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					                                                                                      Winter/SPRING 2005 - Vol. 9, Issue 1




Let’s Sell More
Flowers!                                                                                         Editor’s Note:
By Michael Reid, U.C. Cooperative Extension,                                                     This issue of CORF News focuses on
Davis                                                                                            postharvest handling and marketing issues
                                                                                                 for the flower industry. Featured articles by
     The history of U.S. cut flower                                                               Michael Reid (UC Davis) address promotion
production is a story of change. Only                                                            of flowers, tools for testing flower fresh-
a century ago, flowers were produced                                                              ness, and flower temperature-management.
in greenhouses and fields close to                                                                Lee Murphy and Peggy Dillon (California
major population centers. Because of                                                             Cut Flower Commission) address issues of
their perishability and relatively small                                                         temperature management and Valentine’s
volumes, they were not adapted to the                                                            Day sales.
refrigerated rail transport that was
already starting to be used to bring                                                             After 16 years as Flower and Nursery
vegetables and fruits from California                                                            Crops Farm Advisor in San Diego County,
to the East coast. The development              terms of labor and costs), and reliance          Karen Robb has moved to a new position in
of air freight following World War II           on long-distance transport to bring              Mariposa County, as County Director/Farm
                                                flowers to major markets has contin-              Advisor. She will be missed in San Diego
permitted high value perishable crops
                                                ued, globally, with central America              County, and her efforts working with CORF
like flowers to be transported from
                                                becoming the major supplier of cut               statewide educational programs will be
good growing environments to major                                                               missed too. At least for this year, she will be
markets in the East. Florida, Colorado,         flowers to North America, and Africa
                                                                                                 back in San Diego County to put on already-
and California became the primary               becoming a primary source of flowers
                                                                                                 planned CORF educational programs. Her
producers and shippers of cut flowers            for the European market.
                                                                                                 last CORF News regional report will be in
for the nation.                                 Present Industry Trends are Dismal               the next issue.
     This pattern of production moving               Of particular interest to California        - Steve Tjosvold, Editor, CORF News
to better growing environments (both in
                                                               Let’s Sell More cont. on page 2
                                                                                                              IN THIS ISSUE
                                                                                                                    Features
Developing a Tool to                            Increasing                                       Let’s Sell More Flowers _____________ 1
                                                                                                 Developing a Tool To Test Freshness ______ 1
Test Flower Freshness                           Consumption Depends                              Increasing Consumption ____________ 1

by Michael Reid, Cai-Zhong Ziang, Feng Lu,
UC Cooperative Extension, Davis                 on Better Temperature                                           Regional Reports
                                                                                                 Santa Cruz & Monterey Counties _____ 6

     A fundamental problem to ensur-
                                                Management During                                Evaluation of Fungicides for the Control of
                                                                                                 Phytophthora ramorum
ing the freshness and vase life of cut          Transportation                                   Ventura & Santa Barbara Counties ___ 7
                                                                                                 Chrysanthemum White Rust /Water Quality
flowers is that there is no easy way for a       by Michael Reid, Cai-Zhong Ziang, Feng Lu,
receiver (wholesaler, retailer, or con-         UC Cooperative Extension, Davis                  Santa Clara County _________________ 8
sumer) to tell what abuse a flower may                                                            Salt Accumulation & Poor Irrigation Effect
                                                                                                 Mum Production
have suffered during its transportation              If we could double U.S. flower
and storage. Flowers that are close to          consumption, as has been achieved in             San Diego County __________________ 9
                                                                                                 Adjuvants Role in Controlling Downy Mildew on
the end of their potential life after poor      the U.K., changes in the demand/supply
                                                                                                 Limonium
handling and temperature management             equation would improve the economics                             Other Interests
may not be visually different from flow-         of the cut flower industry for everyone           Science to Grower_________________ 10
ers that have been correctly handled.           – producers, shippers, retail florists and        Postharvest Technology from Down Under
This is a problem for the industry,             supermarkets. To achieve such growth,            CCFC Educates____________________ 11
because it means that it is the customer        the industry needs to address two key            Get Cultured _____________________ 12
who finds out whether the flowers are             issues: providing consumers with flow-            Ultraviolet Light as Sanitation Control in the
fresh or old. Few cut flower marketing           ers that will last in their homes, and           Nursery & Floriculture Industries
companies in the U.S. have ever imple-          promoting a culture of personal use of           2005 CORF Program Calendar ______ 13
mented a strict quality control program         flowers for everyday enjoyment.                   Campus News & Research Updates __ 14
                                                                                                 UC Riverside, UC Berkeley
            Developing a Tool cont. on page 4         Increasing Consumption cont. on page 4     Sponsors ________________________ 16
Let’s Sell More cont. from page 1                                        that in Slovenia and Spain. This low per-capita consumption
                                                                         in the U.S. is the result of two inter-related problems; a culture
growers has been the evolution of the market in the United               of low personal use, and a general dissatisfaction with the
States, which is illustrated by statistics provided by the USDA          quality of cut flowers.
Market Research Service (Fig. 1).
                                                                              In the U.S., flowers still largely supply the holiday and
                                                                         special events businesses, and the industry has failed to gener-
                                                                         ate a culture of using flowers as an every day accoutrement.
                                                                         This is clearly demonstrated by the relatively low number of
                                                                         households that purchase flowers (28% in the U.S., compared,
                                                                         for example, to 76% in Holland, and 63% in Britain), the rel-
                                                                         atively high ‘per unit’ cost of purchased flowers ($15), and the
                                                                         fact that supermarkets account for only 26% of all cut flower
                                                                         sales, half what is sold by retail florists (52%). The American
                                                                         flower market is primarily an impulse market. Most flowers
                                                                         are sold for use as gifts (74%). Valentine’s Day and Mother’s
                                                                         Day alone account for 18% of all cut flower purchases, more
                                                                         than all the flowers that are purchased annually for personal
                                                                         use (16%), only slightly above funerals, which account for
                                                                         12% of all cut flower sales. Contrast these statistics with
                                                                         those from Holland, where 55% of flower purchases are for
Figure 1. Source and sales of cut flowers in the U.S. during              personal use.
the last three decades. Data obtained from the USDA Mar-                      Sporadic efforts by the industry to increase sales through
keting Research Service.
                                                                         marketing campaigns have been doomed to failure because
In brief, the data show:                                                 the flowers that are sold give poor customer satisfaction.
     • In the early 70’s, with the entry of significant quantities        Research data, and legions of anecdotes indicate that the life
of imported flowers from Central America, consumption rose.               of purchased cut flowers is highly variable. Our research has
U.S. production was static until the early 90’s, while consump-          demonstrated clearly that flower life in the consumer’s home
tion increased in parallel with the steady increase in volume of         is determined by the time/temperature exposure of the flowers
imported product.                                                        prior to sale. The fact that the majority of the cut flowers sold
                                                                         in the U.S. are produced at great distances from the consumer
     • During the 90’s the unfavorable comparative econom-
ics of production in the U S. (which is largely in California)           demands a rigor in temperature management and speed of de-
resulted in a rapid decline in local production, which now               livery that is presently lacking in our distribution system. The
represents less than 20% of all the flowers consumed in this              marketing focus on major holidays encourages long-term stor-
country.                                                                 age of flowers that exacerbates the problem (the peak harvest
                                                                         for Valentine’s Day roses, for example, occurs in late January).
     • From the mid-90’s, consumption of cut flowers fell
                                                                         The fact that declining per capita consumption of cut flowers
steadily, and by 2000 was less than three quarters of that at
the peak (1993).                                                         mirrors the increased percentage of flowers that are produced
                                                                         off-shore (and therefore transported long distances, usually
Table 1.(below) Per capita consumption of cut flowers and                 without refrigeration) may be no accident.
potted plants in 2002 for different countries. Data from the
Flower Council of Holland.                                               Cut Flower Consumption Can be Changed Rapidly
                                                                             One other international cut flower statistic should be a
                                    US Per Capita Consumption of
                                    Flowers is Low                       clarion call to the U.S. industry. In the past 5 years, the con-
                                                                         sumption of cut flowers in the United Kingdom has doubled.
                                         Comparison of U.S. and          This doubling has been the result of their industry addressing
                                    international statistics show the    the two issues that are the root cause of low consumption in
                                    nature of the problem for the cut
                                                                         the U.S. Advertising campaigns in the U.K. has focused on
                                    flower industry in the U.S.
                                                                         increased personal use (focused, particularly on women – ‘buy
                                         Per capita consumption of       some flowers for yourself’). In parallel, major supermarket
                                    cut flowers in the United States      chains have become the primary source of cut flowers, and
                                    is low compared with that in         have instituted systems for management and control of quality
                                    other countries (Table 1). For
                                                                         that ensure that the customer receives a satisfactory product.
                                    example, consumption in Hol-
                                                                         These companies source flowers from farms in Kenya and
                                    land is more than double that
                                    in the U.S., and even in Britain,    Zimbabwe where product of predetermined quality is packed
                                    a nation that historically has       ready for sale, with prices and harvest and sell-by dates
                                    had relatively low cut flower         marked on sleeves. Temperature is controlled and monitored
                                    sales, present consumption is        throughout the postharvest chain, and visual and vase-life
                                    50% higher than that in the          quality are routinely tested on arrival in Britain.
                                    U.S. Despite the high standard
                                                                         Let’s Change Flower Consumption in the U.S.!
                                    of living and historically high
                                    levels of disposable income in the       The U.K. example suggests a golden opportunity in the
                                    U.S., our cut flower consumption      U.S. flower market. If the Brits can increase their consump-
                                    is lower than that in Italy and
                                    Ireland, and only a little above                                          Let’s Sell More cont. on page 10

2   CORF NEWS - Winter/Spring 2005
CORF NEWS - Winter/Spring 2005   3
Developing a Tool cont. from page 1               Increasing Consumption cont. from page 1

(where sample flowers would be placed
in vases under controlled conditions)
because of space and manpower
limitations.
     Identification kits using enzymatic,
antibody, or molecular methods are in-
creasingly sophisticated and continue to
decrease in cost. A pregnancy test that
used to require a clinician, expensive
equipment and came with a substan-
tial bill can now be conducted with
an inexpensive kit purchased over the
counter. Our research is investigating
the possibility that a simple test could
be developed to evaluate the freshness
of cut flowers.
     In recent years, several researchers
have reported changes in a number of              Figure 1. These lilies were stored for five days at different temperatures, then placed
genes (the ‘codes’ that program the life          at room temperature (68ºF) for two days.
of plants) during flower senescence.
Some of these genes are common to
many cut flowers, and we are select-                    To provide consumers with long-
ing such genes for use as a ‘freshness            lasting flowers, it is clear that the
indicator’. Using a tool called quantita-         industry needs to improve temperature
tive real-time PCR, we have started to            control during marketing. Numer-
examine changes in the abundance of               ous studies have demonstrated the
selected genes during senescence of a             remarkable effects of proper tempera-
range of commercial cut flowers. The               ture management during transport on
table shows an example - changes in the
                                                  the vase life of cut flowers. The lilies
abundance of transcripts (gene copies)
of one of the candidate genes (SR12, a            shown in Figure 1 were stored at dif-
beta-galactosidase) during senescence of          ferent temperatures for five days, then
carnation petals.                                 placed at room temperature (68ºF) for
     The dramatic rise in the abundance           two days. The effect of the simulated
of this gene as senescence commences              transportation temperature on subse-
indicates its potential as a tool for             quent flower opening and death is easily
determining the freshness of cut flow-             seen. In every such experiment, we find       Figure 2. Temperatures during truck
ers. In continuing research, we intend            that storage at temperatures close to        transportation of some California
to examine a wide range of genes, not             32ºF deliver flowers with vase life simi-     flowers.
only for a strong negative correlation            lar to that of freshly harvested flowers.
between transcript abundance and                  Increasing transportation temperatures       seen a temperature profile where the
remaining vase life, but also for useful-         have a dramatic effect in hastening          flowers are maintained close to the ideal
ness with a diversity of commercial                                                            transportation temperature (33ºF) from
cut flowers. Once we have identified                flower development and death.
                                                                                               precooling to arrival at destination.
such a gene or genes, we will be ready                 Many years ago, we showed that
to develop a test ‘kit’ that will enable          proper pre-cooling and transporta-                The present poor temperature
inexpensive determination of vase life            tion of flowers by refrigerated truck         control that is common in the industry
potential at the wholesale and retail             provided flowers that were much               is not due to lack of innovative systems
level.❖                                           fresher than those transported by air.       for refrigerated transportation. Wheth-
                                                  California growers have the luxury of        er flowers are shipped by air, by sea,
Flower Stag             Transcript Abundance      being able to use relatively inexpensive     or by land, equipment is available that
                        (relative to bud-stage)   surface transport to ship their flowers       can ensure temperature management
Bud-stage               1                         to market. Unfortunately, we do not          throughout the chain. Because more
Newly opened flower      2.5                       do a good job of temperature control         than 80% of the flowers that are sold in
                                                  during transportation of our flowers.         the U.S. originate from overseas, efforts
2-day old flower         3.9
                                                  Over the years, we have conducted            to improve flower quality through bet-
Onset of senescence     590
                                                  many tests measuring the temperature         ter transportation temperatures need to
                                                  of flowers during transport. Only last        involve domestic and overseas
Table 1 Real-time PCR measurement
                                                  September (by no means the warmest           producers.
of abundance of transcripts for a se-
nescence-associated gene (SR-12) from             month of the season), we recorded the             Since the majority of the flowers
carnation petals.                                 temperature profile shown in Figure           sold in the U.S. are transported by air,
                                                  2 in flowers being transported from           the industry has relied on the speed of
                                                  California to the East coast. And this       air transport to offset the poor tem-
                                                  pattern is not an isolated ‘horror story’    perature management (and accelerated
                                                  – in dozens of tests we have only rarely
                                                                                                    Increasing Consumption cont. on page 11

4   CORF NEWS - Winter/Spring 2005
CORF NEWS - Winter/Spring 2005   5
                                                Regional Report
                                      Santa Cruz & Monterey Counties

Evaluation of Fungicides for the Control of Phytophthora ramorum
Infecting Rhododendron, Camellia, Viburnum and Pieris
by Steve Tjosvold, UC Cooperative Extension, Santa Cruz and Monterey

      Phytophthora ramorum, the causal              control as expressed by reduced le-           Phytophthora leaf spot
agent of Sudden Oak Death, was de-                  sion size compared to water controls.         and foliar blight of
tected in several California, Oregon,
and Washington ornamental nurseries
                                                    These fungicides provided preventative
                                                    activity for at least 4 weeks, except in
                                                                                                  Pieris japonica caused by
in 2004. A new USDA Federal Order                   rhododendron in which the tested fun-         Phytophthora citricola in
taking effect January 10, 2005 requires             gicides were active up to 2 weeks fol-        California1.
annual nursery inspection and certifi-               lowing their application. When lesions
cation that nursery stock shipped to                occurred, the pathogen was successfully            In 2004, containerized nurs-
other states are free of this pathogen.             recovered from the lesions by isolation       ery stock of lily-of-the-valley-bush
Nursery operators need a comprehen-                 on selective media. Only cyazofamid           (Pieris japonica ‘Flamingo’, family
                                                                                                  Ericaceae) in Santa Cruz County
sive management program                                          and dimethomorph signifi-
                                                                                                  was found with a previously
to insure that their nursery                                     cantly reduced the success of    uncharacterized disease. Symptoms
stock remain disease free.                                       isolation recovery.              consisted of large leaf spots, many
(See link below to Nursery                                            Post-infection treatments   developing at the leaf tips, which
Management Manuals).                                             of leaf lesions with foliar-     ranged in size from 1 to greater
Fungicides could be part of                                      and soil-applied fungicides      than 4 cm in diameter. Spots were
an integrated management                                         were ineffective in reducing     dark brown to almost black in
approach to meet that goal.                                     the size of lesions and the       color, generally oval to round in
For agricultural inspectors,                                    success of pathogen recov-        shape, were visible from both sides
it is also important to know                                    ery from those lesions. The       of the leaf, and did not exhibit signs
whether fungicides could                                        pathogen was recovered from       of any pathogen. Lesions typically
mask symptoms and                                               lesions consistently for at       expanded and affected the entire
detection of the pathogen.        Sporangium of Phytophthora    least 6 weeks after fungicide     leaf, leaf petiole, and stems, and
      For two years we evalu-
                                   ramorum (Photo by Matteo
                                    Garbelotto, UC Berkeley)   application in rhododendron        resulted in blight-like symptoms.
ated fungicides for the                                                                           In advanced stages of the disease,
                                                               regardless of treatment. Fun-
                                                                                                  the plant was killed. This is the first
prevention and eradica-                                        gicides will not be effective in   report of P. citricola causing a foliar
tion of P. ramorum on four important                eradicating existing infections and           disease of P. japonica in California
ornamental genera of nursery hosts:                 lesion development is not slowed
two cultivars of Rhododendron (R.                   significantly by fungicide application.             This finding is important
‘Cunningham’s White’ and R. ‘Irish                  Infected plants will need to be               because the pathogen causing
                                                                                                  sudden oak death, Phytophthora
Lace’) in 2003, and Camellia japonica               destroyed in quarantine situations.
                                                                                                  ramorum, causes very similar symp-
‘Elena Nobile’, Pieris japonica ‘White-             Laboratory isolation success declines         toms on this same host. The occur-
water’, and Viburnum tinus ‘Compacta’               with time after fungicide application         rence of these two foliar Phytoph-
in 2004. First, we screened prospective             and infection so agricultural inspectors      thora species on this ornamental
fungicides by evaluating the preventa-              should locate leaves that have recently       plant may complicate P. ramorum
tive control of a wide range of com-                formed lesions for isolation and most         field detection during inspections
mercially-available and experimental                effective detection.                          and laboratory confirmations as es-
oomycete fungicides. Second, we                          Lesion development can occur even        tablished by quarantine regulations.
selected the fungicides that provided the           with preventative fungicide application
best efficacy in the fungicide screen and            for various reasons: imperfect applica-            1
                                                                                                        Adapted from a Disease Note
repeated these applications to determine            tion uniformity, incomplete movement          manuscript submitted for publication in
their residual action to prevent infec-                                                           Plant Disease by S. T. Koike, University of
                                                    of fungicide, inherent fungicide efficacy,     California Cooperative Extension, Salinas,
tion. Efficacy was also judged by how                and weakened or wounded plants. If            93901; G. T. Browne, R.G. Bhat, and
well the pathogen was recovered from                lesions occur, cyazofamid and dimetho-        R.C.M. Lee, USDA-ARS at Department of
lesions resulting from infections. Fi-                                                            Plant Pathology, University of California,
                                                    morph could have a significant negative        Davis, 95616; and S. A. Tjosvold and K.
nally, the eradicative potential of these           impact on isolation recovery.                 Buermeyer, University of California Coop-
fungicides were judged by the success of                                                          erative Extension, Watsonville, 95076.
recovery of the pathogen from lesions                    For links and more information
that were treated with these fungicides.            on the new USDA Federal Order and
                                                    nursery management manuals see
Summary                                             www.suddenoakdeath.org.❖                                                     Steve Tjosvold
      Cyazofamid, dimethomorph,                                                                                    UC Cooperative Extension
mefenoxam, pyraclostrobin and                                                                                              1432 Freedom Blvd.
                                                                                                                  Watsonville, CA 95076-2796
fenamidone applied as foliar sprays                                                                                     Phone: (831) 763-8040
consistently provided preventative                                                                                         Fax: (831) 763-8006
                                                                                                                e-mail: satjosvold@ucdavis.edu

6   CORF NEWS - Winter/Spring 2005
                                              Regional Report
                                  Ventura & Santa Barbara Counties

Chrysanthemum White Rust/Water Quality
by Julie P. Newman, UC Cooperative Extension, Ventura and Santa Barbara

     Chrysanthemum White Rust                         Permits. Not all projects
(CWR) caused by the fungus Puccinia              require permits. For example,
horiana, was found in a Carpinte-                if you are planning on install-
ria nursery before Thanksgiving. It              ing plants for use as a vegeta-
has since developed into an epidemic             tive filter, you would not need
which has still not been contained. The          a permit. However, if you are
County Agriculture Commissioner/                 planning on building a large
CDFA/USDA-PPQ are working jointly                concrete-lined sediment pond
in the monitoring and containment                and recycling system, you
effort. There are six locations under an         likely would need permits.
Emergency Action Notice (EAN), and               Before applying for permits
they are following the National Man-             for new construction it is
agement Plan for eradication, as in the          important that you have the
CWR battle a year ago.                           necessary permits for your ex-                Photo courtesy of Heather Scheck, Santa Barbara County
     Heather Scheck, Plant Patholo-              isting operation. In Ventura County, un-      Agricultural Commissionerʼs Office.

gist, Santa Barbara County Agriculture           less your nursery has no structures you
Commissioner, credits the early and              must be operating under a Conditional         tial downstream. If you are directly
steady rain as a major factor in this            Use Permit (CUP) or under a Zoning            connected to a redline channel (flood
year’s epidemics. Poor sanitation mea-           Clearance from County Planning, or            control channel) you may need an
sures likely also played a role because          the appropriate permits from your City        encroachment or watercourse permit.
CWR was found outside greenhouses                Planning Office. Expired County CUPs           This permit requires that you must
on resprouts in fields where fall crops           require an application for reissuance         detain stormwater so no runoff is
were grown. Surveys continue, as does            (waiting period 30-240 days).                 discharged over what would be pro-
plant destruction within one meter                    When a construction improvement          duced in a 10-100 year storm event, if
whenever rust is found. Growers under            is added to your facility, your pro-          the channel down stream is deficient.
the EAN can use Eagle® (myclobutanil)            posed project may require modifying                Division of Water Resources.
at 5-7 day intervals, which helps with           any Existing CUP. Existing CUPs with          Another department that routinely
containment. For further information,            structures require a Permit Adjustment        reviews nursery projects is the Public
see CORF News 8(1): 7.                           or Minor Modification. Keep in mind            Works Division of Water Resources.
Regulations Affecting Construction of            that the Adjustment or Modification            Questions that this department exam-
Water Capture and Recycling Systems              may include conditions requiring you          ines may include: Are there existing or
                                                 to meet new regulations adopted since         abandoned wells on the property? Is
     Water capture and recycling                 obtaining your CUP.
systems can be used to mitigate water                                                          there a net reduction in recharge or loss
regulation requirements and can save                  Grading Permit. A grading permit         to the groundwater basin due to the
you money when recycling leads to less           is required before grading, but an ex-        proposed project (e.g. lined pond)? Will
fertilizer inputs. Nurseries that manage         emption for agriculture is often granted.     the project contribute to contamination
runoff may be classified by regulators            To obtain an exemption in Ventura             of groundwater (e.g. unlined pond)?
as “low risk,” requiring less intensive          County, turn in a completed Request                A more detailed County publica-
monitoring under proposed conditional            for Grading Permit Exemption form,            tion, Regulations Affecting Construc-
waiver requirements for Ventura and              available at Public Works or online at:       tion of Water Capture and Recycling
Los Angeles county growers.                      http://publicworks.countyofventura.           Systems, which includes a list of federal
                                                 org/wre/dis/index.htm. Digging a hole         and state agencies to contact for proj-
     But keep in mind that there are             for an agricultural pond at grade level
also regulations that affect how water                                                         ects near watercourses or wetlands, can
                                                 would usually be granted an exemption         be obtained from our office by contact-
capture and recycling systems can be             upon review. If the pond is above grade
constructed to ensure that they conform                                                        ing Krissy Gilbert, kdgilbert@ucdavis.
                                                 the fill and berm need to be constructed       edu, 805/645-1463.❖
with zoning, land use, and environmen-           correctly, so this type of activity is usu-
tal requirements. Prior to construction,         ally not exempt.
you should meet with a county or city
planning official to determine if your                 Ventura County Watershed Protec-
project will require permits or land             tion District and Encroachment/Water-
use modifications, what documents are             course Permit. Ventura County nursery
needed with your application, and to             projects are routinely reviewed by the
determine what other agencies could              Watershed Protection District. Nurser-
be involved in the review process. The           ies create impervious areas causing a
                                                                                                                              Julie P. Newman
planner assigned to your case will dis-          net increase in runoff. Review of your                            UC Cooperative Extension
tribute your proposal to other agencies,         project may lead to conditions requir-                    669 County Square Drive, Suite 100
but you should contact them to become            ing that you detain the extra water your                            Ventura, CA 93003-5401
                                                 operation creates in peak storm flows,                                  Phone: (805) 645-1459
familiar with agency requirements.                                                                                        Fax: (805) 645-1474
                                                 i.e. you can’t increase flooding poten-                        e-mail: jpnewman@ucdavis.edu

                                                                                   CORF NEWS - Winter/Spring 2005                                 7
                                                 Regional Report
                                                     Santa Clara County

Salt Accumulation and Poor Irrigation Uniformity Negatively
Affect Mum Production
by Aziz Baameur, Small Farms & Specialty Crops, Santa Clara, San Benito, & Santa Cruz Counties

    Local growers of Chrysanthemum cut flowers have experienced lower flower
quality and related decreased sales. The main complaint was that plants exhibited                Grace Under Fire
pale yellowish spots that developed into necrotic areas. With time, the necrotic                      Growers in the Central Coast
spots coalesced into areas covering large parts of the leaves. Plants affected at early          region have been dealing with agri-
growth stages tended to produce small and “soft” buds and resulting flowers were                  cultural waiver issues for months.
unmarketable.                                                                                    Here, I want to deviate form the
    By process of elimination, we removed pathogens as a cause. Our next step was                usual technical discussion and high-
to focus on abiotic, non-pathogenic, sources such as soil and water. So, we under-               light the human side of the issue.
took this small study to help a group of affected growers identify the sources of the                 I serve several ethnic immi-
problem and provide strategies to remedy it. Two operations not affected by this                 grants-growers who do not speak
problem were included too.                                                                       English. Unlike many others, they
    We took multiple plant and soil samples per operation from healthy and affected              had no particular awareness of
                                                                                                 the agricultural waivers and their
spots. We also sampled well water and evaluated the uniformity of the irrigation
                                                                                                 termination.
systems.
                                                                                                      When they received the
    Putting all the data together, we began to delineate common denominators in                  Notice of Intent forms (NOI), they
troubled operations. Soil samples from affected areas showed less than ideal condi-              did what most growers did. They
tions for plant growth. Soil pH values were either too low (under 6.0) or too high               panicked. Official looking
(above 7.5), as shown in Table 1. Sodium (Na) in most samples exceeded what                      documents increase non-English
might be an acceptable threshold (4.0 meq/L). At high concentrations, Na is taken                speakers proclivity to worry. Once
by the plants where it accumulates and becomes toxic. Similarly, very high Chloride              they guessed at the content of the
(Cl) concentrations were detected in two operations that were severely impacted by               letter, they panicked some more.
flower quality problems. Cl, not an essential element, becomes toxic to plants, when              Then, they immediately set to call
taken at high rates. We assume that an acceptable range for Cl is somewhere around               anyone who might help.
3.2-3.5 meq/L.                                                                                        With the support of many
                                                                                                 concerned organizations and the
                                                                                                 Regional Water Quality Control
                                                                                                 Board (RWQCB) staff we organized
                              Soil Data                           Well Water Data                informational community meetings
                                                                                                 and workshops to help fill out the
Element           Minimum Maximum          Average        Minimum Maximum Average                NOI forms.
Ece/w (meq/L)        0.7     3.6             2.1             0.6     1.1     0.8                      During those weeks of anguish,
Na (meq/L)           4.2     8.0             6.7             4.6     7.2     1.7                 most growers carried the burden of
                                                                                                 uncertainty with an obliging dignity
Cl meq/L             0.7    14.0             3.8             1.5     2.4     0.6                 and disarming grace. This has
NO3-N ppm            2.0   380.0            90.7             7.5    37.5    15.9                 gained them the respect and
pH                   4.2     8.0             6.6             7.2     7.8     7.6                 affection of everyone that interacted
                                                                                                 with them during those trying days.
                                                                                                      In their unassuming way, these
Table 1. Soil and well water chemical analyses of several greenhouse - 2004                      growers taught us a valuable lesson.
                                                                                                 Stress may weaken steel, but it only
    Over half of the operations surveyed, had excessive soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-              strengthens some people’s shield of
N) levels ranging from 90 to 380 ppm. The highest concentrations were found in                   grace.
spots where Na and Cl were present in excessive levels. Nitrate levels fluctuated
with operations and plant growth stages. Where excessive watering was practiced,
we saw low NO3-N and the reverse was true for very dry areas.
    Plant tissue content did not show a linear relationship to salt accumulation and
symptom presence. Plants with Cl content of 13000 ppm or less did not exhibit the                                             Aziz Baameur
described symptoms. At 17000 ppm some varieties displayed early light foliar spot-                              UC Cooperative Extension
ting that progressed to severe foliar necrosis, browning of lower leaves, and tip-burn                           1553 Berger Drive, Bldg.1
                                                                                                                        San Jose, CA 95112
                                                                                                                     Phone: (408) 282-3127
                                                            Salt Accumulation cont. on page 15                         Fax: (408) 298-5160
                                                                                                             email: azbaameur@ucdavis.edu

8   CORF NEWS - Winter/Spring 2005
                                                                          Regional Report
                                                                                  San Diego County

Adjuvants Role in Controlling Downy Mildew on Limonium
by Karen L. Robb, Stephen Wegulo* and Miguel Vilchez*

     Downy mildew (Peronospora                                                   The treatment programs were: 1) non-
statices) is a serious fungal disease on                                         treated control, 2) Parasol® only @ 6 fl          Field Observations
limonium, especially cv. Misty Blue, and                                         oz/100gal, 3) NuFilm P® @ 5 fl oz/100                  Rain, rain, rain. Who would
has been responsible for dramatic crop                                           gal, 4) Latron B-1956® @ 4 fl oz/100              have thought a year ago that this
losses since it was discovered in Cali-                                          gal, 5) LI 700® @ 8 fl oz/100 gal, 6)             thirsty area would have too much
fornia in 1997. Numerous experiments                                             Breakthru® @ 10 fl oz/100 gal, 7) Fore®           rain? However… Many field
have been conducted to evaluate fungi-                                           @ 1.5 lb/100 gal on June 11, Heritage®           growers are experiencing problems
cide efficacy against this downy mildew.                                          @ 2 oz/100 gal on June 21, Stature               of erosion as a result of the rain.
However, most involved repeatedly                                                DM® @ 9.6 oz/100 gal on July 1, and              Some of you may be contemplat-
applying the same material to the test                                           fenamidone @ 7 fl oz/100 gal on July 9;           ing whether a field is salvageable or
                                                                                                                                  even worth salvaging. When
plants, which is in direct conflict with                                          8) Fungicides with Breakthru® added to
                                                                                                                                  trying to make that decision, keep in
fungicide resistance management strate-                                          each; 9) Fungicides with Parasol® added          mind that these fields will probably
gies! In this trial, we utilized a rotation                                      to each; 10) Fungicides with LI 700®             require more fungicide applications
of fungicides: Fore®, Heritage®, Stature                                         added to each; 11) Fungicides with               than usual, since the rains have
DM®, and fenamidone, and evaluated                                               Latron B-1956® added to each; and 12)            created an environment that is
the impact of selected adjuvants on the                                          Fungicides with NuFilm P® added to               highly conducive to many diseases.
efficacy of this program.                                                         each. Disease severity was measured                   Sudden Oak Death inspections
Materials and Methods                                                            before each application of pesticides,           should have been completed by
                                                                                 and 10 days after the final application.          March 11, if you are planning to
     Disease severity was scored on 0-5                                                                                           ship material out of state. If you
scale. Average disease severity before                                           Results and Conclusions
                                                                                                                                  are producing non-host crops, you
initiation of fungicide/adjuvant treat-                                                 Table 1 shows the average disease         should be set to go after the inspec-
ments was high at 4.0. The trial was                                             severity for each treatment program              tion. If you are growing Phytoph-
conducted in a randomized complete                                               10 days after the final application.              thora ramorum host plants, how-
block design with 4 replications. Each                                           Adjuvants enhanced the efficacy of                ever, samples will be required and
plot size was 6 feet by 3 feet, and evalu-                                       fungicides in controlling downy mildew           the turn around can take a month
ations were made in center of each plot                                          on limonium. The treatment in which              or so. So, if you haven’t had your
to avoid drift affects. Materials were                                           no adjuvants were added to fungicides            inspection yet, get one asap!
applied every 10 days, using a CO2-                                              was not significantly different from the          On a personal note…
powered back pack sprayer at 32 psi.                                             non-treated control or the adjuvant-                  For both personal and profes-
                                                                                                          only treatments. All    sional reasons, I’ve accepted a posi-
Spray 1               Spray 2            Spray 3          Spray 4                             Severity    treatments in which     tion as County Director/Horticul-
11 June               21 June            1 July           9 July                              (0-5 scale)
                                                                                                                                  ture Advisor in Mariposa County. I
                                                                                                            z

                                                                                              19 July     adjuvants were
                                                                                                          added to fungicides     will start there on March 21, 2005.
Non-treated control                                                                           4.00 a
                                                                                                          had significantly             I have greatly enjoyed working
Parasol®              Parasol®           Parasol®         Parasol®                            3.88 ab
                                                                                                          lower disease sever-    with the wonderful people in this in-
NuFilm P   ®
                      NuFilm P   ®
                                         NuFilm P®        NuFilm P®                           3.75 ab
                                                                                                          ity values than other   dustry for the past 27 years. These
Latron B-1956  ®
                      Latron B-1956  ®
                                         Latron B-1956®   Latron B-1956®                      3.75 ab     treatments.             last 16 years as Flower and Nursery
                                                                                                                                  Crops Farm Advisor in San Diego
LI 700®               LI 700®            LI 700®          LI 700®                             3.63 ab
                                                                                                               The results        County have been very rewarding
Breakthru®            Breakthru®         Breakthru®       Breakthru®                          3.50 a-c    from these trials are   to me personally. I have had the
Fore®
                      Heritage  ®
                                         Stature DM®      fenamidone – No adjuvants           3.25 a-d    encouraging, and        great fortune to work with some of
Fore®
                      Heritage  ®
                                         Stature DM®      fenamidone – Breakthru added to all
                                                                                ®
                                                                                              3.13 b-d    we are planning to      the finest growers and cooperators
                                                                                                          continue evaluations    in the industry. I will miss working
Fore®                 Heritage®          Stature DM®      fenamidone – Parasol® added to all  2.75 cd                             with you all very much.
                                                                                                          with adjuvants.❖
Fore®                 Heritage®          Stature DM®      fenamidone – LI 700 added to all
                                                                             ®
                                                                                                  2.75 cd                              Thank you for all your support
Fore®
                      Heritage  ®
                                         Stature DM   ®
                                                          fenamidone – Latron B-1956 added to all 2.63 d
                                                                                    ®
                                                                                                                                  and friendship these past years.
Fore®                 Heritage®          Stature DM®      fenamidone – NuFilm P® added to all     2.50 d                          Please keep in touch.

Table 1. Effects of adjuvants in combination with fungicide
rotations for control of Downy Mildew on Misty Blue
                                                                                                                                                             Karen L. Robb
Limonium.                                                                                                                                        UC Cooperative Extension
                                                                                                                                                   5009 Fairgrounds Road
                                                                                                                                                 Mariposa, CA 95338-9435
*Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside, CA                                                                            Phone: (209) 966-2417
z
 Severity means followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Duncan’s                                                       Fax: (209) 966-5321
multiple range test.                                                                                                                            e-mail: klrobb@ucdavis.edu

                                                                                                                    CORF NEWS - Winter/Spring 2005                     9
Science to the Grower                                                                               Let’s Sell More cont. from page 2

Postharvest Technology from Down Under
by Richard Y. Evans,UC Cooperative Extension, Davis


     One of the greatest technical ad-           of the gas from 1-MCP solutions held
vances in postharvest handling of cut            in four different types of containers:
flowers was the development of silver             glass vials with polypropylene lids; sa-
thiosulfate (STS) solution treatments to         chets made from low density polyethyl-
delay senescence of flowers that are sen-         ene film; PVC and natural rubber tubes;
sitive to ethylene gas. From the advent          and pieces of natural rubber. The most
of such treatments in the late 1970s             promising of these containers was used
until the mid 1990s, the use of STS              in air shipments of Geraldton wax-
by commercial growers increased the              flower from Australia to the UK, after
                                                                         which flower
                                                                         quality and vase
                                                                         life were
                                                                         assessed.
                                                                              PVC tubes
                                                                         were the most
                                                                         effective slow-re-         tion of flowers from $26 to $53 per
                                                                         lease vessel. They         person per year in only five years,
                                                                         were capable               surely we can easily increase our annual
                                                                         of maintain-               consumption from the present $36 per
                                                                         ing adequate               head. I suggest that we should set a
                                                                         release rates of           goal of doubling U.S. consumption by
                                                                         1-MCP for 132              2010. The benefits of increased de-
                                                                         hours. The PVC             mand for cut flowers in this market are
                                                                         tubes of 1-MCP             obvious to everyone. There wouldn’t
                                                                         protected flowers           be enough flowers in the world to
                                                                         against ethylene           supply the increased demands of this
                                                                         for 3-5 days               market, resulting in increased prices,
                                                                         after arrival in           as well as increased opportunities for
                                                                         the UK; flowers             production.
                                                                         that were treated               Increasing consumption won’t hap-
                                                                         with 1-MCP                 pen by magic. It requires cooperation
flower quality and vase life of many im-          once before shipping were protected
portant flower crops, especially carna-                                                              of all parts of the industry, domestic
                                                 against ethylene for only 1 day after              and offshore, and particular of the
tion. However, environmental concerns            export. However, pretreatment was
about disposal of waste silver solutions                                                            mass markets, where the bulk of the
                                                 more effective than slow-release tubes             increased sales will occur. It demands a
led to regulations in the 1990s that end-        at protecting flowers from exposure to
ed STS use as a postharvest treatment                                                               focus on quality and freshness, includ-
                                                 ethylene during shipping. The authors              ing standards for quality, and routine
in the U.S. Since then, research has fo-         suggest that the low initial concen-
cused on gases, such as 1-methylcyclo-                                                              monitoring of transportation times
                                                 tration of 1-MCP in shipping boxes                 and temperatures. And it will certainly
propene (1-MCP), that inhibit ethylene           provided inadequate protection. This
action. 1-MCP is registered for use on                                                              depend on innovative and effective
                                                 problem could be addressed by fumigat-             advertising campaigns to develop a
some cut flowers as EthylBloc®. In this           ing flowers with 1-MCP before packing
article I will discuss research on gaseous                                                          culture of personal use. When picking
                                                 them into boxes containing the PVC                 up a bunch of flowers at the supermar-
postharvest treatments conducted by a            tubes, or by developing a second type
group of scientists in Australia.                                                                   ket is as routine as picking up milk and
                                                 of tube that releases 1-MCP at a faster            lettuce, our industry will be well-set for
     Macnish and others at the Uni-              rate.❖                                             a prosperous future.❖
versity of Queensland studied ways                    1
                                                       Macnish AJ, Joyce DC, Irving DE,
to improve the efficacy of 1-MCP                  Wearing AH. 2004. A simple sustained release
treatment of cut flowers1. Unlike STS,            device for the ethylene binding inhibitor 1-
which normally blocks ethylene effects           methylcyclopropene. Postharvest Biology and
                                                 Technology 32: 321-338.
permanently, 1-MCP treatments may be
effective for only 2-3 days. The authors
of this study sought a method for creat-                                                                                           Michael S. Reid
ing a slow, sustained release of 1-MCP                                         Richard Y. Evans                    ANR Agricultural Productivity
to protect cut flowers from ethylene                                         Extension Specialist         Program Leader College of Agricultural &
                                                      Department of Environmental Horticulture              Environmental Sciences, Davis Campus
exposure during storage and extended                                   University of California    Environmental Horticulture, One Shields Avenue
shipping times. They tested the release                                       Davis, CA 95616                                    Davis, CA 95616
                                                                        Phone: (530) 752-6617                              Phone: (530)754-6751
                                                                            Fax: (530)752-1819                                 Fax: (530)754-6753
                                                                   e-mail: ryevans@ucdavis.edu                        e-mail: msreid@ucdavis.edu

10    CORF NEWS - Winter/Spring 2005
 Developing a Tool cont. from page 4
                                                  California Cut Flower Commission
                                                  Educate & Update

                                                  Promotion & Education
                                                  by Lee Murphy, President/CEO, California Cut Flower Commission

                                                       The California Cut Flower Commission (CCFC) has long been involved in
                                                  improving the care and handling of California cut flowers. During the last 15 years,
                                                  the CCFC has taken the lead role in promoting and educating California growers re-
 management (and accelerated wilt-                garding improved technologies. California produces the world’s finest flowers using
 ing) that is implicit in present air cargo       these technologies. To verify the new levels of quality, CCFC has provided research
 systems. Inadequate precooling before            largely in cooperatiom with the University of California.
 transport, delays and high temperature                Good post harvest care has been a major objective of the CCFC – particularly
 conditions at originating and desti-             the maintenance of a cool chain from grower to wholesale purchaser. CCFC has
 nation airports, customs, drug, and              put in place a monitoring system that checks temperature: upon departure from the
 quarantine inspections, all lead to poor         grower’s facility, at California shipping hubs, as the trucks move across the nation,
 temperature management during the                and upon arrival at the product’s destination. CCFC is partnering with the Univer-
 transportation chain. While the actual           sity of California system in these monitoring efforts.
 flight time may be as little as two to                 The results have been:
 three hours, overall time from harvest
 to establishment of proper temperature                • The temperature at major California freight terminals are maintained at 36
 conditions may be one to two days.                        degrees
      Improving the temperature man-                  •   The “down the road” temperatures are maintained at 36 degrees on the
 agement of air-freighted flowers can be                   trucks
 achieved using current technologies.                 •   The products are monitored and generally arrived at their destination at
 Active CO2-based refrigerated con-                       under 40 degrees
 tainers (Envirotainer™ - http://www.                                                                                               Lee Murphy
 envirotainer.com/) have been available                                                                      California Cut Flower Commission
                                                                                                                                    P.O. Box 70
 for a number of years, and a passive                                                                              Watsonville, CA 95077-0070
 refrigerated container produced by                                                                                       Phone: (831)728-7333
 Nomos™ was recently demonstrated at                                                                                        Fax: (831)728-7337
                                                                                                                       e-mail: lmurphy@ccfc.org
 an international postharvest conference
 in Italy. Proper precooling, palletizing,
 and wrapping pallets with polyethylene
 covers to reduce air infiltration can re-
 sult in relatively little temperature gain
 during air transport. The transporta-            Valentine’s Day
 tion problem is not the lack of equip-
 ment capable of maintaining flowers
                                                  A Mixed Bag for California Cut Flower Growers
 at the correct temperature, but rather           by Peggy Dillon, PR/Communications Manager, California Cut Flower Commission
 the failure to recognize the importance
                                                      Love was still in the air for Valentine’s Day flower buyers despite recent chal-
 of temperature management, and the               lenges faced by our flower growers. In general, sales and prices held steady, a tribute
 lack of effective tools to monitor flower         to the hard work and fortitude of the growers.
 condition. In the U.S. market, there is
 presently no effort to monitor tempera-              • The end of Wilsey Bennett as a transportation source had many scrambling to
 ture during the transportation chain,                  find viable alternatives. In the end, most growers found a way around the
 and marketers have no tools to allow                   roadblock.
 them to determine potential vase life of             • California’s stormy weather proved problematic for field growers, but green
 product that they receive. Our research                house products were right on schedule.
 is focused on providing such tools, in
 the expectation that recognition of the              • Growers also contended with a spate of last minute orders that kept many
 importance of temperature management                   scrambling to get product out the door.
 in maintaining freshness will encourage               But get them out the door and into people’s hands, they did. Consumers will
 the effective use of existing and innova-        always have a love affair with Valentine’s Day roses, especially red ones. Still, they
 tive transportation technologies.❖               are becoming very fond of other colors, too. Pinks, purples, whites all sold very well.
                                                  Lilies and tulips were also very popular choices as a way to say “I love you.”❖
                                Michael S. Reid
                ANR Agricultural Productivity
      Program Leader College of Agricultural &                                                                                      Peggy Dillon
         Environmental Sciences, Davis Campus                                                                California Cut Flower Commission
Environmental Horticulture, One Shields Avenue                                                                                       P.O. Box 70
                              Davis, CA 95616                                                                      Watsonville, CA 95077-0070
                        Phone: (530)754-6751                                                                              Phone: (831)728-7333
                            Fax: (530)754-6753                                                                              Fax: (831)728-7337
                   e-mail: msreid@ucdavis.edu                                                                           e-mail: pdillon@ccfc.org

                                                                                  CORF NEWS - Winter/Spring 2005                           11
Get Cultured
Ultraviolet Light as Sanitation Control in the Nursery and Floriculture Industries
by Donald J. Merhaut, UC Cooperative Extension, Riverside

History                                          non flashlamps emit pulses of light that      will chemically denature chelates that
  The use of ultraviolet light (UV)              is a higher power source of emission.        may be used to keep micronutrients
is becoming more common to sani-                 However, Xenon lamps also emit wave-         such as iron in a soluble form.
tize ‘cleaner’ water sources, since it           lengths over a larger spectrum, some of      -EFFECTIVENESS REDUCED WITH
does not require the addition of any             which are not UV, making Xenon lamps         DIRTY WATER – Since the UV light
chemicals. Some hospitals, hotels and            less energy efficient. The third source       must pass through the water, any dis-
nursing homes are using UV light to              of UV light is the excimer laser, which      solved or suspended substances such
sanitize potable water sources to ensure         emits pulses of light (248 nm).              as organic acids or clay will reduce
that water is free of human pathogens.                                                        efficacy of the UV light treatment.
When properly used in some nursery               Ultraviolet Light Usage in Nursery and
facilities, UV light may help kill any           Floriculture Production                      -HERBICIDE AND PESTICIDE
remaining organisms that may remain                   Ultraviolet light treatments are used   REMOVAL – Does not remove other
in the water after all clarification and          in the water recycling system at the         chemicals from the water. The effects
filtering processes have been performed.          point after all other water clarification     of UV light may break down light-sensi-
The use of UV treatment in nurseries             processes such as sand/charcoal filtra-       tive herbicides and pesticides. Consult
is in the developmental stages. Since            tion or flocculation have occurred. This      manufacturer for specific chemical
water sources and the degrees of water           ensures that the water is clear enough       questions.
cleanliness vary among nurseries, small          for the most effective UV light penetra-     -FLOATING DEBRIS REMOVAL
pilot systems should be installed and            tion into the water column.                  – Does not break down or remove float-
tested to ensure that UV treatment pro-                                                       ing debris.
                                                 Advantages
cesses will work for specified nurseries.                                                      -DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER
                                                 +OPERATION COSTS – The cost                  – Coloration due to dissolved organic
What is UV Light and How Does it                 of operation will be low if the water
Work in Water Treatment?                                                                      matter and acids is not removed from
                                                 source is already clarified. Cost of          the water.
     Ultraviolet light fits into the light        treatment will increase with the degree
spectrum of wavelengths from 100-400             of water cloudiness.                         -CLAY AND SILT REMOVAL – Clays
nanometers (nm). This is the same light                                                       and other soil particles are not re-
                                                 +INSTALLATION COSTS – Relatively             moved.
wavelength that is notoriously known             lower for cleaner water supplies such as
to cause skin cancer in humans. Visible          those of hydroponic systems.                 -EXPOSURE TIME – UV light may
wavelengths range from 390-810 nm.                                                            require an exposure time of 30 seconds
                                                 +CHEMICALS – No chemicals, regard-           or longer, depending on the clarity of
The UV light, like chlorine treatments,
                                                 less of the light source utilized.           the water. Slower flow rates will be
kills the pathogens (bacteria, fungi, and
viruses) suspended in water. However,            +TECHNICAL COMPONENTS –                      required, but lower flow rates will also
since it is a light source, the water must       Few technical components or control          reduce water turbulence and efficiency
be clean of suspended clays and organic          systems.                                     of treatment.
acids for the light to pass through              +MAINTENANCE – low (occasional               Conclusions. When used properly, UV
the water column to kill pathogens.              replacement of copper electrodes.)           light treatment may be used on some
Because of this limitation, UV light             +PATHOGEN EXTERMINATION                      nursery systems to kill pathogens.
treatment is more suitable for hydro-            – Pathogens such as bacteria and fungi       However, the most successful use of
ponic systems rather than production             and viruses will be killed.                  this technology will be with cleaner
facilities that use organic media (peat,                                                      water systems such as those used in
                                                 +CHEMICAL EFFECTS – No effect on
pine bark) or run water over soils that                                                       hydroponic systems. However, if using
                                                 water pH.
contain clays since the dissolved or-                                                         chelated micronutrients such as iron
ganic acids and clays will reduce water          +SPACE – Relatively small space              chelates, the use of UV light may cause
clarity and thus reduce the effectiveness        required for installation of light source    denaturing of the chelates.❖
of UV treatments.                                and power supply.
                                                 +ALGAE CONTROL – The system
Ultraviolet Light Sources                        will kill algae suspended in the water       Caution: When treating recycled
     There are three types of UV                 source.                                      waters, always check for effective
sources: (1) low pressure mercury                                                             control of pathogens, regardless of the
                                                 +NONTOXIC TO PLANTS – UV                     treatment process being used.
vapor lamps; (2) Xenon flashlamps;                treated water has no toxic effect on
and (3) excimer lasers. Low-pressure             plants.
mercury lamps emit a wavelength of
254 nm. The use of ‘high’ pressure               Disadvantages
mercury lamps may also be used, but              -NEW TECHNOLOGY – The use                                             Donald J. Merhaut
they also emit wavelengths of 190 nm,            of UV light in nursery systems is still            Department of Botany & Plant Sciences
which results in the formation of ozone                                                                            University of California
                                                 being studied. Therefore, much of the                                4118 Batchelor Hall
in the water. This ozone can also sani-          troubleshooting needs to be conducted.                              Riverside, CA 92521
tize the water to a certain degree. Xe-                                                                            Phone: (951) 827-7003
                                                 -CHEMICAL EFFECTS – light sources                                   Fax: (951) 827-5717
                                                                                                          e-mail: donald.merhaut@ucr.edu

12    CORF NEWS - Winter/Spring 2005
                           2005 CORF Program Calendar

             MAY                                JULY                          OCTOBER
11       Drip Irrigation        20   Impact/Overhead Irrigation II   13   ABC’S of Horticulture
          Santa Paula                        Santa Paula                        Ventura
                                                                            (Spanish Only)
24   Grower’s School: Protea               SEPTEMBER
          Fallbrook                                                         NOVEMBER
                                22      ABC’s of Horticulture
             JUNE                            Escondido               15    Disease Symposium
                                          (Spanish Only)                       Watsonville
2      Insect Diagnostics
            Ventura             27      ABC’s of Horticulture                DECEMBER
                                            Watsonville
7      Insect Diagnostics
                                          (Spanish Only)               CORF Wishes you a
           Escondido
                                                                      Happy Holiday Season!
9      Insect Diagnostics
          Watsonville
10   CORF Planning Meeting




                                                            CORF NEWS - Winter/Spring 2005        13
                        Campus News & Research Updates
                        Compiled by Julie Newman, Farm Advisor, UCCE



                       Campus                Lanny Lund Retires                         Science Society of America. He has
                                                                                        authored more than 80 technical jour-
                                                 After serving as a professor and
                       News                  administrator at UC Riverside for 28       nal articles and reports.
                                             years, Lanny Lund capped his ca-               Recruitment is under way for the
                                             reer with the University of California     position of Assistant Vice President,
                                             Division of Agriculture and Natural        Administrative Services.
UC RIVERSIDE                                 Resources with a five-year stint as
Chang Named Director of Center for           assistant vice president for programs      UC BERKELEY
Water Resources                              and academic personnel and statewide       Standiford Moves into Oakland Office
                                             leader of UC Cooperative Extension.
      Andrew Chang, UC Riverside                                                            Rick Standiford, who served as
                                             He retires in April.
professor and agricultural engineer, has                                                associate dean for forestry and capital
been appointed director of UC Center             As assistant vice president, Lund      projects at UC Berkeley’s College of
for Water Resources. Chang                   provided coordinated leadership for the    Natural Resources, moved to his new
previously served as associ-                                                            office as associate vice president for the
ate director of the Center                                                              UC Division of Agriculture and Natural
for Water Resources. He is a                                                            Resources, officially assuming the
nationally and internationally                                                          position on January 1.
recognized research scientist
in water quality management                                                             Standiford served for 24 years as a UC
and water reuse, and has                                                                Cooperative Extension forest manage-
worked on some of the state’s                                                           ment specialist. Highly regarded by his
critical water-quality issues.                                                          colleagues, he trained as an agricultural
                                                                                        economist, and has a broad understand-
      “As more and more fac-
                                                                                        ing of agricultural and natural resources
ulty, specialists and advisors
                                                                                        issues. As associate vice president,
are involved in water-related
                                                                                        Standiford will have broad responsibili-
issues in various respects,”
                                                                                        ties for the internal management of the
Chang said, “the Center will
                                                                                        division. He will chair the division’s
make an effort to coordinate
                                             Division’s statewide and local pro-        Program Council, which is composed of
their activities through funding research
                                             grams. He has been the primary             associate deans, UC Cooperative
projects, organizing workshops and
                                             programmatic leader for Division           Extension regional directors and
conferences, and developing forums for
                                             research and educational outreach          program leaders. He will work closely
policy decision.”
                                             activities and the statewide administra-   with the three agricultural college
     The UCR campus was chosen to            tive leader for UC Cooperative Exten-      deans, the dean of the school of veteri-
host the center for a five-year period        sion county programs. He also served       nary medicine and other senior officers
after proposals from UC Berkeley, UC         as interim associate vice president        of the university as a member of the
Davis and UC Riverside were                  during the position’s vacancy.             executive council.
considered. UC Center for Water
                                                  Lund, a professor of soil science,         He succeeds Henry Vaux Jr., who
Resources is a multi campus research
                                             served in several academic and admin-      retired in January after 33 years with
unit that houses several system-wide
                                             istrative positions at UC Riverside.       the university.❖
water resources related research
                                             He was chair of the Department of
and outreach programs— the Water
                                             Environmental Sciences from 1985 to
Resources Center, Salinity and Drain-
                                             1990, associate dean of the Agricultural
age Program, Regional Water Quality
                                             Experiment Station in the College of
Program, and Prosser Trust .
                                             Natural and Agricultural Sciences from
     The 2005 Salinity and Drainage          1990 to 1996, and associate dean of
Conference (scheduled for March 22)          Cooperative Extension in CNAS from
will highlight 20 years of UC research       1993 to 1996. He again served as chair
to understand the salinity and               of Environmental Sciences from 1997
drainage problem in San Joaquin Valley.      to 1999.
The 25th Biennial Groundwater
                                                  Lund’s research focused on water
Conference (scheduled for October 25
                                             quality, with an emphasis on nitrogen                                      Compiled by
and 26) will be the 50-year anniversary                                                                             Julie P. Newman
                                             in Southern California environs, and on
of the conference.                                                                                       UC Cooperative Extension
                                             soil temperature and moisture regimes               669 County Square Drive, Suite 100
     For more information about the          in California deserts. In 1998 he was                         Ventura, CA 93003-5401
center, go to http://www.waterresourc-       named a fellow by both the American                              Phone: (805) 645-1459
es.ucr.edu/                                                                                                     Fax: (805) 645-1474
                                             Society of Agronomy and the Soil                        e-mail: jpnewman@ucdavis.edu

14   CORF NEWS - Winter/Spring 2005
                                              Salt Accumulation cont. from page 8

                                              on upper leaves. At times, black spots appeared on stems. However,
                                              other varieties showed little or no adverse effects at higher Cl levels.
                                              Basically, this is a classic case of susceptibility/tolerance issue. There is no
                                              definitive information on Cl threshold in chrysanthemum plants.
                                                  In the two most affected operations, water analyses revealed a 50 to
                                              200% higher than the hypothesized Cl threshold. This situation has been
                                              aggravated by two irrigation related factors. First, the long dry cycles
                                              imposed on older plants that result in high accumulation of salts near soil
                                              surface. Second, low distribution uniformity (60% or less) of the irriga-
                                              tion system compounded the severity of the problem.
                                                  Based on above discussion, it is reasonable to conclude that flower
                                              quality problems were caused by long-term practices of inadequate irriga-
                                              tion management and less than ideal water quality. Undoing the damage
                                              will take long-term commitment to changing basic practices. Targeted
                                              growers need to adopt an active irrigation management that relies on
                                              plant needs not set schedules. They need to avoid excessive leaching and
                                              accumulation of salts. They need to setup a fertilization regime based
                                              nutrient budgeting. And finally, they have to retrofit the irrigation hard-
                                              ware to maximize system efficiency. As for well water quality, finding
                                              other suitable sources of water would mitigate the severity of its negative
                                              impact.❖



Fertilizer-salt damage on Chrysanthemum




                                          pick up last issue




                                                                   CORF NEWS - Winter/Spring 2005                         15
                                                                          THANKS to these Sponsors of CORF Educational Programs


CORF News is published three times a year and is
a publication of CORF, the California Ornamental
Research Federation, a statewide partnership of
growers, floriculture associations, allied industry,
and researchers/educators whose mission is to
identify and meet the research and educational
needs of the California floriculture industry.
Reproducing and distributing material from this
newsletter is encouraged, provided credit is given
to the author and CORF News.

                  Managing Editor
                   Steve Tjosvold
         UCCE, Santa Cruz & Monterey Counties                                         Sustaining Sponsors
                    Editorial Committee                                         Phyton (Source Tech Biologicals)
                       Richard Y. Evans
                        UCCE, UC Davis
                                                                                        Romeo Packing
                     Michael A. Mellano
                      Mellano and Co.
                                                                                            SePRO
                     Donald J. Merhaut                                             Target Specialty Products
                     UCCE, UC Riverside
                      Julie Newman
                    UCCE, Ventura County
                       Karen Robb
                   UCCE, Mariposa County
                         Janice Wills
                       CCFC, Watsonville

                  Design & Layout
                    Howell Graphics
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                    Valarie Howell
                    Howell Graphics
        Phone: (831) 685-1169/(559) 642-0035
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            email: valhowl@cruzers.com

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                    Fax: (831) 728-7337

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