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Pollution Effects on Plants_STEMCurric

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Pollution Effects on Plants_STEMCurric Powered By Docstoc
					Human Performance and Effectiveness
Pollution Effects on Plants
Grade Level(s): 7th – 10th
Academic Content Areas: Science, Technology, Engineering,
                        Math
Topics: Scientific Ways of Knowing, Science and Technology,
                           Scientific Inquiry, Life Science
    Recommended area of co-teaching for an AFRL Engineer or Scientist

Main Problem / Essential Question
After routine maintenance is performed on military planes and vehicles, why is it important to
properly dispose of the used fluids?

Summary
This investigation is designed to determine if the substances used on a daily basis to make
machines work efficiently cause a negative effect on the natural world around us. Students will
experiment to determine if typical liquids used and disposed of during basic vehicle
maintenance have a negative effect on plant life. They may use motor oil, transmission fluid,
antifreeze, or soapy water to represent fluids that are used in the driveway or at the curb of a
home while someone is cleaning and/or maintaining their vehicle. Students will discover that
care must be used in the disposal of toxic substances so that plant life is not harmed or
destroyed.

Big Ideas / Focus
Students are doing this investigation to determine if the things we use on a daily basis to make
our lives easier, to make our machines work efficiently; impact the natural world around us in a
negative way. They will find that care must be used in the disposal of toxic liquids so that plant
life is not destroyed.

Students will discuss other possible ramifications of careless disposal such as affects on
animal life and contamination of groundwater. Students will understand that we will continue to
improve our lives through inventions and technological improvements, but as we do, we must
be aware and concerned about the effects of these advances on the natural world in which
we live.

Students will learn about the importance of variables, sample size, repetition, and
reproducibility when performing a scientific investigation in order to interpret data and draw
valid conclusions.
 Prerequisite Knowledge
 Students should have a solid understanding of observation and inference. Using newspaper
 pictures without the captions is a good way to have the students review observations and then
 make a reasonable inference based on these observations.
 Students should have some understanding of bias and how it can affect an experiment's
 results. Repeated experimentation will lend credibility to the results. Doing a simple probability
 experiment is an easy way to review or introduce bias and its reduction by repeated
 experimentation.
 It would be advisable for students to understand that the source of pollution is sometimes
 difficult to trace. Much of our air and water pollution results from either a point or nonpoint
 source
 Basic understanding of seed germination. This can be taught/reviewed before the lesson or
 incorporated into the lesson.
 Students need to be adept at measuring using the metric scale (mm and cm).
 Creating and reading data tables is another prerequisite for this lab.
 Some experience using a microscope would also be beneficial but not absolutely necessary.
 Students should know how to use MS Excel, Fathom or other statistical software, to make
 graphs.

 Standards Connections
 Content Area: Science
 Scientific Ways of Knowing Standard

 Grade 7 - Benchmark B: Explain the             1. Show that the reproducibility of results is
 importance of reproducibility and reduction    essential to reduce bias in scientific
 of bias in scientific methods.                 investigations.
                                                2. Describe how repetition of an experiment may
                                                reduce bias.

 Grade 8 - Benchmark B: Explain the             2. Explain why it is important to examine data
 importance of reproducibility and reduction    objectively and not let bias
 of bias in scientific methods.                 affect observations.


 Science and Technology Standard

Grade 7 – Benchmark A: Give examples of 2. Describe how decisions to develop and use
how technological advances, influenced by         technologies often put environmental and economic
scientific knowledge, affect the quality of life. concerns in direct competition with each other.


Grade 9-10 – Benchmark B – Explain that         Grade 9
science and technology are interdependent;
 Draft – 6/10/10                                                                             2
each drive the other.
                                                  1. Describe means of comparing the benefits with
                                                  the risks of technology and how science can inform
                                                  public policy.
                                                  Grade 10
                                                  1. Cite examples of ways that scientific inquiry is
                                                  driven by the desire to understand the natural world
                                                  and how technology is driven by the need to meet
                                                  human needs and solve human problems.
                                                  2. Describe examples of scientific advances and
                                                  emerging technologies and how they may impact
                                                  society.



Scientific Inquiry Standard                       Grade 7
Grades 7 and 8 – Benchmark A: Explain             1. Explain that variables and controls can affect the
that there are differing sets of procedures for   results of an investigation and that ideally one
guiding scientific investigations and             variable should be tested at a time; however it is
procedures are determined by the nature of        not always possible to control all variables.
the investigation, safety consideration and
                                                  2. Identify simple independent and dependent
appropriate tools.
                                                  variables.
                                                  Grade 8
                                                  2. Describe the concepts of sample size and
                                                  control and explain how these affect scientific
                                                  investigations.



 Benchmark B: Analyze and interpret data          Grade 7
from scientific investigations using
                                                  5. Analyze alternative scientific explanations and
appropriate mathematical skills in order to
                                                  predictions and recognize that there may be more
draw valid conclusions.
                                                  than one good way to interpret a given set of data.
                                                  6. Identify faulty reasoning and statements that go
                                                  beyond the evidence or misinterpret the evidence.
                                                  7. Use graphs, tables and charts to study physical
                                                  phenomena and infer mathematical relationships
                                                  between variables.
                                                  Grade 8
                                                  3. Read, construct and interpret data in various
                                                  forms produced by self and others in both written
                                                  and oral form (e.g., tables, charts, maps, graphs,
                                                  diagrams and symbols).
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                                                4. Apply appropriate math skills to interpret
                                                quantitative data (e.g., mean, median, mode).




  Life Science Standard

 Grade 10 – Benchmark G – Describe how          18. Describe ways that human activities can
 human activities can impact that status of     deliberately or inadvertently alter the equilibrium in
 natural systems.                               ecosystems. Explain how changes in
                                                technology/biotechnology can cause significant
                                                changes, either positive or negative, in
                                                environmental quality and carrying capacity.
  Content Area: Math
  Measurement Standard

Grade 7 – Benchmark D: Select a tool and         5. Analyze problem situations involving
measure accurately to a specified level of       measurement concepts, select appropriate
precision.                                       strategies, and use an organized approach to solve
                                                 narrative and increasingly complex problems.

Grade 8-10
                                                 1. Compare and order the relative size of common
Benchmark E: Estimate and compute various
                                                 U.S. customary units and metric units; e.g., mile
attributes, including length, angle measure,
                                                 and kilometer, gallon and liter, pound and kilogram.
area, surface area and volume, to a specified
level of precision.                              2. Use proportional relationships and formulas to
                                                 convert units from one measurement system to
                                                 another; e.g., degrees Fahrenheit to degrees
                                                 Celsius.
                                                 3. Use appropriate levels of precision when
                                                 calculating with measurements.


Data Analysis and Probability Standard
                                                 1. Read, create and interpret box-and-whisker
Grade 7 – Benchmark A: Read, create and          plots, stem and leaf plots, and other types of
use line graphs, histograms, circle graphs, box- graphs, when appropriate.
and-whisker plots, stem and leaf plots, and
                                                 8. Design and conduct an experiment to test
other representations when appropriate.
                                                 predictions, compare actual results to predicted
Benchmark E: Collect, organize, display and      results, and explain differences.
interpret data for a specific purpose or need.


Grade 8 – Benchmark A: Create, interpret,
                                                 1. Use, create and interpret scatter plots and other
and use graphical displays and statistical
  Draft – 6/10/10                                                                            4
measures to describe data.                        types of graphs as appropriate.
Benchmark F: Construct convincing                 2. Evaluate different graphical representations of
arguments based on analysis and                   the same data to determine which is the most
interpretation of graphs.                         appropriate representation for an identified
                                                  purpose; e.g., line graph for change over time,
                                                  circle graph for part to whole comparison,
                                                  scatterplot for relationship between two variants.
                                                  6. make conjectures about possible relationships in
                                                  a scatterplot and approximate line of best fit.
                                                  9. Construct convincing arguments based on
                                                  analysis of data and interpretation of graphs.
Grade 9 & 10 – Benchmark A: Create,
interpret, and use graphical displays and
statistical measures to describe data.            Grade 9
     Benchmark B: Evaluate different              1. Classify data as univariate (single variable) or
graphical representations of the same data to     bivariate (two variables) and as quantitative
determine which is the most appropriate           (measurement) or qualitative (categorical) data.
representation for an identified purpose.
                                                  2. Create a scatterplot for a set of bivariate data,
      Benchmark D: Find, use and interpret        sketch the line of best fit, and interpret the slope of
measures of center and spread, such as mean       the line of best fit.
and quartiles, and use those measures to
                                                  Grade 10
compare and draw conclusions about sets of
data.                                             2. Represent and analyze bivariate data using
                                                  appropriate graphical displays (scatterplots, parallel
     Benchmark E: Evaluate the validity of
                                                  box and whisker plots, histograms with more than
claims and predictions that are based on data
                                                  one set of data, tables, charts, spreadsheets) with
by examining the appropriateness of the data
                                                  and without technology.
collection and analysis.
            Benchmark F: Construct convincing
arguments based on analysis and
interpretation of graphs.
Mathematical Processes Standard
Grade 8-10
A. Formulate a problem or mathematical
model in response to a specific need or
situation, determine information required to      (Note; Specific grade-level indicators have not
solve the problem, chose method for obtaining     been included for the mathematical processes
this information, and set limits for acceptable   standard. Mathematical processes have been
solution.                                         embedded within the grade-level indicators for the
                                                  other five content standards.)
B. Apply mathematical knowledge and skills
routinely in other content areas and practical
situations.
E. Use a variety of mathematical
  Draft – 6/10/10                                                                             5
representations flexible and appropriately to
organize, record and communicate
mathematical ideas.
F. Use precise mathematical language and
notations to represent problem situations and
mathematical ideas.
G. Write clearly and coherently about
mathematical thinking and ideas.

  Preparation for activity
  1. Determine lab groups consisting of 4 students per group.
  2. Prepare and organize materials needed for the lab. Soil /toxicant mixtures should be made.
  3. Directions for making soil/toxicant mixture:
          10 cups of soil
          500 mL of toxic substance
          250 mL of toxic substance
          125 mL of toxic substance
          62.5 mL of toxic substance
          31.25 mL toxic substance
          0 mL of toxic substance for negative control
  4. Students should have lab books / data tables set up to record daily qualitative and
  quantitative observations.

  Critical Vocabulary
  bias – an influence that distorts or changes the results of an experiment. Material or the
  procedure can be biased.
  constants – the factors in an experiment that do not change. They need to be kept the same
  in order for the results to be valid.
  control – the standard used for comparison in an experiment.
  dependent variable – the measured or responding variable - this factor will change as a result
  of the independent variable.
  germination – a series of events that results in the growth of a plant from a seed.
  independent variable –the tested or manipulated variable -the one factor that is changed by
  the person doing the experiment.
  inference – a decision made based on observations and interpreting data



  Draft – 6/10/10                                                                          6
nonpoint source pollution – comes from many different sources so it is difficult to trace such
as chemical fertilizers that runoff into streams, lakes, and wetlands and/or seep into the ground
and then into groundwater.
point source pollution –- occurs from a single, identifiable source such as an oil tanker spill.
toxicology – the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living systems, whether they be
human, animal, plant, or microbe.
toxic substance (toxicant) – a substance that accumulates in living systems and causes harm
qualitative observations – information gathered through the five senses.
quantitative observations – information gathered by measurements
radical – emergence of primary root
cotyledon – first leaves that appear in a dicot. They are the energy source for the seedling
until it begins the photosynthesis process.

Timeframe
three to four week lesson (during the growth stage, partial class periods are needed to observe
and record – the degree of detail required for the data table is determined by the teacher).

Day      Daily Time Allotment Activities

1        50 minutes             Pre-Activity Brainstorming and Discussion
                                Discuss the problem in lab groups and together as a class.

2-3      50 minutes             Experimental Design – Identify the independent, dependent, and
                                controlled variables. State a hypothesis. Determine the lab
                                procedure – Consider the following:
                                1. The types of seeds used.
                                2. The number of seeds used.
                                3. The type of toxicant used.
                                4. The concentration levels of toxicant used.
                                5. Design data tables to record qualitative and quantitative
                                observations.



4        50 minutes             Set-Up Experiment – Record Initial observations

5-14     10-15 minutes          Students will observe and record data at the beginning of each
                                class period. This could be done on a M-W-F or T-TH schedule
                                to lessen the class time taken.

15       50 minutes             Students will graph and analyze their data.

Draft – 6/10/10                                                                           7
16-17    50 minutes              Students will draw conclusions and if choosing a final product,
                                 begin to write a letter or create a brochure.
                                 Post-Activity Discussion

Materials & Equipment
lab books and copies of daily data tables if needed
seeds – choose one or more of the following: grass, sunflower, peas, radish, corn
        Note: The grass will not show great variance in height but may show observable
        differences such as color, thickness, healthy, lush appearance. The other seeds listed
        above will show more height variance. Willow sprigs are another option as they have
        been successfully used in phytoremediation.
supplies needed for seed germination if observing germination is planned as part of the lesson:
       plastic sandwich bags, coffee filters or paper towels
soil (prepared concentrations)
choose one of the following:
        motor oil , transmission fluid, antifreeze, dishwashing soap
metric ruler
other handouts needed
1. student lab guide A or B

Safety & Disposal
Latex gloves for students who may find skin contact with the motor oil and antifreeze irritating.
Students should wash hands any day they have contact with the motor oil or antifreeze.
At the end of the experiment, the antifreeze, motor oil, or transmission fluid should be disposed
of as directed on the container.

Pre-Activity Discussion

    Option A (the following ideas could be presented by an AFRL engineer or scientist.
        1. Explain the effects of concentration levels by doing a demonstration using water and
        food coloring.
        Example: one drop of food coloring per 10mL water, two drops of food coloring per 10
        mL water,
        four drops of food coloring per 10 mL water, etc. Discuss the color intensity seen in the
        water and compare to real toxicants filtering into groundwater, streams, etc.
        2. Discuss the scientific method. The steps and the importance of using the method for
        any

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           scientific investigation.
        3. Phytoremediation and its role in absorbing and/or altering toxicants.
        Phytoextraction -Accumulate contaminant in the plant shoots or roots.
        Phytostabilization-The contaminant is absorbed, or reduced in mobility or availability.
        Phytodegradation-The contaminant is metabolized by plants, or by microbes in plant-
        enhanced environment.
        http://www.seattle.gov/util/stellent/groups/public/@spu/@csb/documents/webcontent/sp
        u01_003261.pdf
        See the Additional Resources section at the end of this lesson for web sources
        providing information on this topic.
Option B: The following focus questions can be used for a class discussion.
        Focus Questions:
        1. Define observation. Provide an example. Information gathered and recorded
        descriptively (qualitative) or with measurements (quantitative).
        Possible examples: The leaf feels sticky. The leaf is 6 cm long.
        2. Define inference. A judgment or decision made based on consistent observations.
        An inference may eventually be proven or disproven through experimentation.
        3. What is bias? An influence that distorts or changes the results of an experiment.
        The material or the procedure can be biased.
        4. Why is it important to design and use experiments that will eliminate bias from the
        results?
        Bias can cause the results to be invalid. The experimental procedure must be designed
        so bias will be reduced to a minimum or eliminated.
        5. What is a toxic substance (toxicant)? A harmful, destructive, or poisonous manmade
        substance.
        6. Should people use materials that are harmful to plants? Explain your answer.
        Answers will vary. Students should explain their reasoning.
        7. How can people use materials they consider beneficial to daily living without causing
        harm to plants? Answers will vary. Students' responses may discuss restricted use of
        the material or specialized disposal.
Option C: Critical vocabulary (see previous section for the list of terms).
        Students should be asked what they think the critical vocabulary words mean. Have
        them write these in their science notebooks. Ask for volunteers to share their
        responses. Discuss student responses first, and then have students look up the
        definitions. These definitions can be written in the Pre-lab section of their lab notebook
        or in their science journals. Discuss actual definitions and compare prior knowledge
        with factual knowledge. Make sure students feel comfortable with working definitions.
Option D: Pre-lab group discussion ideas are also included in the lab guides A and B found in
the student instructions section.
Draft – 6/10/10                                                                            9
Teacher Instructions

     Begin by asking students to brainstorm a list of materials people use regularly that may be
harmful to plants simply because of their use or because of disposal methods. Students may
need some ideas to get started on this discussion (pesticides put on our flower and vegetable
gardens, paint cleaner and paints, materials used for car maintenance, household cleaners,
etc). As students volunteer responses, make a list on the board for everyone to see. Discuss
the importance of these materials to us in terms of daily use. Discuss the environmental
concerns and how they could be addressed. Ask students to share examples of their real-life
observations (use of/actions/disposal) in their community that demonstrate the need to be
concerned about our environment. Remind students that when discussing real world situations
in their own community, actual names of people should not be used.
Review the lab activity together with students as they sit with their lab group. Groups will
discuss and determine their purpose and question, identify the independent, dependent, and
controlled variables and state a hypothesis. Allow time for them to do this and share and
discuss with them together as a whole class. This allows students time to formulate their own
thoughts and wording for these sections of the lab write-up. The whole class discussion
enables struggling students to hear and use the language of other students. Students will then
copy the materials into the lab book. Each group will now be assigned a soil mixture (part car
fluid to part soil) to be used for their seeds. (The soil mixtures should be prepared ahead of
time. See suggested concentrations in the preparation for activity section.) Each group should
also have a negative control (soil without a toxic substance).
Next, students will work together in their lab groups to determine the lab procedure considering
the following:
1. The types of seeds used.
2. The number of seeds used.
3. The type of toxicant used.
4. The concentration levels of toxicant used.
5. Determine the data needed.
6. Design data tables to record qualitative and quantitative observations.
Enabling them to formulate the steps themselves helps deepen their understanding of the
procedure. The steps become more internalized instead of merely carrying out pre-described
steps. Middle school students tend to “jump” into an activity without reading instructions.
Writing their instructions helps alleviate this problem. The teacher will be circulating the room
offering guidance when needed. The procedures should then be shared with the class to make
sure all groups are similar enough to keep the experiment results valid. The independent
variable (the liquids) and the dependent variable (the measurement of plant growth) should be
the same for all groups. (Special needs students may need to be provided with a prewritten
procedure for students to copy into their lab books.)
Additional notes:
a. Measurements used for the dependant variable can vary. The teacher or class need to
determine this in the class discussion. Suggestions follow: the length of time it takes for the

Draft – 6/10/10                                                                          10
seeds to germinate, the height of the plants, the color and overall appearance of the plant. At
the end of the experiment, students can take the plants out of the soil to observe the
appearance of the roots and measure the length of the roots.
b. Watering schedule of the plants. This will need to be determined by the class and the
teacher. Should all plants be watered with the same amount of water on a set schedule?
Should the plants be watered when soil appears dry to the touch? Whichever method is used
will need to be discussed in the conclusion because results could be affected by possible over
or under watering.
c. Germination time of seeds. All of the suggested seeds germinate quickly (within 5 -14 days).
Exact germination times can be found on the package of seeds or by researching on the web.

Background Information
1. AFRL engineer or scientist could discuss other chemicals of interest such as; TICS, TIMS,
jet fuel.
Other background information that may be needed by the teacher:
2. Background information about point and nonpoint sources of pollution can be found at the
following website:
    http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Po-Re/Pollution-Sources-Point-and-Nonpoint.html
3. Information about seed germination can be found at the following sites:
    a. http://gardening.wsu.edu/library/vege004/vege004.htm
    b.http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&source=hp&q=seed+germination&um=1&ie=UT
    F-
    8&ei=ZBdSS92ZAsKUtgfr9aytDA&sa=X&oi=image_result_group&ct=title&resnum=4&ved=
    0CCgQsAQwAw

Instructional tips
Lab Book Data
This lab entails daily journaling in the student lab book. For special needs students and/or for
students who do not have much lab write-up experience, it may be helpful to have a prepared
data table copied. The students can then staple it onto their lab book page.
____ % Toxicant/Soil Mixture          Day: __________            Date:_________________


Toxicant Used                  __________SEED                    __________SEED
______________                 Draw a picture each day in this   this column needed if
                               section.                          experimenting with more than
                                                                 one type of seed
                                                                 Draw a picture each day in this
                                                                 section.


Draft – 6/10/10                                                                         11
Qualitative Data




Quantitative Data




Inferences                   Based on________________          Based on________________
                             _______________________           _______________________
                             I infer__________________         I infer__________________
                             _______________________           _______________________



Assignment of Student Roles and Responsibilities:
Students will assume different roles:
Every student in each small group is responsible for performing experimental tests,
manipulating equipment safely & properly, recording data, writing results and conclusions. In
addition, each student will be assigned one of the following roles:
    Role Name        Brief Description

      Manager        Responsible for organizing team and keeping team on task to meet goals
                     and deadlines. Will also serve as team spokesperson, if one is required.

       Tester        Responsible for performing experimental tests and manipulating
                     equipment properly.

   Safety Officer    Responsible for making sure team observes all safety measures during
                     experimentation.

 Technical Writer    Responsible for recording data during experimentation and overseeing
                     the writing of results and conclusions.

Student Instructions
Choose one of the following lab guides:
Lab Guide A - This lab guide advises students in planning and developing the lab.

Draft – 6/10/10                                                                       12
Lab Guide for Vehicle Maintenance and Plants
Problem:
The city officials in your town have made an appeal to the community. They have asked
everyone to be more conscious of the environment when taking care of their cars. Apparently
some people who change their own oil and antifreeze dispose of the old by pouring it on the
grass in their yards or pour it on the side of the street so it runs down the curb and eventually
into the sewers. The officials have also asked everyone to cut down on the amount of soap
used when washing cars in their driveways because the soapy water runs off into the yards and
street.
Some people in town are complaining about this request. They don’t see why it is a problem.
Now they are being asked to put the old liquids in containers and take them to their local landfill
for safe disposal. They said this takes extra time and a trip to the landfill. They are asking,
“What is the big deal? The city officials asked your school to get involved. They asked your
science teacher to run an experiment to determine if plant life is affected by the run-off of these
substances into the soil.
Pre-Lab Group and Class Discussion:
-Choose one toxic substance to test (motor oil, antifreeze, transmission fluid, soapy water)
-Discuss ideas for running the experiment.
-Identify the independent and dependent variables, the control, and the constants.
-Determine the lab procedure. Consider the following:
        The types of seeds used by each group.
        The number of seeds used by each group. (repeated experimentation is important).
        The soil/toxicant concentration level used.
        The qualitative and quantitative observations to be used.
        Data table design. Use Excel.
      The graphing requirements (type of graph to be made, data used for graphing).
Lab Book Set-Up:
a. Review the problem and then determine and write a purpose for this lab.
b. Write the question (see the lab title).
c. Write a hypothesis. Use an IF…THEN… statement.
(IF will include the independent variable. THEN will include the dependant variable)
d. Together as a class, determine the supplies needed and write these in the materials section
of your lab write-up.
e. Together as a class or in lab groups, determine the procedure and write it in your lab book.

Lab Activity:
Set up the lab activity and use copies of the Excel table(s) to collect the data each day during
data collection time.
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After the 10 days of collection have been completed, transfer data into the Excel spreadsheet
(or other statistical software) and make graphs according to the specification of the teacher as
decided by the class during the pre-lab discussion.
Analyze and conclude by sharing information as a class and comparing results. This will be
done in a Post-Activity discussion led by the teacher.
With your group, write your conclusion.


Lab Guide B – This teacher directed lab guide is for students needing structured guidance. It
includes a day by day plan.)

Lab Guide for Vehicle Maintenance and Plants
(This lab guide is teacher directed to be used with students who need more guidance.)
Problem:
The city officials in your town have made an appeal to the community. They have asked
everyone to be more conscious of the environment when taking care of their cars. Apparently
some people who change their own oil and antifreeze dispose of the old by pouring it on the
grass in their yards or pour it on the side of the street so it runs down the curb and eventually
into the sewers. The officials have also asked everyone to cut down on the amount of soap
used when washing cars in their driveways because the soapy water runs off into the yards and
street.
Some people in town are complaining about this request. They don’t see why it is a problem.
Now they are being asked to put the old liquids in containers and take them to their local landfill
for safe disposal. They said this takes extra time and a trip to the landfill. They are asking,
“What is the big deal? The city officials asked your school to get involved. They asked your
science teacher to run an experiment to determine if plant life is affected by the run-off of these
substances into the soil.
Pre-Lab Group and Class Discussion:
The following parts of the lab setup will need to be discussed with the class and predetermined
before beginning this lab.
a. Will students germinate some seeds in a plastic bag for the purpose of seeing the
germination process?
b. Each group should be using the same amount of the soil mixture and amount of seeds.
c. Whether seeds are being planted at a depth or covered with a thin layer of soil should be
predetermined by the class.
d. Should the volume of water and the watering schedule be the same for each group?
e. Where will plants be placed during the lab?


Purpose: Write the following in your lab book:
To practice observation (qualitative and quantitative).

Draft – 6/10/10                                                                          14
To practice using observations to make reasonable inferences.
To understand that a test must be run more than once in order to reduce bias.


Question: Will plants germinate and grow in polluted soil?
Research: Look up information on the following topics and summarize the facts in your lab
book:
Look up facts about germination including:
- definition
- factors affecting germination process
- germination process (a flow chart from seed to germination – include energy transformation
  from stored energy in seed to absorption of moisture to chemical reactions within seed to
  release of stored energy to germination to growth)
- Research warnings and hazards involved with the toxicant used in this lab.
Identify the independent and dependent variables, the control, and the constants. List them in
your book after the question.
        Independent Variable (IV) = soil and toxicant mixture used
        Dependent Variable (DV) = plant growth
        Negative control =seeds planted in soil with no toxicant
        Constants = location (includes temperature and amount of light), type of seeds,
        watering schedule
Write a hypothesis. Use an IF…THEN… statement.
 (IF will include the independent variable. THEN will include the dependant variable)
Materials: Write the following list:
Planting Supplies:
        Seeds
        Soil mixtures( these should be made ahead of time)
        Soil with no toxicant (negative control)
        Containers (determine how many are needed for your group)
        Toxicant (choose one: motor oil, antifreeze, transmission fluid, soapy water)
        Measuring cups and spoons
Germination Supplies: (these supplies needed only if each group is germinating some seeds
as a supplementary visual )
        Plastic bags
        Paper towels or coffee filters or filter paper
Draft – 6/10/10                                                                         15
        Seeds (same kind as used above)
Write the procedure:
DAY 1 (If germinating seeds in a plastic bag for purpose of seeing the process)
    a. Each group should collect supplies needed for germination.
    b. Each person should take a dry seed and observe (qualitatively and quantitatively).
    c. Discuss and share the observations with your lab group.
    d. Record the data on the Day 1 data log.
Place the seeds in the germination container and place in assigned location.
Germination procedure: Moisten a piece of filter paper, coffee filter, or paper towel with water.
Place seeds on one side of the paper. Fold the other half over the seeds. Place in a plastic
sandwich bag. Label the bag.
DAY 2
    1. Measure the soil/toxicant mixture and put it into the container.
    2. Plant the seeds in the soil.
    3. Water the seeds.
    4. Label the container and place it in its predetermined location.
DAYS 3-14
Groups should collaboratively observe seeds each day to watch for germination. Paper towels
should be dampened as needed. Seeds containers with soil mixtures should be watered as
needed. NOTE: This process should be accomplished quickly each day so that minimal class
time is used. Continue with regular class lesson as planned.
DAY 15
Record final day results using Excel Worksheet, (or other statistical software). Groups will
share information to get a class set of data.
DAY 16
Graph the final day data and analyze results.
DAY 17
Continue to analyze results and write a conclusion using your observations and graph to
support your conclusion. In your conclusion, address the following topics:
Restate your hypothesis and state whether or not your hypothesis was proved or disproved.
Indicate which solutions were toxic to plants and explain why you came to this conclusion (use
your data in your explanation).
Indicate which solutions were not toxic to plants and explain why you came to this conclusion
(use your data in your explanation).
c. Determine if any soil/toxicant mixtures might need further testing to prove or disprove
toxicity and explain why. Explain how you might test further. (i.e. The germinated seeds and
Draft – 6/10/10                                                                          16
initial growth may appear healthy but their health may decline with time. These planted seeds
could be compared with the negative control over an extended period of time.)
 d. Discuss any errors that may have occurred during the experiment that may have affected
your results.
Finish your conclusion by applying your results to their application in everyday life.

Formative Assessments
Daily lab book entries: Circulate each day as the students make their daily observations and
entries. You may want to have a check sheet so you can keep track of the groups with whom
you have met.
Lab Conclusion Rubric for toxicant study. The categories in the rubric are the questions
students will address for the lab conclusion.

                    4                       3                      2                 1
CATEGORY

a. Restate your     Hypothesis was          Hypothesis was         Hypothesis        Hypothesis
hypothesis and      restated in the         restated in the        was restated      was restated
state whether or    If/Then format. The     If/Then format,        but was not in    but was not in
not your            independent             however, the IV and    the If/Then       the If/Then
hypothesis was      variable was            DV were not clearly    format. The       format. OR The
proved or           correctly included      or correctly           hypothesis        hypothesis
disproved.          in the If portion and   indicated. The         being proved      being proved
                    the dependent           hypothesis being       or disproved      or disproved
                    variable was            proved or disproved    was also          was stated.
                    correctly included      was also stated.       stated.
                    in the Then portion.
                    The hypothesis
                    being proved or
                    disproved was also
                    stated.

b. Indicate which   Toxic solutions         Toxic solutions were   Toxic solutions   Toxic solutions
soil mixtures       were clearly            clearly indicated      were indicated    were indicated
were toxic to       indicated. Data         with sufficient data   with minimal      but no data
plants and          support was used.       support.               data support.     support
explain why you     Connections made                                                 provided.
came to this        are extensive.
conclusion.

c. Indicate which   Nontoxic solutions      Nontoxic solutions     Nontoxic          Nontoxic
soil mixtures       were clearly            were clearly           solutions were    solutions were
were not toxic to   indicated. Data         indicated with         indicated with    indicated but
plants and          support was used.       sufficient data        minimal data      no data
explain why you     Connections made        support.               support.          support
came to this        are extensive.                                                   provided.
Draft – 6/10/10                                                                            17
conclusion.

d. Determine if      Solutions needing      Solutions needing      Solutions         Solutions
any soil mixtures    further testing were   further testing were   needing further   needing further
need further         clearly indicated.     clearly indicated      testing were      testing were
testing to prove/    Explanation was        with sufficient        indicated with    indicated
disprove toxicity    extensive.             explanation.           minimal           without any
and explain why.     Comparison to          Comparison to          explanation.      explanation.
                     control is included.   control is included.   No comparison
                                                                   to the control.

e. Discuss any       Possible error/bias    Possible error/bias    Possible          Possible
errors that may      was discussed with     was discussed with     error/bias was    error/bias was
have occurred        extensive              sufficient             discussed with    stated. No
during your          explanation of how     explanation of how     minimal           explanation.
experiment           results could have     results could have     explanation of
possibly affecting   been affected.         been affected.         how results
results.                                                           could have
                                                                   been affected.

f. Finish your       Applications of        Applications of        Applications of   Application of
conclusion by        results to everyday    results to everyday    results to        results to
applying your        life given with        life given with        everyday life     everyday life
results to           extensive              sufficient             given with        given. No
everyday life.       explanation.           explanation.           minimal           explanation
                                                                   explanation.


Post-Activity Discussion

    1. An AFRL engineer or scientist could discuss:
       a. the role of statistics in interpreting data (i.e. standard deviation).
       b. the use of Google Earth to see areas of the earth that are contaminated.
2 Use the lab conclusion specifications as seen in the grading rubric - these can be used to
guide the class discussion.
After students share their data with the entire class, provide time for lab groups to discuss the
results of the data together. Then as a whole class, discuss the findings. Following are some
questions to consider in the discussion:
       a. Is there a significant difference in germination time, plant growth, or health of the
       plant (determined by analysis of quantitative data through comparison of means or by
       standard deviation)?
       b. With which soil mixtures did this difference occur?
         c. What does this help us understand about toxic substances and their beneficial use
         for us but detrimental effect on the environment?
Draft – 6/10/10                                                                       18
         d. How can individuals and communities lessen the negative side effects?
         e. How do you think the effects seen in a lab setting compare to what would be seen in
         a real life situation? Why?
 Students will need the time to discuss the post-activity questions with their groups and then
 discuss in a whole class format.
 After these discussions, allow time for students to write their personal reflections in their lab
 books. These reflections should be based on their individual findings and the responses heard
 during the discussions.

 Pre-Test / Post-Test
 1. Define observation. Provide three examples. Information gathered using the five senses
    (qualitative) or measurement (quantitative). Possible examples: The leaf feels sticky.
    The leaf is 6 cm long. The leaves are yellowish-green.
 2. Define inference. A hypothesis, explanation, judgment, decision made based on careful
    observation.
 3. What is bias? An influence that distorts or changes the results of an experiment.
 4. Why is it important to design and use experiments that will eliminate bias from the results?
    Bias can cause the results to be invalid. The experimental procedure must be designed so
    bias will be reduced to a minimum or eliminated.
 5. How can the design of the procedure reduce or eliminate bias? The procedure must be
    designed to include a control, ONE independent variable, dependant variables, and
    repeated experimentation.
 6. What is a toxin? A harmful, destructive, or poisonous substance.
 7. Should people use materials that are harmful to plants? Explain your answer. Answers will
    vary. Students should explain their reasoning.
 8. How can people use materials they consider beneficial to daily living without causing harm
    to plants? Answers will vary. Students' responses may discuss restricted use of the
    material or specialized disposal.

 Pre-Test / Post-Test Rubric
  CATEGORY                  4                       3                      2                       1
1. Define          Correctly defined      Correctly defined       Correctly defined       Correctly defined
observation.       observation and        observation and         observation and         observation OR
Provide three      provided three valid   provided two valid      provided one valid      provided valid
examples.          examples.              examples.               example.                example BUT did
                                                                                          not do both.

2. Define          Definition includes    Definition includes     Definition includes     Definition includes
inference.         three of the           two of the following:   one of the following:   one of the following:
                   following: a           a (1) hypothesis, (2)   a (1) hypothesis,       a (1) hypothesis, (2)
                   (1) hypothesis,        explanation, (3)        (2) explanation, (3)    explanation, (3)
                   (2) explanation,       judgment, or (4)        judgment, or (4)        judgment, or (4)
                   (3) judgment, or       decision made;          decision made;          decision made; BUT
 Draft – 6/10/10                                                                                  19
                      (4) decision made;      based                   based                    does not mention
                      based on careful        on careful              on careful               that it is based on
                      observation.            observation.            observation.             careful observation.

3. What is bias?      The response            The response            The response             The response states
                      demonstrates            demonstrates an         states that bias is      that bias distorts the
                      a clear                 understanding that      an influence that        results of an
                      understanding that      bias is an influence    distorts the results     experiment or bias
                      bias is an influence    that distorts or        of an experiment or      changes the results
                      that distorts or        changes the results     that bias is an          of an experiment.
                      changes the results     of an experiment.       influence that
                      of an experiment.                               changes the results
                                                                      of an experiment.
4. Why is it          The response            The response            The response             The response states
important to          demonstrates a          demonstrates an         states that bias         that bias causes
design and use        clear and accurate      understanding that      causes results to be     results to be less
experiments that      understanding that      since bias can          less valid, the          valid, the
will eliminate bias   since bias can          cause the results to    experimental             experimental
from the results?     cause the results to    be invalid, the         procedure must be        procedure must be
                      be invalid, the         experimental            designed so bias         designed so bias
                      experimental            procedure must be       will be reduced to a     will be eliminated.
                      procedure must be       designed so bias        minimum or
                      designed so bias        will be reduced to a    eliminated.
                      will be reduced to a    minimum or
                      minimum or              eliminated.
                      eliminated.

5. How can the        The response states     The response            The response             The response states
design of the         that the procedure      states that the         states that the          that the procedure
procedure reduce      must be designed to     procedure must be       procedure must be        must be designed to
or eliminate bias?    include all of the      designed to include     designed to include      include one of the
                      following: (1) a        three of the            two of the following:    following:
                      control group, (2)      following:              (1) a control group,     (1) a control group,
                      ONE independent         (1) a control group,    (2) ONE                  (2) ONE
                      variable, (3) one or    (2) ONE                 independent              independent
                      more dependant          independent             variable,                variable,
                      variables, and (4)      variable, (3) one or    (3) one or more          (3) one or more
                      repeated                more dependant          dependant                dependant
                      experimentation.        variables, and          variables, and           variables, and (4)
                                              (4) repeated            (4) repeated             repeated
                                              experimentation.        experimentation.         experimentation.

6. What is a toxin?   The response            The response            The response             The response states
                      demonstrates a          demonstrates an         states that a toxin is   that a toxin is a
                      clear and accurate      understanding that      a harmful or             poisonous
                      understanding that      a toxin is a harmful,   poisonous                substance (not all
                      a toxin is a harmful,   destructive, or         substance.               toxins are
                      destructive, or         poisonous                                        poisonous).
                      poisonous               substance.
                      substance.


  Draft – 6/10/10                                                                                       20
7. Should people      Answers will vary.      Answers will vary.      Answers will vary.      Answers will vary.
use materials that    The response            The response            The response            The response
are harmful to        demonstrates a          demonstrates an         states that people      states that people
plants? Explain       clear understanding     understanding that      should choose           should choose
your answer.          that people should      people should           materials that are      materials that are
                      choose materials        choose materials        not harmful to          not harmful to
                      that are not harmful    that are not harmful    plants but they can     plants OR that they
                      to plants but they      to plants but they      still use materials     can use materials
                      can still use           can still use           that are harmful to     that are harmful to
                      materials that are      materials that are      plants but they must    plants but they must
                      harmful to plants but   harmful to plants       be disposed of          be disposed of
                      they must be            but they must be        properly.               properly.
                      disposed of             disposed of
                      properly.               properly.

8. How can people     Answers will vary.      Answers will vary.      Answers will vary.      Answers will vary.
use materials they    The response            The response            The response            The response
consider beneficial   demonstrates a          demonstrates an         states that the toxic   states that the toxic
to daily living       clear and accurate      understanding that      materials can be        materials can be
without causing       understanding that      the toxic materials     used under              used under
harm to plants?       the toxic materials     can be used under       restricted conditions   restricted conditions
                      can be used under       restricted conditions   and/or arrange for      OR arrange for
                      restricted conditions   and/or arrange for      specialized disposal    specialized disposal
                      and/or arrange for      specialized disposal    after use.              after use.
                      specialized disposal    after use.
                      after use.




 Draft – 6/10/10                                                                                      21
    Technology Connection
    The ADISC Model of technology created by ITEL:

       Integration Model                                 Application Description

A      Technology that supports students and
       teachers in adjusting, adapting, or
       augmenting teaching and learning to meet the
       needs of individual learners or groups of
       learners

D      Technology that supports students and             Excel can be used to record data and make
       teachers in dealing effectively with data,        graphs.
       including data management, manipulation, and
                                                         A digital camera can be used to take photos
       display
                                                         of germinating seeds each day. The photos
                                                         can be transferred to the computer.
                                                         Use a time lapse camera.

I      Technology that supports students and
       teachers in conducting inquiry, including the
       effective use of Internet research methods

S      Technology that supports students and
       teachers in simulating real world phenomena
       including the modeling of physical, social,
       economic, and mathematical relationships

C      Technology that supports students and             Students can use Word or Publisher to write
       teachers in communicating and                     a letter or make a brochure for the
       collaborating including the effective use of      evaluation component
       multimedia tools and online collaboration

    Interdisciplinary Connection
    Math
         Making data tables and graphs, analyzing the tables and graphs.
    Language Arts
            Writing a lab conclusion by making comparisons, interpreting data, and explanation.
            Creating a brochure or other informative writing genre.

    Home Connection
    Sharing results with family members especially those who do basic maintenance on their
    vehicles.
    Presenting brochure or other final activity to family members.
    Draft – 6/10/10                                                                       22
Differentiated Instruction
Students can be grouped in various ways. Students of similar abilities can be placed together.
The more advanced groups can devise their procedures and determine the soil/toxicant
concentrations to be used. Other groups can receive a predetermined procedure and
soil/toxicant concentration to be used. The degree of control here can be determined by the
teacher.
Data collection and display can also vary. Some groups may be capable of devising their own
data display while other groups receive a data display format devised by the teacher.
The final product activity can vary according to the groups. Two ideas are presented in the
Extension Ideas section which follows.

Extension
a. Write a letter to the editor as an appeal to the community. The article should explain the
class experiment and the results and conclude with a persuasive essay. The essay should be
an appeal to the readers to understand the importance of disposing of hazardous waste safely
and how to dispose of it properly. The intent of the letter is to persuade the readers to change
their habits. The section of the letter about car washing will be slightly different. The appeal
will be about reducing the frequency of car washing and the use of less soap.
b. Create an informational brochure that could be distributed in a door-to-door campaign as a
class “field trip” or placed at the local library and at local businesses as free reading material. It
must provide an explanation of your experiment, your findings in a clear “easy to understand”
format incorporating data from your experiment, information from your research, and a
persuasive appeal.
c. Contact the city offices and find out about storm waste management. Students can locate
the
end point of storm drains by looking at a blueprint of the city drainage system. Permission
could be obtained from the city officials to mark each drain opening with the end point of the
drain for the purpose of awareness.
d. Design a billboard that advertises the need to reduce pollution to our storm drainage
systems
while providing education about the issue. The billboard should grab the attention of the
viewer while getting the point across with a quick glance.


The grading rubric for the extension activity used should include points for some or all of the
following:
        Explanation of the experiment (purpose, method, result).
        Conclusions derived from the data.
        Implications for the environment.
Draft – 6/10/10                                                                             23
         Applications for community citizens (responsibility and action needed to be taken).
         Eye Appeal (for the brochure).
         Neatness.
         Writing mechanics.
         A minimum of three persuasions.
         Persuasive content (ability to appeal without preaching).
         Display of data.
 For assistance in creating rubrics, refer to Rubistar on http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php

 Career Connection

      Environmental studies and organizations such as the EPA.

 Additional Resources
Additional Resources:                                                 Purpose and Application
Resources that support the content of this activity/unit.             a. Information about grass
                                                                      seed germination
a. www.garden-counselor-lawn-care.com

Resources that support the methods of instruction within this         a. Information about the use of
lesson.                                                               bioassays     for
                                                                      environmental testing
a. http://ei.cornell.edu/toxicology/bioassays/lettuce

Central State University Contacts:
a. Dr. Krisnakumar Nedenuri (937)376-6269                             a. Soils and bioremediation
b. Dr. Cadance Lowell (937)376-6274                                   b. Phytoremediation
c. Dr. Anthony Armeut (937)376-6062                                   c. Microbiology and
                                                                      bioremediation

Web sources concerning Phytoremediation (see the Pre-Activity
Discussion with the recommended area of participation for an
AFRL engineer or scientis).
U.S. Air Force
Water Quality Management
http://www.afcee.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070924-
119.pdf
Environmental Management
http://www.afcee.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070924-
115.pdf

 Draft – 6/10/10                                                                          24
Phytoremediation
http://www.afcee.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070924-
151.pdf
State University of New York Phyto biomass example
http://www.esf.edu/pubprog/brochure/willow/willow.htm
City of Seattle Integrated City Design
http://www.seattle.gov/util/stellent/groups/public/@spu/@csb/
documents/webcontent/spu01_003261.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency
National Pollutants Discharge Elimination System
http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/
Educational Links and Materials
http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/docs.cfm?document_type_id=3&view=
Fact%20Sheets%20and%20Outreach%20Materials&program_id
=6&sort =name
http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/after_the_storm.pdf
http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/nps_month_bookmark.pdf
http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/waterefficiency.pdf
http://water.cityofdayton.org/Water/storm.asp
http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/H_Nav1/EducationTraining/Education/ta
bid/8643/Default.aspx
http://wwwapp.epa.ohio.gov/ddagw/SWEET/sweet_simulators.html
http://www.eeco-online.org/education/k12/teachers.html


 Credits
 Catherine Borucki, Melinda Wargacki, Tom Burr, Gerardo Ramos Maj USAF, John Diaz




 Draft – 6/10/10                                                               25
Teacher Reflections

   Were students focused and on task throughout the lesson? Insert answer here.

   If not, what improvements could be made the next time this lesson is used? Insert answer
    here.

   Were the students led too much in the lesson or did they need more guidance? Insert
    answer here.

   Did the students learn what they were supposed to learn? Insert answer here.

   How do you know? Insert answer here.

   How did students demonstrate that they were actively learning? Insert answer here.

   Did you find it necessary to make any adjustments during the lesson? Insert answer here.

   What were they? Insert answer here.

   Did the materials that the students were using affect classroom behavior or management?
    Insert answer here.

   What were some of the problems students encountered when using the …? Insert answer
    here.

   Are there better items that can be used next time? Insert answer here.

   Which ones worked particularly well? Insert answer here.

Additional Comments




Draft – 6/10/10                                                                      26

				
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