally the EMAS Team will have the task to outline a draft
                                                               Example: Structure of Environmental Statement
of the Environmental Statement. The EMAS team could be
supported by an external consulter, by competent staff of      1. Foreword
the Public Relations Department of the municipality or         2. The organisation
other people with similar function.                                   2..     Administrative Units
If the Initial Environmental Review was well done and if              2.2.     Tasks
all data collecting is well organised in the Environmental            2.3.     Environmental success stories
Management System, it should not be too big a task to          3. Environmental Aspects
produce the first Environmental Statement and to update
                                                                      3..     Assessment of Direct Impacts
it over the years.
                                                                      3.2.     Assessment of Indirect Impacts
                                                               4. Overview of key data
3.8.3     Contents and Readers’ Requirements
EMAS statements need not be big. A short, well-presented       5. Environmental Policy
statement can convey all the appropriate information.          6. Environmental Management System
This is particularly true for small organisations. Some have          6..     Organisational structure
managed to put everything onto 4 pages!                               6.2.     Responsibilities
Interested parties require different kinds of information.            6.3.     Internal and External Communication
Early consideration of their needs is important in deciding    7. Targets and Environmental Programme
what to include in the Environmental Statement, what
                                                               8. Glossary
form it should take and how it should be communicated.
As described above the EMAS regulation has some distinct       9. Contacts
requirements for the content of the Environmental              10. External verification
Statement. Nevertheless, from the PR point of view it could            0..   Date of next Environmental Statement
make sense to consider some additional information, for                0.2.   Environmental verifier
example                                                                0.3.   Statement of Validity
    •     presentation of the EMAS team                                0.4.   Registration certificate

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   •     examples of environmental actions (reporting successes)
   •     background information
   •     context of implementing EMAS (“ … as a member of a European Life project”)
   •     related activities (e.g. Local Agenda 2)
   •     future plans (“… expand to other administrative units”)
   •     glossary of terms.
EMAS Regulation does not specify a structure for the Environmental Statement or the order in which items should be
presented. If a municipality produces a Environmental Statement covering multiple geographic locations, it should consider
how to structure the statement to ensure that the significant environmental impacts of each site are clearly identified and
reported in the common Environmental Statement. Otherwise the EMAS verifier will most likely reject the document.
Readers of the Environmental Statement may want to compare the results of an organisation’s environmental performance
over time in order to identify significant trends. It is, therefore, important to include the same type of information in every
revision of the statement.


3.8.4      Design and Dissemination
Similar to the process of establishing the Environmental Programme it is necessary after having drawn up a draft of the
Environmental Statement to get the commitment of all concerned parties within the administration of the municipality.
As it will be published the Environmental Statement must be approved by the head of the municipality (the mayor or the
deputies of the council).
The Environmental Statement need not necessarily be printed. It is sufficient to disseminate it via Internet in electronic
format and to hand out copies to those interested people who do not have access to the internet. In this way, a local
authority can avoid the cost of producing large numbers of expensive glossy reports.
But, on the other hand, a well designed and printed Environmental Statement could be a practical marketing brochure
to demonstrate the attractiveness and modernity of the municipality. In particular the Environmental Statement provides
an opportunity to market a positive image of the municipality´s performance in cooperating with citizens, customers,
suppliers, neighbourhoods, contractors and, last but not least, the employees.

	 Summary of Steps                                                                                                            	
  For the first Environmental Statement:
     . Decide who the audience for the statement will be and how the statement will be disseminated.
     2. Decide upon the content and format of the statement.
     3. Collect information from all previous implementation steps and draft the statement.
     4. Include relevant environmental data and comment in the statement if and why important data are not
            available.
     5. Get the commitment of the major of the local authority and the heads of the departments or units taking
            part in the EMAS process.
     6. Present the statement to the external verifier.
     7. After verification and registration publish the statement and update it on an annual basis.

  For further Environmental Statements:
     8. Describe the most important changes in technical regard and in organisational culture.
     9. Give account of the Environmental Programme implementation and comment without reservation on why
           targets have not been achieved.
     0. Tell about your experiences with and the results of internal Environmental Audits and Management
           Reviews.
     . Inform about the nature and number of complaints and the way they were treated.

  Key Points and Hints                                                                                                	
                                                                                                                      	
     a EMAS coordinators should check the internet for examples of Environmental Statements of other local
          authorities and get some inspiration of best (or worst) practice.
     a For further help, see EC Commission Recommendation “Guidance on the EMAS Environment Statement”
          (Official Journal of the European Communities, 7.9.200, page L 247/2). This is a really comprehensive
          guidance with many practical suggestions on how to produce the first Environmental Statement and how
          to regularly update it.
     a Every single word in the Environmental Statement has to be true! The verifier will judge the accuracy of data,
          qualitative and quantitative comments, presentation of data, etc. You need to be able to demonstrate the
          accuracy of the data, the basis of your value judgements etc.
     a Use performance indicators to increase clarity, transparency and comparability of emissions and materials
          input and output.


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The first Environmental Statement will set the standard for the following statements. For further statements the focus
should not be on changing size and format but rather on reporting the latest status of the environment, successful
implementation of activities in the Environmental Programme and changes to the system.
Since the Environmental Statement contains the Statement of Validity and the Registration certificate it cannot be published
before having successfully passed the external audit (see chap. 3.9).




3.9    External Validation
As one of the most important added values of EMAS an assessment by an independent, certified environmental verifier is
required. It is only after this person has “validated” the management system that it may be called an approved environmental
management system according to EMAS.



3.9.1 Goals and Requirements
Annex 5.4 of the EMAS Regulation deals with the function and the task of the EMAS verifier called environmental verifier:
“The function of the environmental verifier is to check, without prejudice to the enforcement powers of Member States in
respect of regulatory requirements:
    (a) compliance with all the requirements of this Regulation: initial environmental review if appropriate, environmental
         management system, environmental audit and its results and the environmental statement;
    (b) the reliability, credibility and correctness of the data and information in:
         – the environmental statement (Annex III, point 3.2 and point 3.3),
         – environmental information to be validated (Annex III, point 3.4).
The environmental verifier shall not validate the environmental statement if during the verification process he observes,
for example through spot-checks, that the organisation is not in legal compliance.”


3.9.2     Framework and work process
The environmental verifier must be accredited by the national accreditation body. Verifiers get their accreditation for
specific branches only according to the classification of economic activities (NACE codes). The applicable NACE code is
“75. Public Administration of Municipalities and Districts”. For the EMAS4NewStates project in Latvia this was a problem:
for municipalities there was no verifier accredited by the competent ministry. Therefore, the first verifications had to be
done by an accredited foreign verifier from Sweden together with Latvian ISO 400 auditors. After the first audits the local
verifiers are available for further purposes.



Verifier´s duties
The environmental verifier shall, in particular, check:
    •    the technical validity of the initial environmental review,
    •    the environmental management system in accordance with EMAS Annex I;
    •    the (planned) audits and the management review;
    •    the environmental statement in accordance with EMAS Annex III, point 3.2.
The verification shall involve
    •    examination of documentation,
    •    a visit to the organisation including, in particular, interviews with personnel,
    •    preparation of a report to the organisation’s management and if necessary
    •    the organisation’s solution of the issues raised by the report.
Some documentation such as the description of the environmental management system and the draft environmental
statement should be examined prior to the visit.



Verification process
The verifier will ask for documents to be sent for a first check. Then he or she will settle a date for an onsite audit. Sometimes
the verifier comes for an onsite-visit to do a pre-audit of the system and the documentation some weeks before the real
verification audit.




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During the on-site assessment the EMAS coordinator has to ensure that
   •    the environmental verifier is given enough time for an interview with the head of the municipality (the mayor
        or the head of administration) in order to talk about the environmental policy and programme as well as the
        inclusion of the decision making instances in the Environmental Management System,
   •    the complete environmental management manual has been brought up to date,
   •    all employees have been informed of the verifier's visit and can provide information on their duties within the
        framework of Environmental Management System.


Corrective actions after verification
The results of the audit will be discussed at the end of the visit and the mayor (or the
EMAS coordinator) receives a detailed audit report. If specific EMAS requirements
have not been met, so called “corrective actions” will be fixed. In cases of serious non-
compliance the environmental verifier cannot grant the certificate before corrective
actions have been completed.
A major non-compliance indicates a systems fault or other major problem. Minor
non-compliances indicate that the overall system, approach, etc. are reasonable but
that there is a need to correct some minor parts of the system or procedures. For
minor non-compliances it will be enough to report accomplishment of corrective
actions. Only for major non-compliances may the verifier come back and check
again.
Once the environmental verifier has declared the validity of the environmental
statement, the municipal administration can apply for registration in the EMAS
register. After being registered, the municipality is entitled to use the EMAS logo
in its public relations. The logo may only be used together with the registration
number of the organisation.
                                                                                                     EMAS Certificate

	 Summary of Steps                                                                                                             	
         .   Select a verifier and check the accreditation of the verifier (or the notification, if the verifier comes from
               abroad).
         2.    Ensure that the verifier you have chosen has the right scope (i. e. for municipalities, NACE code 75).
         3.    Send documents to be checked to the verifier.
         4.    Prepare and handle an onsite visit of the verifier.
         5.    In the case of non-compliances, complete the needed corrective actions as quickly as possible.
         6.    After successful verification apply for registration in the European EMAS register.

	    	
    Key Points and Hints
       a Take recommendations from the verifier seriously. Though they do not prevent the verifier from certifying
            the system, they can be very valuable for improving the system and the environmental performance. Bear in
            mind: the verifier has seen many similar organisations and can compare!
       a Once verification is achieved the EMAS process does not stop. Ongoing tasks are:
                     • to keep the Environmental Management system “alive”,
                     • to implement the projects and measures of the Environmental Programme,
                     • to execute internal audits and internal management reviews and
                     • to continually improve the environmental performance.




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Appendix in electronic format (CD):
EMAS Implementation Guide for the Step by Step Cluster Approach

Attached to this manual there is a complete set of guidelines and tools to implement EMAS in municipalities. The free of
charge toolbox is available on a CDROM (which comes with the printed version of this manual) and from the following
websites:
www.emas4newstates.lv
www.inem.org
www.lvpa.lv
www.baumev.de
www.baumgroup.de
www.bkgriga.lv




The EMAS4NewStates toolbox contains:

a Implementation Guides for steps 1 - 7 with
      • EMAS requirements and background information
      • guidance to perform the respective steps
      • references to the Work Books and hints to use the tools

a Work Books for steps 1 - 6 with
      • forms
      • examples

a EMAS4NewStates Master Manual
     • content and template for drafting an Environmental Manual for the organisation

a EMAS4NewStates Data Tool
     • set of EXCEL tables to monitor environmental data
     • conversion factors, calculation of indicators etc.




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