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					  Trends in Satellite Navigation,

Trends in Geoinformatics Education
        Alfred Kleusberg, Stuttgart University

          Stuttgart University
10 Faculties

Architecture and Urban Planning
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Life Sciences
Computer science and Electrical Engineering
Aerospace Engineering and Geodesy
Mechanical Engineering
Mathematics and Physics
Philosophy and History
Economics and Social Sciences

             Stuttgart University
Aerospace Engineering and Geodesy
Common faculty since 2002 (University Reorganisation)

Programmes of Study in 2004
• Aerospace Engineering (full time, 9 Semesters)
• Aerospace Engineering (part time)
• Geodesy and Geoinformatics Engineering (full time, 9 S.)

Students in Aerospace Engg.: 350 – 200 per year
Students in Geod.&Geoinf. Engg.: 25 – 15 per year

Full time Professors Aerospace Engg.: 14
Full time Professors Geod.&Geoinf. Engg.: 5
            Stuttgart University
Geodesy and Geoinformatics Engineering

Four Institutes (smallest organisational unit)

•   Geodetic Institute
•   Institute of Photogrammetry
•   Institute of Applications of Geodesy in Civil Engg.
•   Institute of Navigation

     responsible for teaching and research in
     • Navigation
     • Remote Sensing

         Stuttgart University
Employment of
our Geodesy and Geoinformatics Graduates (Dipl.-Ing.)

Land Surveying and Land Administration – 20%
Research Institutions – 15%
Geoinformatics Industry – 30%
Engineering Surveying – 20%
Other – 15%

There are a total of 9 such programmes in Germany
Graduates of other programmes have different
  priorities when selecting their jobs.

    Trends in Satellite Navigation
• Navigation, geodesy and surveying before the age
  of satellites

• History and present status of GPS and Glonass

• Future developments of GPS and Glonass

• Development of Galileo

• Status and trends in user equipment and applications

• Future combination of satellite navigation, satellite
  communication and satellite remote sensing.
Navigation before the age of satellites
• Global terrestrial radio navigation: OMEGA
  8 stations, low frequency signals; marine navigation

• Regional terrestrial radio navigation: LORAN-C
  Loran-C chains established e.g. in North Atlantic Ocean;
  primarily marine navigation

• Non Directional Beacon (NDB), VHF Omnidirectional
  Range (VOR), TACAN; area navigation of aircraft

• Instrument Landing System (ILS) and Microwave
  Landing System (MLS); aids to aircraft landing

• Inertial Navigation System (INS); air navigation       7
 Geodesy before the age of satellites

 Geodesy before the age of satellites

Geodesy before the age of satellites

                           Eninger Weide
                           Flughöhe ~1000 m
                           Maßstab ~1:7500
Artificial Satellites: Types of Orbits

LEO: Low Earth Orbit                 H ~500 - 1,500 km
MEO: Medium Earth Orbit        2,000 km < H < 36,000 km
GEO: Geostationary Earth Orbit       H ~36,000 km

Types of Orbits
Characteristic Differences        LEO/MEO vs GEO

Cost of launch                    low        high

Signal power requirements         low        high

Dynamic vs static constellation   dyn.       static

Non-directional vs directional antennae

Coverage / visibility ~10 Mio sq km vs ~500 Mio sq km

Round trip time delay             >4 msec    ~0.25 s
Geodesy with Balloon Satellites
                    Passive Geodetic Satellite

                    • 1975 -1980
                    • balloon satellites 30 m
                    • MEO, H = 5,600 (2,800) km
                    • illuminated by sun light
                    • photographed before stars
                    • satellite triangulation
                    • first global geodetic network
                    • ~45 stations
                    • distances ~4,000 km
                    • accuracy ~ 5 m
Early Satellite Navigation Systems
                    Transit/NNSS, U.S.A.

                    • 1967 - 1996
                    • 6 SV constellation
                    • polar orbits
                    • LEO, H ~1,000 km
                    • VHF signals (150/400 MHz)
                    • ~15 position fixes / day
                    • ~20 min / position fix
                    • low dynamic vehicles only
                    • 50 - 100 m accuracy
                    • bulky receivers

                    (Tsikada, USSR)        14
Geodesy with the Transit/NNSS

              •   NNSS receivers on geodetic
                  control network points
              •   distances few 100s km
              •   simultaneous measurements
                  on all network points
              •   station occupation few days
              •   relative coordinates of stations
              •   accuracy ~0.2 m
              •   Geodetic control networks in
                  European countries,
                  Canada, African countries, etc.

The Global Positioning System (GPS)
                    • operational 1995
                    • 24 (27) SV constellation
                    • 6 planes with 4 SV each
                    • orbits inclined by 55 deg
                    • MEO, H ~20,000 km
                    • UHF signals (~1.2/1.6 GHz)
                    • instantaneous position fix
                    • vehicles of any dynamics
                    • 10 - 30 m accuracy SPS
                    • <10 m accuracy PPS

                    • receiver = chip + antenna
                     embedded systems
Geodesy & Surveying with the GPS

              •   simultaneous measurements
                  on network point
              •   cm-accuracy for distances
                  • of <10 km in few minutes
                  • of 500 km in few hours
                  • of 10,000 km in few days
              •   All geodetic networks have
                  been re-measured with GPS
              •   GPS has revolutionised
                  geodesy and surveying

Geodesy & Surveying with the GPS

                       (GPS and INS)

GPS Augmentation Systems

• Several navigation applications require high level of
       signal integrity information
• The GPS signals do not provide this information
• Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is
       not always successful and reliable

==> Additional infrastructure needed to monitor GPS
signals and to provide integrity information

==> Ground based augmentation systems (GBAS)

==> Space based augmentation systems (SBAS)
Example GBAS:
Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS)
• Location: vicinity of airports
• several GPS signal monitor station
• GPS signal processing yields integrity information and
        GPS signal error mitigation information
• integrity info & error corrections transmitted to user
        via RF link
• additional GPS-like ranging signals “pseudolite”


Cat. I: planned to be operational in 2006 (funding?)
Cat. II / III performance: research and development efforts
Examples SBAS:
European geostationary navigation overlay service (EGNOS)
Wide area augmentation system (WAAS, North America)

• continent-wide networks of GPS signal monitor stations
• central signal processing facilities compute continent-wide
        valid integrity information and GPS signal error
        mitigation information
• integrity info & error corrections transmitted to user via
        geostationary communication satellites
• additional GPS-like ranging signals from comm. sat.

EGNOS: planned to be operational in 2006 ?
WAAS: partly available 2003, operational ?
• was operational in 1996
• 24 SV constellation
• 3 planes with 8 SV each
• orbits inclined by 65 deg
• MEO, H ~19,000 km
• UHF signals (~1.2/1.6 GHz)
• instantaneous position fix
• vehicles of any dynamics
• accuracy similar to GPS

• presently <10 SV
• commitment to re-build full constellation
• future Glonass-M, -K SV: new frequencies & signals   22
Plans for Galileo

                    • operational >2010?
                    • 27 (30) SV constellation
                    • orbits inclined by 56 deg
                    • MEO, H ~23,600 km
                    • UHF signals (~1.2/1.6 GHz)
                    • instantaneous position fix
                    • vehicles of any dynamics
                    • several levels of service
                    • 1 m < accuracy < 30 m

                    • signal integrity info (CS)
                    • integration of EGNOS
                    • compatibility with GPS       23
The Future of GPS
New signal structure with existing frequencies

• second ranging signal for civilian applications
• better separation of “military” and “civilian” signals
• IOC in 2008, FOC in 2010 (2001 FRP)

Additional third signal frequency (L5)

• third ranging signal for civilian applications
• IOC in 2012, FOC in 2014 (2001 FRP)

Main Applications of Satellite Systems

                            Remote Sensing

        Navigation          Science Missions

Example for Sat.-Comm.: Iridium

                      Configuration of 66 LEO satellites
                      Polar orbits, H ~780 km
                      Cross-links between satellites

  Hand held terminals
  Omni-directional antennae
  Voice, fax, messaging
  Low rate data @2.4Kbps
  Very small delays ~10 msec                        26
Example for Sat.-Comm.: Globalstar
                      Configuration of 48 LEO satellites
                      52 deg inclined non-polar orbits
                      Coverage +/- 70 deg latitude
                      8 planes with 6 satellites each
                      H ~1410 km
                      Voice, fax, messaging
                      Low rate data communication

Present service coverage

Hand held terminals
(L Band)
Example: Inmarsat RGBAN service
Regional (Global) Broadband Area Network
Using transponders on Thuraya satellites
C Band data @144 Kbps

   Service coverage in 2003            Terminal

GBAN service on Inmarsat-4 to start next year (~500 Kbps)
 Example for Satellite Remote Sensing

Optical System IKONOS

  Example for Satellite Remote Sensing
Radar System on the Shuttle:

Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

Satellite Systems for Desaster Relief

 Sat. Remote Sensing for
  Damage Assessment

                              Sat. Communication to
                                Get information to
Sat. Navigation to get Help
 And Helpers to Location

Satellite Systems for Science Missions

Earth Gravity Field
Earth Magnetic Field
Probing the Atmosphere
Altimetry over Oceans

GPS antennae pointing
• upwards for navigation
    • gravity field
    • magnetic field
• backwards for atmospheric probing
• downwards to receive GPS signal reflected at ocean
The next steps
In 2010 – 2014: three independent interoperable satellite
navigation systems: GPS, Glonass, Galileo with external
integrity information and with the ability to cross-check
between systems.

EU White Paper on Space (2003): “Access to broadband
communication for every citizen” (www, telemedicine,
education, etc.).

Space technology solution: Integrate satellite navigation,
satellite communication and satellite remote sensing for
security, sustainable development, crisis detection and
crisis management.
Trends in Geoinformatics Education

• Changes in the geoinformation profession

• Implication for geoinformatics education

• Implications of the Bologna agreement

• The Erasmus Mundus Programm of the EU

• A preview on geoinformatics education in 10 years.

Changes in the geoinformation profession
   Geoinformatics here: geodesy, surveying, geomatics

   Enabeling technology: Computers

   • Data acquisition pre-planning

   • Data acquisition with computerised instrumentation

   • Data processing (modelling, adjustment, analysis)

   • Digital presentation of results

   • Visualisation and display to „customers“
Changes in the geoinformation profession
  Enabeling technology: Satellites

  • „Infrastructure“ Global Positioning System

  • Optical and micro-wave Remote Sensing

  • Digital line cameras and laser scanners

  • Geodesy and geophysics from space

   Monitoring and change detection of the environment
    on local, regional, national and global scale
Implications for geoinformatics education

  more new              shorter              more
   content          period of study   application oriented

                 Geoinformatics Curriculum

 How to react?        Remove „unneccessary math“?
                      Remove „unneccessary physics“?
                      Remove „unneccessary applications“?

Implications of the Bologna agreement
 „By 2010 have in Universities throughout Europe two
 consecutive programmes of study (bachelor/master)“

 • presently in Germany 9 or 10 semester
   programmes leading to the degree „Diplom“

 • Legislation on federal political level in place for
   implementation of Bologna agreement

 • Legislation on provincial level expected 1.1.2005

 • All programmes will be changed before 2010

Bologna agreement and Geoinformatics
  German Geodetic Commission proposal for German

  • Bachelor programme of 6 or 7 semesters
    strong in basics (mathematics, physics, computer
    science, metrology, methodology)

  • Master programme of 3 or 4 semesters

  • proposal to ensure same level of competence at
    the bachelor level and to some extend at master level

  • At master level, at least competence of Dipl.-Ing.
Bologna agreement and Geoinformatics
 Bachelor degree acceptable for employment outside the
 classical geodesy/surveying profession?

 Most students expected to do bachelor and master degree

 Consecutive programmes of study together longer than
 present Dipl.-Ing. programme

  Allows universities at master programme level to
   develop unique profile

  Bachelor graduates to go universities with programme
   profile that matches students„ expectations
Erasmus Mundus programme of the EU
 Cooperation of universities from different countries at the
 master programme level (some EU funding available)

 Common curriculum is offered at three universities

 Students must study at least at two of the three universities

 Stuttgart University is presently in the process of
 establishing an Erasmus Mundus programme in Aerospace
 Engineering (with NL and F)

 Erasmus Mundus in Geodesy and Geoinformatics?!

Geoinformatics education in 10 years?
 • Bachelor programme of study of comparable level
   throughout Europe

 • For bachelor study, students select university for
   economic or other trivial reasons

 • Universities develop specialised programmes of study
   at the master level

 • For master study, students select university if its
   programme profile matches students„ interest

 • It is seen as an advantage to have studied at different
   universities in different countries!                 42
Geoinformatics education in 10 years

  Not so long ago it was not unusual in Europe to
  study at renowened foreign universities!

  It may again become the practice, at least for a
  minority of excellent students.

  Or is this just wishful thinking?


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