Cells by xiangpeng

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 18

									           Cells

Georgia High School Graduation
    Test: Science Review



                                 1
         Introduction
• From the key vocabulary,
  circle the words that you can
  already define or use in a
  sentence.
• Write down two or three things
  that you think are important for
  you to know today.                 2
     What is biology?
• The study of living things
• What is considered living?
 –anything that has the ability to
  nourish, grow, and reproduce
 –cells must be present

                                     3
        Cell Theory
• The cell is considered the
  basic unit of life.
• All living things contain at
  least one cell.
• Cells come from pre-existing
  cells.
                             4
     Sample Question
1. What structures can be
   identified in a typical
   animal or plant cell?



                             5
Plant Cells versus Animal
           Cells
PLANT CELL    ANIMAL CELL




                            6
Plant Cells versus Animal
           Cells
PLANT CELLS             ANIMAL CELLS
• cell wall (provides   • centrioles
  structure)              (responsible for
• chloroplast             cell reproduction)
  (location of
  photosynthesis/
  energy production)


                                               7
     Organelles Common to Both
STRUCTURE                         FUNCTION

  nucleus        control of all cell activities; location of DNA

mitochondria                  energy production

Golgi complex
                assembles, sorts, and transports cell products
 (apparatus)

  ribosome                     protein synthesis


chromosome      composed of DNA containing genetic material
                                                        8
        Cell Organelles, continued
STRUCTURE                           FUNCTION

                   phospholipid bilayer; maintains homeostasis;
cell membrane
                                 protects the cell


  lysosome         digests old cells and food (cleans up the cell)


endoplasmic       produces, stores, and transports protein (rough)
 reticulum                      and lipids (smooth)

 flagella/cilia               movement of materials            9
    Sample Question
2. Compare prokaryotic and
   eukaryotic cells.




                             10
      Prokaryotes
       ―Pro-No‖

• No true nucleus
• No membrane-bound
  organelles
• No well-organized
  membrane
                      11
        Prokaryotes
         ―Pro-No‖

• All prokaryotes are bacteria
  and all bacteria are
  prokaryotes
• Prokaryotes = bacteria
  (Monera)
                                 12
           Eukaryotes
            ―Eu-True‖
• True nucleus
• Well organized membrane
• Membrane – bound organelles
• Most plants and animals and
  other specialized organisms

                           13
    Active versus Passive
          Transport
ACTIVE TRANSPORT           PASSIVE TRANSPORT
• requires energy (low     • diffusion (particles
  concentration to high)     from high
• endocytosis and            concentration to low)
  exocytosis               • osmosis (water from
• active transport           high concentration to
  (ATP is used)              low)
                           • facilitated transport
                             (diffusion using a
                             membrane protein) 14
    Organic Compounds
 ORGANIC
                DEFINITION          FUNCTION
COMPOUND
                  sugars and
carbohydrates                     provide energy
                   starches
                fats (insoluble
    lipids                         store energy
                   in water)
                                  responsible for
  proteins       amino acids          most cell
                                     functions
                                  store hereditary
nucleic acids   DNA and RNA
                                    information 15
             Homeostasis
• The maintenance of a constant,
  stable environment internally
    • example: body temperature
Cell Membrane and Homeostasis
• utilizes active and passive transport
• diffusion and osmosis depends on
  environment (hydrophobic or
  hydrophilic)
                                      16
    Hydrophobic versus
       Hydrophilic

  Hydrophobic       Hydrophilic
• ―water-fearing‖ • ―water-loving‖
• outside of cell • inside of cell


                                 17
          Discussion
• If the cell were a community,
  what components would a cell
  have to have to function as a
  community? (boundaries—
  political, transportation, energy
  source)
                                  18

								
To top