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CHAPTER 01 INTRODUCTION TO MULTIMEDIA

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CHAPTER 01 INTRODUCTION TO MULTIMEDIA Powered By Docstoc
					CHAPTER 08:
MEDIA INTEGRATION

   Introduction To Media Integration
   Delivering Multimedia
   Advantages and Disadvantages of Multimedia
   Multimedia Development Life Cycle




                    Last updated: 5/07/06
Introduction To Media Integration
   Multimedia is the integration of various informational media
    such as text, graphics, sound and images into a single
    document.

   The modern electronic digital computer system can easily
    combine and deliver these seemingly diverse forms of
    information it manipulates them in as a stream of binary
    numbers.

   The tools by which various media components are brought
    together into a structure and flow are divided into :
      presentation packages
      tools for creating production
      authoring tools for interactive training and education
Introduction To Media Integration
   Most media integration tools employ one of the following
    screen metaphors:
      movie screen
      slide show
      a group of screens linked together

   The development interface includes:
      a list of media events
      iconic flowchart
      card stack
      a series of frames
Introduction To Media Integration
Reasons to Integrate Multimedia
   The power of multimedia computing is realized only when
    elements from various media domains are combined and
    distributed in innovative, interesting, entertaining and
    informative ways.

   Hardware and software systems for accomplishing this have
    evolved steadily over the past decade.

   A combination of database and hypertext techniques produced
    some of the earliest commercial multimedia products, the
    multimedia encyclopedias in the early 1990s.
Introduction To Media Integration
   Since then, a number of software products have been
    introduced that allow the production of multimedia documents
    at the desktop.

   Multimedia composition programs, such as PowerPoint and
    Astound, allow the production of multimedia slideshows, but
    are typically limited in their ability to incorporate user
    interaction.

   Multimedia authoring systems enable products providing full
    interaction capabilities.
Introduction To Media Integration
Presentation Packages
Presentation Software
   Enable novices to create and deliver business presentations in
    the mold of the slide show.

   They include text outliners and may import outlines from other
    packages. Each major heading signals the beginning of a new
    slide

   Templates are used to determine how the heads and subheads
    are formatted and displayed over backgrounds, including
    position, style, size, colors font.

   Many packages now include support for dynamic media such
    as audio, video, animation.
Introduction To Media Integration
Presentation Packages
Production Software
  Typically oriented toward producing content that is more
   ambitious than the slide-show level.

   It is usually integrate all types of multimedia data into a multi
    track timeline that determines the evolution of events.

   Interactivity takes the form of conditional branching that can
    make navigation decisions based on user input and other
    conditions.

   Production software creates dynamic content.
Introduction To Media Integration
Authoring Tools
   The multimedia authoring tool is the glue that holds the data
    together in order to inform, educate or entertain. It offers 2
    basic features:

       The ability to create and edit a product
       A presentation scheme for delivering the product

   The most critical elements of multimedia product development
    are :

       Tools
       Product
       Developer
       End User
Introduction To Media Integration
Multimedia Selection Tool
  Authoring tools for multimedia range from relatively simple
   word processor applications to expensive multimedia
   authoring/delivering environments costing thousands of
   dollars.

   The criteria for selecting a tool include :
       Function: a complete understanding of how the product
        will work.

       Content: nature, volume, format, and types of data that
        will be incorporated into the product.

       Hardware: platforms expected to run a product.

       Software: requirement of operating system or software
        application such as database manager and flash.
Introduction To Media Integration
     Performance: speed and efficiency expected -> critical for
      gaming and fast-paced presentations.

     User interface: screen layout,data presentation,positioning
      of control and visual and audio for end user.

     Database: will the product support a huge access of
      information?

     Reliability: essential within the product itself and how the
      product behaves with other products.

     Maintenance and Update: support for a lifetime product to
      avoid having to recast into another tool.
Introduction To Media Integration
Features of Authoring Tools
1.   Editing and Organizing Features
    Authoring systems include editing tools to create, edit, and
     convert multimedia elements such as animation and video
     clips.

    The organization, design, and production process         for
     multimedia involves storyboarding and flowcharting.

    Visual flowcharting or overview facility illustrates project
     structure at a macro level.
Introduction To Media Integration
2.   Programming Features
    Visual programming with icons or objects is the simplest and
     easiest authoring process.

    Visual authoring tools such as Authorware and IconAuthor are
     suitable for slide shows and presentations.

    Authoring tools offer „very high level language‟ (VHLL) or
     interpreted scripting environment.
Introduction To Media Integration
3.   Interactivity Features
    Interactivity gives the end user control over the content and
     flow of information in a project.

    Simple branching is the ability to go to another section of the
     multimedia production.

    Conditional branching is an activity based on the results of IF-
     THEN decisions or events.

    Structured language supports complex programming logic,
     subroutines, event tracking, and message passing among
     objects and elements.
Introduction To Media Integration
4.   Performance Tuning and Playback Features
    Achieving synchronization is difficult, considering that
     performance of the different computers used for multimedia
     development and delivery varies.

    Authoring system should facilitate precise timing of events.

    It should enable developers to build a part of a project and
     then test it immediately.
Introduction To Media Integration
5.   Delivery, Cross-Platform, and Internet Playability Features
    Delivering the project may require building a run-time version
     of the project, using the multimedia authoring software.

    Run-time version or standalone allows a project to play back
     without the complete authoring software and all its tools and
     editors.

    It is important to use tools that facilitate easy transfer across
     platforms.

    Authoring systems provide a means for converting their
     output to be delivered within the context of HTML or DHTML.
Introduction To Media Integration
Categories of Authoring Tools
1.   Simple authoring tools
    Basic authoring.

    Delivering text product with a few graphics on screen.

    Graphical user interface(GUI) are able to incorporate text and
     graphics (also video and audio).

    Word Processors: provide tools at the most basic level (display
     text in a variety of font types, sizes, and color).
Introduction To Media Integration
2.   Programming tools
    Advantages of implementing multimedia products using
     programming tools :
       Languages such as C and assembly language tend to be
        very efficient and fast.

        Easier integration with other software or the OS to access
         data or manage resources such as memory.

        A control over environments can be achieved enabling
         complex interaction by the user or the product.

        No dependency on a third party tool developer.

        The product may be ported to similar compilers on other
         platforms.
Introduction To Media Integration
2.   Programming tools
    Disadvantages of implementing multimedia products using
     programming tools :
        Programming expertise is required to create and maintain
         the product.

        Much more code is required making long term
         maintenance difficult and correspondingly more
         expensive.

        The product can become platform-dependent based on
         the choice of language.
Introduction To Media Integration
3.   Simple interactive authoring tools
    Provide the critical feature of being able to interactively
     navigate through a product.

    Depends on pressing buttons or hot spots to navigate
     between pages in a presentation.

    Most simple interactive authoring tools include the following
     capabilities for creating and editing products :
        Page metaphor.
        Objects including buttons, hot spots, text boxes.
        Object for audio and video.
        The ability to vary font type, size, colour.
        Animation objects.
        Importing of text and graphic files.
        Assigning event-driven action to object.
Introduction To Media Integration
4.   Complex interactive authoring tools
    Combine features found in simple interactive tools with
     programming features.

    Offer more complex creation and editing functions that go
     beyond simple page layout.

    Categories is based on how they are used for creation and
     editing :

     a) Card-based and page-based tools
     b) Icon-based, event-driven tools
     c) Time-based tools
Introduction To Media Integration
a) Card-based and page-based tools
  Card- and page-based authoring systems provide a simple
   and easily understood metaphor for organizing multimedia
   elements.

   Navigation is referred to the number of page – index in table
    of contents.

   It provides a facility for linking objects
    to pages or cards.
Introduction To Media Integration
b) Icon-Based, Event-Driven Tools
  Enables complex interaction and layering of multimedia
   products.
  Developer can select objects,timing,and sequencing in the
   form of icons and placing them on a layout screen.
  Major advantage: the ability to graphically design complex
   interactions for repetitive applications.
  Templates can be reused for different applications.
  E.g: Macromedia Authorware.
Introduction To Media Integration
c)   Time-Based Tools
    Time-based tools are best suited for messages with a
     beginning and an end.

    Some time-based tools facilitate navigation and interactive
     control.
     Macromedia‟s Director and Flash are time-based
     development environments.

Macromedia Director :
  A multimedia database, „Cast‟, contains still images, sound
   files, text, shapes, scripts, movies, and other Director files.

    Score is a sequencer for displaying, animating, and playing
     Cast members.
Introduction To Media Integration
   Lingo is an object-oriented scripting language that enables
    interactivity and programmed control.

Macromedia Flash :
  Flash is used for delivering rich
   multimedia content to the Web.

   It allows the creation of simple
    static HTML pages with the
    Flash Player plug-in.
Introduction To Media Integration
How do you choose the best tool for your project?
                                                  Word
                                                  Proce
                                          Progr
                                                  ssor,    Page-   Time-   Icon-
                                          ammi
                                                  prese    based   based   based
                                          ng
                                                  ntatio
                                                  n

 Easy and quick to develop, effective
 for prototyping; easy to update and                
 modify

 Greater flexibility for development (=
                                                                         
 better interface for end user)


 Extensive training and experience
                                                                         
 required for developers


 Programming features included                                            


 Cost (1=lowest, 5=highest )                1       2        3       4       5
Introduction To Media Integration
How do you choose the best tool for your project?
         Applications/Product                    Choice for tool

   Informal briefing or presentation   Simple authoring tool
                                       - presentation package

   Formal briefing                     Simple interactive authoring tool

   Standalone kiosk                    Complex interactive authoring tool
                                       - page-based

   Database application, or needs to   Programming language
   communicate with a database
   Complex training application        Complex interactive authoring tools
                                       - icon-based

   Entertainment product               Complex interactive authoring tools
                                       - temporal-based

   Interactive game                    Complex interactive authoring tools
                                       - temporal based
Introduction To Media Integration
How do you choose the best tool for your project?
         Applications/Product                    Choice for tool

   Informal briefing or presentation   Simple authoring tool
                                       - presentation package

   Formal briefing                     Simple interactive authoring tool

   Standalone kiosk                    Complex interactive authoring tool
                                       - page-based

   Database application, or needs to   Programming language
   communicate with a database
   Complex training application        Complex interactive authoring tools
                                       - icon-based

   Entertainment product               Complex interactive authoring tools
                                       - temporal-based

   Interactive game                    Complex interactive authoring tools
                                       - temporal based
Delivering Multimedia
Multimedia can be delivered through the following methods:

1.   Compact disc / Digital versatile disc
    Holds substantial amount of data
    Include sound and video
    Inexpensive
    Easy to produce in large quantity
    Small in size -> easy to transport, distribute and display
    Almost all computers are now equipped with CD-ROM
     drives, sound cards and speakers
Delivering Multimedia
2.   Information Kiosk
    A stand-alone or networked computer system
    Allows user to access information, perform transactions, play
     games e.g. retail store kiosk, museum kiosk, college kiosk
    Convenient to customers
    Reduce personnel costs
    Expensive investments in hardware
    Require continual updating
     of the content
Delivering Multimedia
3.   Internet / World Wide Web
    Easier to share knowledge
    Much faster to transmit data and information
    Example:       product      presentation     (advertisement),
     teleconferencing, e-commerce, greeting
Advantages               and           Disadvantages   of
Multimedia
Advantages of Multimedia
1.   Cost
    Caters many users
    Can be used flexible hours
    Reduces transportation factor
    No need to hire instructors
    Takes up less space for storage
    Saves time

2.   Quality
    Content can be updated easily
    Attract diverse range of users
    No pollution
Advantages              and Disadvantages                     of
                        Multimedia
Disadvantages of Multimedia
1.   Investment Cost
    Expensive
    Maintenance

2.   Technical
    Cabling, wiring
    Power failure

3.   Social & Psychological
    Inability to differentiate between reality and fantasy
    More human-computer interaction than human-human
Multimedia Development Life Cycle
Multimedia Development Life Cycle
   Phase 1 – Planning
      • Step 1: Developing the concept
      • Step 2: Stating the purpose
      • Step 3: Identifying the target audience
      • Step 4: Determining the treatment
      • Step 5: Developing the specifications
      • Step 6: Storyboard and navigation

   Phase 2 – Creating
      • Step 7: Developing the content
      • Step 8: Authoring the title

   Phase 3 – Testing
      • Step 9: Testing the title
Multimedia Development Life Cycle
Phase 1 – Planning
    Step 1: Developing the concept
   –    Asking what in general, do we want to do?

   –   Criteria to consider:
       • How can we improve it (make it faster, better-quality
          graphics, updated content) ?

       •   How can we change the content to appeal to a different
           market (consumer, education, corporate) ?

       •   How can we take advantage of new technologies (VR,
           speech recognition) ?
Multimedia Development Life Cycle
Phase 1 – Planning
    Step 2: Stating the purpose
   –    Asking what, specifically, do we want to accomplish?

   –    Specifying the project goals and objectives which will
        help direct the development process and provide a way to
        evaluate the title both during and after its development:


                   Goals                   Objectives
          Broad statements of what More precise statements of
          the project will accomplish the goals
Multimedia Development Life Cycle
Phase 1 – Planning
    Step 3: Identifying the target audience
   –    Asking who will use the title?

   –    The more information a developer has about potential
        users, the more likely a title can be created that will satisfy
        the users‟ needs and be successful.

   –    The target audience can be described in three ways:
       •   Demographics (location, age, sex, marital status, education,
           income, and so on)

       •   Lifestyle

       •   Attitudes
 Multimedia Development Life Cycle
Phase 1 – Planning
    Step 4: Determining the treatment
   –    Asking what is the „look and feel‟?

    –   Four things to consider based on the target audience
        selected in step 3:
        • Tone: Will the title be humorous, serious, light,
            formal?

        •   Approach: How much direction will be provided to
            the user?

        •   Metaphor: Will a metaphor be used to provide interest
            or to aid in understanding the title? (For example user
            a certain theme that is related to the content of the title)

        •   Emphasis: How much emphasis will be placed on the
            various multimedia elements?
 Multimedia Development Life Cycle
Phase 1 – Planning
    Step 5: Developing the specifications
   –    Asking what precisely does the title include and how does
        it work?

   –   Specification vary from project to project BUT elements
       that should be included in the specifications for all titles
       include:
       • Target playback system(s)
           Related to restriction. For example an instructor who is
           developing a multimedia presentation is confined to
           the playback system set up in the classroom.

       •   Elements to be included
           The specifications should include, as much as possible,
           details about the various elements that are to be
           included in the title.
Multimedia Development Life Cycle
   •   Functionality
       The specifications should include how the program
       reacts to an action by the user. For example clicking on
       a door (object) might cause the door to open (an
       animation); a doorbell to ring (sound); or and “Exit the
       Program?” message to appear (text).

   •   User Interface
       Involves designing the appearance (how each object is
       arranged on the screen) and the interactivity (how the
       user navigates through the title).
 Multimedia Development Life Cycle
Phase 1 – Planning
    Step 6: Storyboard and navigation
   –    Asking what do the screens look like and how are they
        linked?

   –   Storyboard
       A representation (often in the form of hand-drawn
       sketches) of what each screen will look like and how the
       screens are linked.

       The storyboard serves multiple purposes:
          • To provide and overview of the project

           • To provide a guide (road map) for the programmer

           • To illustrate the links among screens

           • To illustrate the functionality of the objects
Multimedia Development Life Cycle
   Storyboard consists of :
   • Hand-drawn sketches
   • Each frame represents one screen
   • Present rough layout of the elements to be displayed
   • Show where the text, graphics, photos, button and
      other elements to be placed
Multimedia Development Life Cycle
 –   Navigation
     The linking of screens through the use of buttons,
     hypertexts, and hotspots.

     Multimedia developers decide on how various screens
     will be linked.

     The benefit of planning navigation scheme is that
     problems can be determined before the programming
     begins
Multimedia Development Life Cycle




         The linking of various screens
Multimedia Development Life Cycle
 Four primary navigational structures used in multimedia:
 1) Linear
     Users navigate sequentially, from one frame              of
     information to another.




 2)   Hierarchical
      Also called linear with branching. Users navigate along
      branches of a tree structure that is shaped by the natural
      logic of the content.
Multimedia Development Life Cycle
 3)   Nonlinear
      Users navigate freely through the content of the project,
      unbound by predetermined routes.
Multimedia Development Life Cycle
 4)   Composite
      Users may navigate freely (nonlinearly) but are
      occasionally constrained to linear presentations of movies
      or critical information and/or to data that is most logically
      organized in a hierarchy.
 Multimedia Development Life Cycle
Phase 2 – Creating
    Step 7: Developing the content
   –    Creating the pieces.

   –    Issues that need to be addressed:
       •   What is the level of quality for the content (photorealistic
           graphics, stereo sound)?

       •   How will the content be generated (repurpose existing
           content, hire content experts to write text, employ graphic
           artist and other professionals)?

       •   Who will be responsible for acquiring copyrights and
           licensing agreements?

       •   How will the content be achieved and documented?
 Multimedia Development Life Cycle
Phase 2 – Creating
    Step 8: Authoring the title
   –    Bringing it all together.

    –   In determining which authoring system to use, a
        developer would consider the following points:
        • The playback system (Macintosh and/or Windows-
           based computers) – some authoring programs work
           with only one platform.

        •   The emphasis placed on animation – certain programs
            have fairly sophisticated 2-D animation tools

        •   The expertise of the programmer – programs differ
            greatly in the approach they use (metaphor) and their
            scripting language.
 Multimedia Development Life Cycle
Phase 3 – Testing the title
    Step 9: Authoring the title
   –    Asking does it work the way it was planned?

   –    Testing is an ongoing process. It is important to test the
        design and the function of the title throughout the creation
        phase.

   –   Two formal testing processes:
       • Alpha Testing
         Usually conducted in-house and restricted to the
         development team.

           The idea is to “try and make it crash”.

           Every conceivable action (point and click) and
           Navigation path should be explored.
Multimedia Development Life Cycle

   •   Beta Testing
       Beta testing is the final functional test before release.

       It has two goals:
       – To get feedback from as wide as variety of
           potential users as possible.
       – To have the test done on as many different
           computer configurations as possible.

				
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