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PBL Problem Based Learning

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					Problem-Based
   Learning
                              Presented by
                             STEVE COXON
                            Most slides in this
                        presentation were originally
                                created by
                          Janice Robbins, Ph.D.
                       and Kimberly Chandler, Ph.D.

    Center for Gifted Education
    College of William and May
Curriculum Framework
Integrated Curriculum Model
            (ICM)

        Process-Product
          Dimension


    Advanced                Issues/Themes
     Content                  Dimension
    Dimension


              Center for Gifted Education        (VanTassel-Baska, 1986)
         The College of William and Mary, 2009
Center for Gifted Education
College of William and May
   Science Curriculum Framework

                    The Problem

        Concept                                     Process
    Understanding                               Using and Conducting
“Systems” or “Change”                            Scientific Research

                   Content
                    Learning Science


                        Center for Gifted Education
                        College of William and May
Learner Characteristics and Corresponding
      Emphases in the Curriculum
    THE LEARNER                      THE CURRICULUM

Precocity                      Advanced Content

Intensity                      Process/product depth
                                 considerations
Complexity                     Issues/concepts/themes/
                                 ideas across domains
                                 of learning
                Center for Gifted Education
              The College of William and Mary
     Learner Characteristics and Corresponding
           Emphases in the Curriculum
          THE LEARNER                            THE CURRICULUM

                                        Advanced content (Provides opportunities for new
Precocity                               learning)
(Advanced development in some

curricular area)                        Process/product depth considerations (Enhances
                                        engagement and creative production; allows
Intensity
                                        utilization of information in a generative way )
(Capacity to focus and
concentrate for long periods of time)
                                        Issues/concepts/themes/ideas across domains of
Complexity                              learning (Allows students to make connections
(Can engage in high level
and abstract thinking)                  across areas of study and to work at a level of
                                        deep understanding)
                  Science curriculum and Problem-based Learning
What teachers need to understand                                               What students need to do

  PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING                                                  Present resolution
                                                 Active
                                                Interplay                     Reach consensus on problem resolution

  CONCEPT OF SYSTEMS                                                     Seek new information as necessary

                                                                         Redefine problem as necessary

  UNIT CONTENT                                                           Design and conduct experiments

                                                                         Find and analyze information

  EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN                                                    Apply systems concept to problem

                                                                         Collaborate

                                                                          Understand the concept of systems
                                                   The                    Assume stake holder viewpoint
                                                 Problem
                                                                          Define the problem

 Adapted from Novak, J.D., & Gowin, G. B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York: Cambridge University
 Press.


                                              Center for Gifted Education
                                            The College of William and Mary
Opening example
           Acid, Acid Problem Statement
You are the supervisor of the day shift of the Virginia State Highway
Patrol in Williamsburg, Virginia. It is 6:00 a.m. on a steamy June
morning. You are awakened by the ringing phone. When you answer
you are told, “Come to the Queen‟s Creek overpass on eastbound
Interstate 64. There has been a major accident and you are needed.”

Quickly you dress and hurry to the overpass. As you approach the
bridge, you see an overturned truck that is completely blocking both
eastbound lanes of the freeway. You see “CORROSIVE” on small
signs on the side and rear of the truck. The truck has lost at least one
wheel and is resting on the freeway guard rail. There is a large gash in
the side of the truck; from this gash, a clear liquid is running down the
side of the truck, onto the road, and down the hill into Queen‟s Creek.
Steam is rising from the creek. All traffic has been halted and everyone
has been told to remain in their cars. Many of the motorists in the traffic
jam appear to be angry and frustrated. Police officers, firemen, and
rescue squad workers are at the scene. They are all wearing coveralls
and masks. The rescue squad is putting the unconscious truck driver
onto a stretcher. Everyone seems hurried and anxious.


                             Center for Gifted Education
                             College of William and May
     Need to Know Board
What do we    What do we                    How can we
 know?       need to know?                   find out?




              Center for Gifted Education
              College of William and May
PBL Overview
           What is PBL?
Problem-based learning is an
instructional strategy (a curricular
framework) that, through student and
community interests and motivation,
provides an appropriate way to ―teach‖
sophisticated content and high-level
process… all while building self-efficacy,
confidence, and autonomous learner
behaviors.

                  Center for Gifted Education
             The College of William and Mary, 2009
                PBL is
an instructional method that challenges
students to "learn to learn," working
cooperatively in groups to seek solutions
to real world problems.




               Center for Gifted Education
               College of William and May
           History of PBL

• Medical school model (Barrows)
• Used in both elementary and secondary
  classrooms with gifted students
• Adapted for use with all learners
• Used to educate school administrators



                Center for Gifted Education
                College of William and May
                       PBL
• engages students' curiosity and initiates
  learning the subject matter.
• provides excellent opportunities for
  students to think critically and analytically,
  and to find and use appropriate learning
  resources
• promotes autonomous learning


                  Center for Gifted Education
                  College of William and May
              Research on PBL
•   Students show significant learning gains in
    experimental design through a PBL approach
    (VanTassel-Baska, et al. 2000)
•   Students show enhanced ‘real world’ skills with no
    loss in content knowledge as a result of using PBL
    (Gallagher & Stepein, 1996; Gallagher & Gallagher,
    2003)
•   Students & teachers are motivated to learn using
    the PBL approach (VanTassel-Baska, 2000)
•   Students show enhanced higher order skill
    development using PBL over other approaches to
    teaching science (Dods,1997)

                     Center for Gifted Education
                     College of William and May
Students should be given problems – at levels
appropriate to their maturity – that require them to
decide what evidence is relevant and to offer their
own interpretations of what the evidence means.
This puts a premium, just as science does, on
careful observations and thoughtful analysis.
Students need guidance, encouragement, and
practice in collecting, sorting, and analyzing
evidence, and in building arguments based on it.
However, if such activities are not to be destructively
boring, they must lead to some intellectually
satisfying payoff that students care about.
                 -- from Science for All Americans, Project 2061



                    Center for Gifted Education
                  The College of William and Mary
    Features of PBL
• Learner-centered
• Real world problem
• Teacher as tutor or coach
• Emphasis on collaborative
  teams
• Employs metacognition
• Uses alternative assessment
• Embodies scientific process

        Center for Gifted Education
        College of William and May
               PBL Roles
Teacher:                           Student:
• Present an ill-                  • Create a precise
  structured problem                 problem statement
• Act as a                         • Find information to
                                     solve the problem
  metacognitive coach
                                   • Evaluate possible
                                     solutions
                                   • Create a final product


                    Center for Gifted Education
               The College of William and Mary, 2009
       Adaptations for gifted
• Advanced content
• Complex concepts
• Interdisciplinary connections
• Reasoning, habits of mind, and self-
  directed learning
• Ethical discussions
                                (Gallagher, 2001)


                 Center for Gifted Education
                 College of William and May
Characteristics of the                 Characteristics of PBL
       Gifted
Desire for self-directed            Students are in charge of
learning                            learning
Intense curiosity – what is         Requires problem finding
the „real‟ issue?
Metacognitive thinkers              Have we considered all
                                    possibilities?
                                    What assumptions are we
                                    making?
                                    Why is this strategy not
                                    working?


                      Center for Gifted Education
                      College of William and May
 Characteristics of the               Characteristics of PBL
        Gifted

Capacity for learning quickly Requires students to make
& absorbing new information connections & create „new‟
                              knowledge
Tendency to look beyond             Requires deep thinking
surface of problem

Belief that problems have           There is no single right
more than one answer                answer


                      Center for Gifted Education
                      College of William and May
 Scientific Habits of Mind
Cognitive skills, affective skills, and attitudes:
 Curiosity
 Creativity
 Objectivity
 Openness to new ideas
 Skepticism
 Tolerance for ambiguity




                  Center for Gifted Education
             The College of William and Mary, 2009
            Self-Directed Learning…
            Grasping Metacognition
Self-monitoring performance with an intent to self-assess
Recognizing gap in knowledge and set up learning
agenda
Identifying learning resources:
     print
     human
     technology-based
Identifying skills needed to use resources wisely and well
Sorting through information to determine needed
information
Questioning appropriateness of personal biases
Applying information appropriately
                      Center for Gifted Education
                 The College of William and Mary, 2009
       Problem Based Learning
•   State the problem
•   Decide what information you need
•   Conduct information quest
•   Complete scientific investigations
•   Review data & summarize findings
•   Communicate problem resolution


                   Center for Gifted Education
                   College of William and May
       What’s an “Ill-Structured” Problem?
 More information than initially is presented will be
  necessary to…
   •    understand what’s going on.
   •    know what caused it to be a problem.
   •    know how to fix it.
 There’s always more than one right way to figure it out.
   •    Fixed formulas won’t work.
   •    Each problem has unique components.
   •    Each problem solver has unique characteristics, background, experience.
 The definition of the problem shifts or changes as new
  information is gathered.
 Ambiguity is a part of the environment throughout the
  process.
   •    Data are often incomplete
   •                 …or in conflict
   •                 …or unavailable
   •    but choices must be made, anyway.



                                        Center for Gifted Education
                                   The College of William and Mary, 2009
Ill-Structured Problems
• Ambiguous
• No single “right” answer
• Data is often incomplete
• Definition of problem changes
• Information needs change or
  grow
• Stakeholders
• Deadline for resolution
          Center for Gifted Education
          College of William and May
Problem Diagnosis and
   Solution Building
 • Ill-structured problem is presented
    – What is going on?
    – What do we know?
    – How can we find out?
    – Where does the information lead us?
    – Do we have enough information?
    – Is the information reliable?
    – What’s the problem?
 • Problem is represented




           Center for Gifted Education
      The College of William and Mary, 2009
                  Video
• Problem-Based Learning: 3 Classrooms in
  Action (31 minutes)




               Center for Gifted Education
               College of William and May
Macro-concept: Systems
               Macro-Concepts
• Are broad
• Reveal fundamental patterns within a content area
• Allow for valid connections within a content area
• Apply to several content areas
• Disclose fundamental similarities and differences within and
  across disciplines
• Draw the learner deeper into the subject matter, inspiring
  curiosity and interest



                          Center for Gifted Education
                     The College of William and Mary, 2009
                     Systems
A system is a collection of items or processes
that interact with each other to constitute a
meaningful whole.
All systems have
1) Elements
2) Boundaries
3) Interactions among elements to generate
  system behavior.
4) Many systems receive input and produce
  output.
                   Center for Gifted Education
              The College of William and Mary, 2009
    System Concept Outcomes
Students will be able to:
• Describe the important elements of a system
• Delineate the boundaries of a system
• Describe input into the system
• Describe output from the system
• Identify elements, boundaries, input, output (and
  interactions) as parts of systems
• Use the terms describing systems to identify the
  components of the system under study
• Transfer knowledge about the system studied to other
  systems
                        Center for Gifted Education
                   The College of William and Mary, 2009
        Elements of a System
• Boundary: determines what is inside the system
  and what is outside the system
• Elements: the parts that make up a system
• Input: anything that goes into the system from
  outside the system
• Output: anything that the system releases to the
  outside world
• Interactions: the effects that parts of the system
  have on each other


                      Center for Gifted Education
                 The College of William and Mary, 2009
         Analyzing a System
         Boundaries




                Elements



Inputs                                              Outputs




                Interactions




                 Center for Gifted Education
            The College of William and Mary, 2009
         Interdisciplinary Applications
                    Early Elementary            Elementary           Middle
Social Systems      Describe the roles of
                    different members of
                    the community
Number Systems      Describe the function
                    of different numbers
                    in the system
Cities                                          Describe the
                                                elements of a city

Language/Codes                                  Create and use       Predict the meaning of
                                                your own code        unknown words
Political Systems                                                    Describe the elements
                                                                     that make up the US and
                                                                     Soviet political systems
Economic Systems                                                     Describe the elements of
                                                                     each economic system

                                 Center for Gifted Education
                            The College of William and Mary, 2009
Overview of the Center’s PBL units
and their initial problem statements
              Science Units
•   What a Find! (gr. 2- 4)
•   Where’s the Beach (gr. 2- 4)
•   Acid, Acid Everywhere (gr. 4-6)
•   Electricity City (gr. 4-6)
•   Nuclear Energy Friend or Foe (gr. 6-8)
•   No Quick Fix (gr. 6-8)
•   Something Fishy (gr. 6-8)
•   Animal Populations (gr. 6-8)

                 Center for Gifted Education
            The College of William and Mary, 2009
      Anatomy of a PBL Unit
• Curriculum framework: goals and
  outcomes
• Set of 25 lesson plans: purpose,
  materials, activities, and questions
• Assessment: problem logs, experimental
  design worksheets, lab report forms, final
  assessment
• References

                    Center for Gifted Education
               The College of William and Mary, 2009
                      PBL Units
• What a Find!
  “What a Find!” is an exploration of the field of
  archaeology. Students are put in the role of a newly
  hired archaeologist who is contacted by a construction
  company crew that has just unearthed some artifacts.
  The construction company needs your input to determine
  what the next steps should be. Through the concept of
  systems, a simulation and scientific investigations of the
  archaeological processes, students will uncover a
  solution to the problem.

1999 Winner of a National Association for Gifted Children
  Curriculum Division Award for Outstanding Curriculum


                           Center for Gifted Education
                      The College of William and Mary, 2009
        What a Find! problem
You are a newly hired assistant at a small museum
that has just opened in your hometown. It is your
second day on the job when you learn that the
museum’s archaeologist has resigned. Later that day,
the museum receives a call from a local construction
site. While digging to lay a foundation for a new
school, a backhoe operator uncovered numerous
artifacts. The construction company has stopped work
while workers wait to hear what should be done next.


                    Center for Gifted Education
                    College of William and May
                    PBL Units
• Where’s the Beach?
  Plans for building a children’s camp at the beach are on
  hold because the town council is worried about beach
  erosion. Since the camp received a large donation to
  develop nature-themed experiences, designed to teach
  children how to protect the environment, the camp
  manager wants to cooperate with the council. The
  problem is that she must begin construction quickly to be
  ready for the summer season. Acting as members of the
  town council, the students must develop scientifically-
  based regulations that will satisfy the long-term needs of
  the town and the plans for the new camp.



                         Center for Gifted Education
                    The College of William and Mary, 2009
   Where’s the Beach? problem
Plans for building a children’s camp at the beach town of
Dunesville are on hold because the town council is worried about
beach erosion. Many towns in coastal areas have been
experiencing problems with erosion over the past few years. The
camp received a large donation to develop nature-themed
experiences, designed to teach children how to protect the
environment. The camp manager wants to cooperate with the
council so that the environment is protected. The problem is that
she must begin construction quickly to be ready for the summer
season. You are members of the town council. You must come
up with scientifically based regulations that will satisfy the long-
term needs of the town and the plans for the new camp.

                          Center for Gifted Education
                          College of William and May
                     PBL Units
• Acid, Acid Everywhere
  This unit presents the structure of systems through
  chemistry, ecological habitats, and transportation. The
  unit poses an ill-structured problem that leads students
  into an interdisciplinary inquiry about the structure and
  interaction of several systems, centering around the
  study of an acid spill on a local highway.

1997 Winner of a National Association for Gifted
  Children Curriculum Division Award for Outstanding
  Curriculum


                         Center for Gifted Education
                    The College of William and Mary, 2009
                      PBL Units
• Electricity City
  This unit provides an interdisciplinary approach to
  introducing students to electricity. In this simulated
  activity, a large recreational complex is being built in the
  middle of a city, and the students' role is to plan the site's
  electrical needs, as well as create additional backup
  plans. This "real world" problem requires students to
  analyze the situation, determine what type of research is
  needed, conduct experiments, and evaluate solutions.




                          Center for Gifted Education
                     The College of William and Mary, 2009
         Electricity City problem
You are a newly hired employee for the local power company.
Your first assignment after completing the company’s orientation
program is to work as part of a team that has been asked to
design a recreational complex in the center of town. This project
is backed by both federal and state funding. Your role is to
ensure that the power (electricity) requirements are planned
appropriately and are adequate for the new complex. The
complex will serve the needs of all community groups including
senior citizens and special needs individuals. You must also
design a comprehensive backup plan for the complex. Your
training in college stressed city management and planning, not
electricity.

                         Center for Gifted Education
                         College of William and May
                    PBL Units
• Nuclear Energy: Friend or Foe?
  This unit explores the effects of nuclear power waste.
  The topic is introduced through the eyes of a mayor of a
  town where a nuclear power plant is located. She must
  decide if the facility can expand its waste disposal
  techniques. What are the biological implications of
  radiation? What are the trade-offs with which society
  must live as we accept nuclear technologies into our
  lives? These questions are explored by students as they
  prepare to make recommendations about the use of the
  nuclear power plant in their fictitious town.


                        Center for Gifted Education
                   The College of William and Mary, 2009
          Nuclear Energy problem
Your name is Christine Barrett, and you are the mayor of the town of Riverton.
You have a nice home on the Back River with your husband Richard, a middle-
school teacher for the Riverton School District, and six-year-old son Ellis, now
entering the first grade. Your job as mayor has been rough at times, but you
still enjoy it. The aspect of the town that has been giving you the most grief
recently has been the Maple Island Nuclear Power Plant, the largest industry in
Riverton. It produces power for not only Riverton but nearly half of the state
also. Yesterday, you received a letter from your long-time friend, Jerry Brown,
Vice President of Waste Management for the Maple Island Nuclear Power
Plant. He was writing regarding a suggested plan for expanding the waste
disposal pools at the plant to accommodate the growing number of used power
assemblies. Today you receive a letter from CAFSE (Citizens Action for a Safe
Environment) adamantly opposing not only the expansion of the power plant
but also the fact that the plant is operating at all. An open discussion on the
proposed expansion has already been slated for next month’s town council
meeting. You have only five weeks to garner support for whatever position you
take.

                               Center for Gifted Education
                               College of William and May
                    PBL Units
• No Quick Fix
  This unit uses systems as the fundamental concept to
  help students understand cell and tuberculosis biology.
  In a series of widening concentric circles, students learn
  that the cells are elements in larger systems, such as the
  immune system of the human body. Students also
  interact with human social systems, including health care
  and public education. Students take on the role of
  physician and begin to search for the cause and
  resolution of the problem. While unraveling the
  interactions among various systems, students can
  appreciate the complexities of staying healthy in the
  modern world.
             No Quick Fix problem
You are Dr. Susan Ostrovsky. You have been trained as a physician, and also
have a master’s degree in public health. You did your residency in infectious
diseases and are now on staff at the Eastbridge Public Health Department.
This morning, you received the following e-mail message from your boss, who
is away at an important training program in Washington, D.C.
     Susan: Dr. Johnston called yesterday afternoon to inform us that one of his
     patients, a 15-year-old boy, has been confirmed as having active
     tuberculosis. The boy had a positive tuberculin test two weeks ago. A
     sputum smear was positive for acid-fast bacilli. Dr. Johnston has referred
     the patient to Dr. Goldstein at University Hospital for treatment. Please
     follow up on this as soon as possible. The patient is a student at
     Eastbridge High School. As you know, the school is terribly overcrowded
     and the potential for a serious outcome is great. I need an action plan from
     you by tomorrow morning. Please fax it to me at my hotel in Washington
     D.C. The training lasts another three weeks, so I’ll need daily updates from
     you until I get back.

                               Center for Gifted Education
                               College of William and May
                    PBL Units
• Animal Populations
  This curriculum unit integrates population biology and
  mathematics. The ill-structured problem puts students in
  the stakeholder role of assistant to the mayor of a small
  town in which residents are demanding that something
  be done about the deer that are eating their landscaped
  plants. Throughout the unit, students deal with physical
  models, conceptual models, and mathematical models
  as they tackle the deer problem and the complication of
  Lyme Disease.



                         Center for Gifted Education
                    The College of William and Mary, 2009
     Animal Populations problem
Chris, I’m not going to be able to make it home tonight after all—sorry!
The evening conference session will be much more interesting than I
had thought and so I’m going to be staying at Sue’s house tonight
rather than coming all the way home. Could you please pick up some
Chinese food on you way home and get the kids from daycare? Oh,
and the babysitter left a message this morning that Josh has a funny
rash on his tummy. I hope it isn’t serious—Dr. Martin’s office will be
closed until after Memorial Dat. Could you take a look at it and see
what you think? Love, Marie
P.S. Here’s what the babysitter said: Josh has a large, red swelling
right next to his navel. He says that he had what looked like a bug bite
there last week; since it didn’t itch or hurt, he didn’t worry about it.
Yesterday night he thought it looked bigger; now it’s almost an inch in
diameter. It’s really weird looking: It looks like a red ring with a white
center. It looks as though there was a bug bite in the very center of the
swelling. It still doesn’t itch or hurt, but he’s pretty upset about it.

                            Center for Gifted Education
                            College of William and May
                    PBL Units
• Something Fishy
  This unit poses an ill-structured problem that will lead
  students into an interdisciplinary study about several
  individual systems and their interactions. The content of
  the unit focuses on the various systems involved in the
  pollution of a local body of water: the aquatic
  ecosystem, chemical reaction systems, government
  systems, and economic systems. Students are
  challenged to grapple with real world concerns and
  develop recommendations through simulation activities
  based on the scientific process.


                         Center for Gifted Education
                    The College of William and Mary, 2009
Dealing with real-world problems
Wheel of
Problem                                    •Learn about the
                                           problem
                                           •Assume roles
Based                                      •Define
                                           stakeholders
Learning                                                            •Identify what you
                                                                    know
           •Prepare final product
                                                                           •Identify what
                                                                           you need to
         •Decide on the best         State the                             know
         way to communicate          Problem                                  •Develop a plan
         findings and                                         Develop
                                                                              to find
         recommendations Communicate                          Need-to-
                                                                              information and
                              Problem                          Know
                              Resolution      Problem                         current
                                                               Board
                                               Based                          research
                                              Learning
      •Organize and           Review and                        Conduct      •Use varied
      analyze data            Summarize                       Information    approaches
                               Findings                          Quest
        •Make inferences                       Conduct                      •Use multiple
                                               specific                     data sources
          •Draw conclusions                 Investigations
                                                                       •Redefine the
           •Identify a                                                 problem
           solution/resolution      •Select specific inquiry
                                    questions.
                                    •Use methodology of
                                    discipline.
                                    •Collect data.



                                                                 Center for Gifted Education    Robbins, 2008
                                                                 College of William and May
          Blackout article
From Electricity City




                Center for Gifted Education
                College of William and May
     Need to Know Board
What do we    What do we                    How can we
 know?       need to know?                   find out?




              Center for Gifted Education
              College of William and May
      Elements of Reasoning
            Purpose/                Point of
             Goal                    View



Evidence/                                           Assumptions
  Data
                        Issue/
                       Problem

                                               Concepts/
   Inferences
                                                 Ideas


                      Implications/
                     Consequences                          -- Paul, 1992


                 Center for Gifted Education
            The College of William and Mary, 2009
                                                                                         Reasoning in Science
                                                                                         Adapt to Grade Level


                                                                                Purpose/Goal                                           Point of View
                                                                                                                           From what perspective do you
                                                                     What is the purpose of discussing                     approach the issue? What interest
                                                                     this topic in today‟s society?                        groups or stakeholders may have
                                                                                                                           different points of view on the topic?
                                                                                                                           What might their viewpoints be?




                                                                                                                                                              Evidence/Data
                                                      Implications/Consequences
                                                                                                                                                 Research the issue. What was the
                                                   What are the implications of this                                                             purpose of the research? What future
                                                   issue for society?                                                                            research is planned in this area? What
                                                                                                             Issue/Problem                       are the arguments that stakeholder
                                                                                                                                                 groups give for and against the issue?
                                                                                                            What is the central
                                                                                                             issue? Should
                                                                                                             ___________
                                                                                                              be permitted?



                                                                                                                                                        Concepts/Ideas
                               Inferences
After gathering data about the issue, describe what it involves. Discuss
and evaluate the arguments for and against it. On what are the                                                                               How can a scientific system be
stakeholders‟ arguments based? Have you changed your position after                                                                          productive or dysfunctional? Is this
hearing the arguments and reading the facts?                                                                                                 evident in the research about the
                                                                                                                                             issue? Discuss past conflicts
                                                                                                                                             between the scientific world and a
                                                                                                                                             political system.
                                                                                                           Assumptions

                                                                                                What assumptions about human life
                                                                                                emerge related to this issue? What
                                                                                                assumptions might major
                                                                                                stakeholders in this issue hold? Why
                                                                                                do you think this?
    Reasoning Explanation
Purpose/Goal: What is the purpose of the
specific issue, event or problem?
Problem/Issue: What is the specific problem to
be addressed or solved?
Points of View: What is the perspective of the
different groups? How does that impact the
issue or problem?
Experiences, Data, Evidence: How is the point
of view supported?


                   Center for Gifted Education
              The College of William and Mary, 2009
       Reasoning Explanation
Concepts and Ideas: What are the key ideas
or concepts that are presented and how can
our thoughts be organized around those
concepts or ideas?
Assumptions: What is taken for granted in the
situation, issue, data, or problem?
Inferences: What small leaps or connections
can be made based on our assumptions and
varied points of view?
Implications and Consequences: What are
the if…then… statements or consequences of a
specific action or event?
                   Center for Gifted Education
              The College of William and Mary, 2009
         Why a Stakeholder?

Real world problem solvers are not
objective or all-seeing.
Helps students think about the effects of
bias in problem-solving
Increases ownership in the process
Increases sense of professionalism




              Center for Gifted Education
              College of William and May
            Reasoning about a Situation or Event
                           What is the situation?


 Who are the
 stakeholders?

What is the point
of view for each
  stakeholder?

 What are the
assumptions of
  each group?

  What are the
 implications of
  these views?
                           Center for Gifted Education
                      The College of William and Mary, 2009
Experimentation
                 Problem Log Questions
1. If you had a sample of the acid from the spill, how could you
neutralize it?

2. If you had a sample of the acid from the spill and knew how much acid
there was in the whole spill, how could you figure out how much base
you would need to neutralize the whole spill?

3. What did you notice about the temperature of the solution of acid as
you added more base to it? Would adding base to the spill in order to
neutralize it have any side effects?

4. Draw a picture of your experimental setup. Label its boundaries and
its elements. List input you put into your experimental system and output
that came out of it. What interactions inside the system allowed it to
produce output? Were they interactions between the original system
elements or interactions with input you added?
                             Center for Gifted Education
                             College of William and May
                      Student Brainstorming
                           Worksheet
1. What do we need to find out? (What is the
  scientific problem?)
2. What material do we have available?
3. How can we use these materials to help us find
  out?
4. What do we think will happen? (What is our
  hypothesis?)
5. What will we need to observe or measure in order
  to find out the answer to our scientific question?
Adapted from: Cothron, J. G., Giese, R. N., & Rezba, R.J. (1989). Students and research. IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co.

                                                 Center for Gifted Education
                                                 College of William and May
  Experimental design in Acid,
       Acid Everywhere
• As in scientific research, starts with a real-
  world question, such as ―how can we
  neutralize an acid spill on the highway?‖
• Guided by metacognitive tools supplied by
  the teacher
• Students experience the full scientific
  process


                  Center for Gifted Education
                  College of William and May
             Experimental Design
                Components
• Independent variable: manipulated (x-axis) variable that is
  purposefully changed by the experimenter.
• Dependent variable(s): responding (y-axis) variable that may be
  affected by the independent variable.
• Hypothesis: A prediction about the relationship between variables
  that can be tested.
• Constants: all factors that remain the same and have a fixed
  value.
• Control: the standard for comparing experimental effects.
• Repeated trials: the number of experimental repetitions, objects,
  or organisms tested at each level of the independent variable.

                            Center for Gifted Education
                          The College of William and Mary
          Demonstration vs.
           Experimentation
• Useful in illustrating                • Integral part of
  a concept/idea                          experiencing
• Serves as a                             science
  springboard for                       • Forum for student
  further                                 inquiry
  experimentation                       • Addresses higher
                                          order thinking skills


                  Center for Gifted Education
             The College of William and Mary, 2009
          Student Experiment Guide
Practical Questions                      Planning Questions
   Is the proposed                          How can we be sure
   experiment feasible?                     that our experiment is
   What materials will we                   giving us the right
   need?                                    answer?
   How can we use these                     What do we need to
   materials to help us                     change to get our
   find out?                                answer and why?
   Can we do the                            What has to stay the
   proposed experiment                      same during our
   given what we have?                      experiment and why?
   Which experimental                       What data need to be
   approach is best,                        collected and why?
   given the time and                       How can we make
   materials?                               sure we don’t
                                            accidentally foul up
                                            the experiment?
                         Center for Gifted Education
                    The College of William and Mary, 2009
                Experimental Protocol
Provides structure for the process of detailing the planned
materials, methods, and data to be collected:
1. Title of Experiment
2. Hypothesis (Educated guess about what will happen):
3. Independent Variable (The variable that responds to
    changes in the independent variable):
4. Observations/Measurements to Make:
5. Constants (All the things or factors that remain the same):
6. Control (The standard for comparing experimental effects):
7. List the materials you will need.
8. Write a step-by-step description of what you will do (like a
    recipe!). List every action you will take during the
    experiment.
9. What data will you be collecting?
10. Design a data table to collect and analyze your information.
11. Write conclusions.
                            Center for Gifted Education
                       The College of William and Mary, 2009
               Student Experiment Report
Title of Experiment:



Hypothesis (Educated guess about what will happen):



Independent Variable (The variable that responds to changes in the independent
   variable):



Observations/Measurements to Make:



Constants (All the things or factors that remain the same):



Control (The standard for comparing experimental effects):
                                   Center for Gifted Education
                                 The College of William and Mary
             Your Turn
Do the activities in each station to become
familiar with the materials.
Develop a testable question about the
materials you are given.
Design and conduct an experiment in
order to answer the question.


Experimental design handout
                Evaluation
Pre                                            Post
                  plans for SAFETY
            states PROBLEM or QUESTION
                 gives HYPOTHESIS
                   lists STEPS (3+)
         arranges steps in SEQUENTIAL ORDER
                  lists MATERIALS
              plans to REPEAT TESTING
                   DEFINES TERMS
               plans for OBSERVATION
              plans for MEASUREMENT
            plans for DATA COLLECTION
           plans for INTERPRETING DATA
      plans to make CONCLUSION BASED ON DATA
           plans to CONTROL VARIABLES:
Create your own PBL
   Writing Real World Problems
• Ill-structured (incomplete information)
• Ambiguous (information given may be interpreted in
  many ways)
• Identify or infer stakeholders (students as professionals)
• Require multiple resources to tackle.
• Deadline or sense of urgency present.
• Multi-disciplinary emphasis (science-math-society-
  connection)




                        Center for Gifted Education
                      The College of William and Mary
               Writing a New Problem Episode
  Decide on content orientation for problem
  Choose concept for problem
  Look for problem idea (newspapers, situations in literature, magazines, textbooks,
TV,
   curriculum guides, public radio, personal experiences)
  Draft a problem statement
  Match to curriculum and instructional goals
  Map the problem’s terrain
                                       Deer




  Investigate stakeholders (needs power and responsibility)
  Consider availability of resources
  Refine problem statement
  Write outcomes/objectives and match to activities and assessments
     Objectives Activities    Assessment
     Tailoring A PBL to Your
              Locale
• Choosing a site
• Identifying stakeholders
• Collecting information
  – Government agencies
  – Education & research organization
    (colleges, museums, zoos)
  – Libraries
  – Advocacy groups
                   Center for Gifted Education
              The College of William and Mary, 2009
    Tailoring a Problem for Your Local Area
     You are the supervisor of the day shift of the
___________________________. It is 6:00 a.m. on a steamy June
morning. You are awakened by the ringing phone. When you answer
you are told, ―Come to the___________________________________.
There has been a major accident and you are needed.‖
     Quickly you dress and hurry to the overpass. As you approach the
bridge, you see an overturned truck that is completely blocking both
eastbound lanes of the freeway. You see ―CORROSIVE‖ on small signs
on the side and rear of the truck. The truck has lost at least one wheel
and is resting on the freeway guard rail. There is a large gash in the
side of the truck; from this gash, a clear liquid is running down the side
of the truck, onto the road, and down the hill into____________. Steam
is rising from the ____________. All traffic has been halted and
everyone has been told to remain in their cars. Many of the motorists in
the traffic jam appear to be angry and frustrated. Police officers,
firemen, and rescue squad workers are at the scene. They are all
wearing coveralls and masks. The rescue squad is putting the
unconscious truck driver onto a stretcher. Everyone seems hurried and
anxious.

                              Center for Gifted Education
                         The College of William and Mary, 2009
Assessment overview
                 ASSESSMENT

Portfolio                                         Performance-based
Problem Logs                                            Pre & Post Science
                                                           Process Test

  Lab Reports                                           Embedded Activities


  Experimental                                          Final Assessment
Design Worksheets

                                         Final Content Concept/Scientific
Unit-Specific Forms                           Research Assessment
                        Center for Gifted Education
                      The College of William and Mary
    Options for Assessment
Final assessments should be authentic, related to an
audience, and directly responding to the problem. These
may include:
•   Final Oral Presentation
•   Written Reports
•   Portfolios
•   Dramatic Presentation
•   News Programs


                     Center for Gifted Education
                     College of William and May
              Create a PBL rubric
The teacher may want to incorporate a rubric throughout the PBL
process or related to a final product, including performance criteria and
rating scales for each criteria. Criteria may be related to:

•   Organization
•   Presentation of problem
•   Clarity of solutions/resolutions
•   Quality of research
•   Evidence of reasoning
•   Communication to audience

                             Center for Gifted Education
                             College of William and May
  STEVE COXON
 Contact Information
    svcoxon@wm.edu
coxonsteve@hotmail.com
  http://stevecoxon.com




        Center for Gifted Education
      The College of William and Mary
Center for Gifted Education
   Contact Information
  Center for Gifted Education
The College of William and Mary
         P.O. Box 8795
 Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795
       757-221-2362 (ph)
       757-221-2184 (fax)
      email: cfge@wm.edu
       www.cfge.wm.edu

          Center for Gifted Education
        The College of William and Mary
 Kendall/Hunt Publishing
   Contact Information
Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company
     4050 Westmark Drive
   Dubuque, IA 52004-1840
      Contact: Lisa Zenner
    1-800-247-3458, ext. 4
email: lzenner@kendallhunt.com
     www.kendallhunt.com


           Center for Gifted Education
         The College of William and Mary

				
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