Glossary by yaofenjin


									                                                               APPENDIX                      I

address mapping group (RMON2)
   A list of MAC addresses that correspond to the network addresses discovered by the
   SwitchProbe device.

administrative applications
   TrafficDirector applications performed by a network administrator that concentrate on
   performing the necessary configuration tasks to functionally link data-monitoring
   devices to utilities that display the monitored data.

   Firmware embedded or software installed on a device.

agent group
   A collection of one or more agents created by a network administrator. The
   TrafficDirector application handles an agent group as a single agent, allowing you to
   collectively monitor network statistics from more than one segment or point on a

   Notification that a threshold (rising or falling) established by the user has been met.

alarm discovery
   Alarm information displayed on the lower half of the Domain Discovery window that
   includes alarms configured on an agent. You can obtain additional details by selecting a
   specific alarm.

                                                                               Glossary I-1

               alarm group (RMON1)
                  Periodically takes statistical samples from variables in the SwitchProbe device and
                  compares them with previously configured thresholds. If the monitored variable crosses
                  a threshold, an event is generated. A mechanism is implemented to limit the generation
                  of alarms. This group includes the alarmTable and requires the implementation of the
                  Event group. Elements include alarm type, interval, starting threshold, and stop

                  A message sent to all IP addresses defined in the trap community string.

               Alert Monitor
                  A TrafficDirector application that displays alerts when a threshold is met.

               All Conversations
                  A TrafficDirector application that displays, for a selected domain, all conversations
                  taking place between a pair of hosts.

               All Talkers
                  A TrafficDirector application that displays, for a selected domain, all talkers seen by the
                  agent connected to the network segment.

               analyzer port
                  A port on a switch designated by the switch management console to host a SwitchProbe
                  device or analyzer. This port is most often put in receive-only mode and packets are
                  mirrored to it when the mirroring function is activated.

               App History
                  A TrafficDirector application that displays statistics such as utilization percentage,
                  number of bytes, or number of packets for a selected agent or Frame Relay agent, within
                  a selected domain. These statistics are displayed on a real-time basis as a sliding
                  window according to an established refresh interval.

               application flow management
                  The method of managing enterprise networks by tracking application flows and their
                  impact on the network.

I-2    Using the TrafficDirector Application

Application History
   A TrafficDirector application that displays statistics such as utilization percentage,
   number of bytes, or number of packets for a selected agent or Frame Relay agent, within
   a selected domain. These statistics are displayed on a real-time basis as a sliding
   window according to a selectable refresh interval.

application layer host group (RMON2)
   The RMON2 group that counts the amount of traffic, by application protocol,
   discovered by the SwitchProbe device.

application layer matrix group (RMON2)
   The RMON2 group that counts the amount of traffic, by application protocol, between
   each pair of network addresses discovered by the SwitchProbe device.

application layer matrix TopN group (RMON2)
   TopN Conversations over a user-defined period, based on packets or octet counts.

Application Monitor
   A TrafficDirector application that allows you to see statistics of application-level
   domains on a network segment.

Application Response Time (ART)
   The amount of time from the moment that an application receives a query to when the
   application produces a response. By subtracting this figure from the total round-trip
   transmission time, you can determine how much of the delay was caused by the network
   and how much was caused by server processing time.

Application Response Time (ART) MIB
   The Application Response Time (ART) MIB is a data source built on the RMON2
   standard that measures application response time in a network segment. It extends
   RMON2 to measure the delay seen by application request-response dialogues in a
   network segment.

                                                                               Glossary I-3

               Application Response Time (ART) Monitor
                  A TrafficDirector application, run on agents and application domains supporting this
                  group. It displays the statistics collected by an agent supporting the ART MIB which
                  collects application response time information (retries, traffic load, and response time
                  buckets) for certain applications.

                  The TrafficDirector application supports the ART MIB framework by extending the
                  domain architecture to include a fourth statistics group called ResponseTime (R), in
                  addition to the three existing groups: Stats (S), Hosts (H), and Conversations (C). The
                  R group is supported for certain application domains. You can enable or disable it (both
                  in the agent and for logging) using Configuration Manager just like any of the other
                  three groups.

                  See Application Response Time.

               asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)
                  A network technology based on transferring data in cells of a fixed size.

               ATM hosts
                  An ATM RMON MIB group. ATM per-host statistics count the amount of traffic sent
                  on behalf of each ATM address discovered by the SwitchProbe device. The counters
                  measure InCells, OutCells, number of In Call Attempts, number of In Calls, number of
                  Out Call attempts, number of Out Calls, In Connection Time, and Out Connection Time
                  per host.

               ATM matrix
                  An ATM RMON MIB group. ATM per-circuit statistics counts the amount of traffic sent
                  on behalf of each source and destination ATM address discovered by the SwitchProbe
                  device. These groups maintain counters similar to host group on a per-conversation
                  basis rather than on a per-host basis.

               ATM matrix TopN
                  An ATM RMON MIB group. Finds and reports the top traffic contributors
                  (conversations) according to associated portSelectGroup criteria.

I-4    Using the TrafficDirector Application

ATM Monitor
  A TrafficDirector application started on an ATM SwitchProbe device or an ATM switch
  supporting the ATM RMON MIB. Shows the statistics for both service classes
  (Abr&Ubr and Cbr&Vbr) for each of the configured port groups. You can change the
  view to show Call Rates or Cell Rates.

  The MIB that is implemented in ATM SwitchProbe devices. As defined in the ATM
  RMON MIB, a user can collect ATM stats, ATM hosts, and ATM conversations for
  specific port groups. A SwitchProbe agent implementing this MIB is assumed to boot
  with predefined port groups. The device, which is either connected between the switch
  and another ATM device, or is spanning traffic from other ATM port(s), will typically
  have one port group. All ATM SwitchProbe devices implement RMON1, RMON2, and
  MIB extensions. You access the ATM RMON functionality in a SwitchProbe device by
  defining an ATM agent using the Configuration Manager application. The interface
  number for the SwitchProbe device selects the particular ATM interface. This is
  required to access the RMON1 and RMON2 statistics on this interface.

ATM stats
  The Basic Statistics group in the ATM RMON MIB. Counts the amount of traffic per
  interface. The counters measure the number of cells, number of call attempts, number
  of successfully established calls, and connection time.

auto logging
  The action of automatically retrieving data from an agent and storing it in a database.
  You can retrieve and analyze the data using the different TrafficDirector report.

Auto Report
  A Trend Report option that allows you to create a report of critical information on a
  regular basis (daily, weekly, or monthly).

                                                                            Glossary I-5

               Auto Reporting
                  The Auto Reporter function allows you to schedule reports to be automatically
                  generated on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis.

                  The daily reports are based on a 24-hour period from 12:00AM one day to 12:00AM the
                  next day, and are generated at 3:00AM on the following day.

                  The weekly reports are based on a seven-day period from 12:00AM Sunday to 12:00AM
                  the following Sunday and are generated at 3:00AM on Sundays.

                  The monthly reports are based on the calendar month, 12:00AM on the first of the
                  month to 12:00AM on the first of the next month, and are generated at 3:00AM on the
                  first of the month. The Auto Reporter time ranges or start times are not user

               baseline report
                  Compares two similar time ranges in one report. A baseline time range is maintained
                  (protected against purge action) so that baseline data is available at report time. The
                  baseline time range can be one to 30 days. You can baseline both detail and summary
                  data, and you can store up to two baseline time ranges; however, the comparison reports
                  run on any two time ranges where data is available. The baseline comparison is a
                  one-to-one comparison; therefore, no computation of average, min, max, or standard
                  deviation is performed on the baseline data.

               capture group (RMON 2)
                  Storage of packets, based on filters, for later retrieval.

                  An ATM unit of segmented data that consists of 53 bytes or octets. Of these, five
                  constitute the header and the remaining 48 carry the data payload. Cell-switching gives
                  maximum utilization of the physical resources.

               Cisco Discovery Protocol Media (CDP)
                  The protocol-independent, device-discovery protocol that runs on all
                  Cisco-manufactured equipment including routers, access servers, bridges, and switches.
                  Using CDP, a device can advertise its existence to other devices and receive information
                  about other devices on the same LAN or on the remote side of a WAN. Runs on all
                  media that support SNAP, including LANs, Frame Relay, and ATM.

I-6    Using the TrafficDirector Application

command-line interface
   The TrafficDirector command-line interface on UNIX. Accessible at the shell prompt
   on UNIX; accessible at the DOS prompt on Microsoft Windows. When invoked,
   displays CLI usage options.

committed information rate (CIR)
   The committed rate, in bits per second, at which the incoming interface trunk and
   outgoing interface trunk of a Frame Relay network transfers information under normal
   conditions to the destination Frame Relay end system.

Configuration Manager
   A TrafficDirector application allows you to add and configure agents, agent groups,
   switches, and Frame Relay agents. Configuration Manager also provides a means for
   installing domains, logging, traps, and resources on a variety of agents including DLCIs
   and switch ports.

Configuration Rollup (or Config Rollup)
   A TrafficDirector application that allows you to define the number of days that different
   kinds of data are stored in an SQL report database before being deleted.

Configure Servers (or Config Servers)
   A TrafficDirector administrator application that allows you to define access to SQL
   databases by configuring each database as a SQL server. The TrafficDirector Trend
   Reporter application generates reports based on information contained within the SQL

   The three matrix groups are: RMON1, RMON2 nlhost, and alhost. Host groups track
   the amount of traffic individual hosts are responsible for any layer of the three levels of
   RMON network model: Datalink and Physical, Network, and Applications.

   A alarm-settable, non-negative integer network variable that may be incremented but
   not decremented. The counter includes statistical variables such as packets, CRC/Align
   Errors, Jabbers, and Undersize. All alarm-settable variables are counters, excluding
   those specifically mentioned as gauges and timeticks.

                                                                                Glossary I-7

               cross-mode applications
                  A TrafficDirector application that you can select from any of the three modes—traffic,
                  protocol, or applications. Examples of cross-mode applications include Data Capture,
                  Domain Discovery, and Test Agent.

               custom properties file
                  A custom properties file is created for a specific device (agent, Frame Relay agent, or
                  switch) when you add the device to the TrafficDirector application using the
                  Configuration Manager application. You can modify custom properties files to contain
                  properties such as logging and traps for individual DLCIs and switch ports, and
                  resources such as round trip delays and IP pings.

                  A custom properties file is specific to the agent for which it was created and cannot be
                  shared among agents.

                  Processes that run in the background and are disconnected from a process group and
                  terminal. The TrafficDirector application uses specific daemons to create and update
                  tables in the SQL database. Daemons work with related configuration files that rule how
                  and when the daemons are called to perform their roles.

               Data Capture
                  The TrafficDirector application that allows you to capture specific data and store it in a
                  file they have defined. The data can be examined immediately, or at a later date using
                  the Protocol Decode application. (See also: protocol decode.)

               data communications equipment (DCE)
                  The devices and connections of a communications network that connect the
                  communication circuit with an end device (data terminal equipment). A modem is an
                  example of a DCE.

I-8    Using the TrafficDirector Application

data-link connection identifier (DLCI)
   The number the TrafficDirector agent assigns to a DLCI that the SwitchProbe device
   discovers on the network. Each DLCI is associated with a permanent virtual circuit

   A DLCI is a channel number attached to data frames to tell the network how to route the
   data. Frame Relay is statistically multiplexed, which means that only one frame can be
   transmitted at a time, but many logical connections can coexist on a single physical line.
   The DLCI allows the data to be logically tied to one of the connections so that when it
   reaches the network, it knows where to send the data.

data service unit (DSU)
   A device used in digital transmission that adapts the physical interface on a DTE device
   to a transmission facility such as T1 or E1. The DSU is also responsible for such
   functions as signal timing. Often referred to together with CSU, as CSU/DSU.

data terminal equipment (DTE)
   The part of a data station that serves as a data source, data destination, or both, and
   provides the data communications control function according to protocols. Data
   terminal equipment includes such devices as computers, protocol translators, and

   A convention that describes the kinds of traffic to be collected at the agent/device. A
   domain allows you to choose display statistics from a specific traffic stream using
   TrafficDirector applications.

domain alarm
   An alarm generated when certain established conditions are met for a specific domain.
   An example may be bandwidth utilization by the IP domain. Depending on the type of
   agent, you can configure domain alarms in the shared or custom properties files.

Domain Discovery
   The TrafficDirector application that allows you to monitor traffic on a network to
   establish a baseline of normal or expected performance. Domain Discovery displays all
   domains the agent is configured to monitor, and the level of traffic each domain is
   responsible for. You can use Domain discovery to confirm that the agent has the
   domains installed specified in the properties file.

                                                                                Glossary I-9

               Domain Editor
                  The TrafficDirector administrator application that allows you to define the protocol or
                  generic domain to be used by an agent.

               domain group
                  Refers to a group of multiple protocols for which you can collect statistics.

               domain history
                  A graphical presentation, over a period of time, of statistics for a selected domain. You
                  can display statistics such as utilization, packets, packet distribution, bytes, vital signs,
                  size distribution, or errors.

                  Any network or logging daemon event logged to the TrafficDirector application and
                  displayed in Alert Monitor.

               event group (RMON1)
                  Controls the generation and notification of events from this device. Elements include
                  event type, description, last-time event sent.

               event logging
                  Run-time configuration of the logging directory, minimum level to log, and expiration

                  Logging of date, time, application name, process ID, thread ID (if applicable), and user
                  name (on UNIX platforms).

                  Logging to two separate files—one for GUI applications, and one for daemons—with
                  separate configuration parameters for each program type.

                  A facility to periodically expire log files when they have reached their expire time limit.
                  This facility would run every 24 hours from dbchkd, and would exit when log expiration
                  is complete.

               falling threshold
                  A predefined value (point) placed on a network variable. A falling threshold is crossed
                  when the value of the network variable is equal to or less than the value of the falling

I-10   Using the TrafficDirector Application

    A process or device that screens network traffic for certain characteristics, such as
    source address, destination address, or protocol, and determines whether to forward or
    discard that traffic based on the established criteria.

Filter Editor
    The TrafficDirector administrator application that allows you to add new filters to the
    filter list, or edit or delete existing filters.

filter format
    A format that uniquely describes the specific characteristics of the frame that must be
    matched for acceptance or rejection of data packets from the data capture buffers. Filter
    formats are based on the detailed structure of the seven-layer protocol stack that makes
    up a transmission frame.

filter group (RMON1)
    Allows packets to be matched by a filter equation. These packets form a data stream that
    may be captured or may generate events. Elements include bit filter type (mask or not
    mask), filter expression (bit level), conditional expression (and, or, not) to other filters.

Frame Relay
    A common and standardized interface designed for data traffic that provides an interface
    between different vendors’ equipment at the User-to-Network Interface (UNI).

Frame Relay agent
    A WAN interface set up to monitor a Frame Relay segment.

Frame Relay agent custom domain (.fcd)
    A data file stored in the $NSHOME/usr directory. This is a custom property file for a
    Frame Relay agent that contains logging and resources information, and logging
    information for domains and their groups on DLCIs and VLANs.

                                                                                 Glossary I-11

<Frame Relay agent name>.frp
   A configuration file specific to a particular installation, this file contains a listing of
   DLCI numbers and the CIR definition for a specific Frame Relay agent. This file name
   is derived from the first 15 characters of the Frame Relay agent name. The number of
   lines in this file equals the number of discovered DLCI ports. The TrafficDirector
   application automatically creates this file, if it is not already present when you use either
   the TrafficDirector application (before you start Traffic Monitor for a Frame Relay
   agent), or the dvlearn command-line utility. You can also create this file with an ASCII
   text editor, or build it incrementally using the Add Frame Relay application within
   Configuration Manager.

   This alarm-settable network variable is a non-negative integer that may increase or
   decrease. Gauges you can select include Utilization, Beacon Time (TR MAC Stats),
   Average Response Time (RT Delay).

generic domain
   Provides the means to classify network traffic by protocols that reside in the data link
   layer of the OSI model (layer 2). You can install generic domains only on SwitchProbe
   devices. Generic domains let you monitor a logical data stream formed by packets that
   match filters specified in the domain definition.

gigabit Ethernet
   The newest version of Ethernet which supports data transfer rates of 1 Gigabit (1,000
   megabits) per second. The first Gigabit Ethernet standard (802.3z) was ratified by the
   IEEE 802.3 Committee in 1998.

high-capacity RMON (HCRMON)
   With the implementation of HCRMON, 64-bit counters need to be represented by
   various applications. Due to screen limitations in the GUI applications, it is not possible
   (or desirable) to display every digit in a 64-bit counter. Therefore, the following
   convention is followed:

   64-bit counters can be displayed in 10-digit or 4-digit format depending on the space
   available to the application. The magnitude of the number is indicated by a character
   immediately following the digit string.

                                                                                Glossary I-12

high-speed serial interface (HSSI)
   High-level serial interface that supports up to 52 Mbps and offers LAN-like
   performance over a wide area.

history group (RMON1)
   Records periodic statistical samples from a network and stores them for later retrieval.
   Elements include sample period, number of samples, and item(s) sampled.

host group (RMON1)
   Contains statistics associated with each host discovered on the network. Elements
   include host address, packets and bytes received and transmitted, and broadcast,
   multicast, and error packets.

host TopN group (RMON1)
   Prepares tables that describe the hosts that top a list ordered by one of their statistics.
   The available statistics are samples of one of their base statistics over an interval
   specified by the management station. Thus, these statistics are rate-based. Elements
   include statistics, which host(s), sample start and stop period, rate base, and duration.

Inter-Switch Link (ISL)
   Cisco Systems term for a Virtual LAN (VLAN).

   To continuously send random or garbage data. Normally indicates failed logic or
   circuits. Member of the RMON1 statistics group.

   To make the TrafficDirector application recognize Ethernet and Fast Ethernet ports of
   the switch, it must “learn” ports of a selected switch. To do so, click the Learn button
   to the right of the switch list box.

   A network segment identified by the SwitchProbe IP address and interface number. This
   term is equivalent to agent in the TrafficDirector application. Cisco highly recommends
   that you define locations using meaningful names such as bos-wan-1 or peoria-fddi-2.

                                                                               Glossary I-13

   How the TrafficDirector application retrieves data from the SwitchProbe device into the
   server. (See also: auto-logging, report logging, system event logging.)

logging server
   SQL database to which the TrafficDirector application writes data. The data in this
   database is used by the Trend Reporter application for generating reports.

Long-Term History
   The TrafficDirector application that shows statistical history over a preset time period.
   You define the number of samples and the sample interval are using the Property Editor
   application. The long-term default number of samples is 50; the sample interval is 1800
   seconds (30 minutes).

MAC address
   Standardized data-link layer address required for every port or device that connects to a
   LAN. Other devices in the network use these addresses to locate specific ports in the
   network and to create and update routing tables and data structures. MAC addresses are
   six bytes long and are controlled by the IEEE.

matrix group (RMON1)
   Stores statistics for conversations between sets of two addresses. As the device detects
   a new conversation, it creates a new entry in its tables. Elements include source and
   destination address pairs and packets, bytes, and errors for each pair.

management information base (MIB)
   A set of parameters that an SNMP management station can query or set in the SNMP
   agent of a networked device, such as a router.

   A term that refers to four of the ten groups of RMON1. These four groups are statistics,
   history, events, and alarms.

   Multiple packets copied by the network that are sent to a specific subset of network
   addresses. These addresses are specified in the destination address field. Member of the
   RMON1 statistics group.

                                                                             Glossary I-14

   Allows multiple logical signals to be transmitted simultaneously across a single
   physical channel.

multidomain view
   The ability to view aggregate information from multiple domains (previous versions of
   the TrafficDirector application-supported domain-centric views). For example, it may
   be more useful to save (in the database) TopN hosts per interval across all the domains,
   rather than a separate list for each domain.

multisegment history
   Historical view of individual statistics for one or more segments of the same topology.

Network Analysis Module
   An internal probe device that extends (for Ethernet VLANs) the Remote Monitoring
   (RMON) support provided by the Cisco Catalyst 5000 series of switches. The Network
   Analysis Module provides RMON and RMON2 support for application monitoring,
   traffic analysis, and troubleshooting. It acts as a network data-gathering agent and
   provides network traffic monitoring when used with a client equipped with
   network-monitoring software.

network layer host group (RMON2)
   Counts the amount of traffic sent to and from each network address discovered by the
   SwitchProbe device.

network layer matrix group (RMON2)
   Counts the number of packets between each pair of network addresses discovered by the
   SwitchProbe device.

network layer matrix TopN group (RMON2)
   TopN conversations over a user-defined period based on either packet or octet counts.

network interface cards (NIC)
   An adapter used to interface desktop devices (such as personal computers, workstations,
   and printers) to a LAN.

                                                                            Glossary I-15

nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM)
   Nonvolatile random access memory. Program memory designed to hold information
   during loss of power.

object identifier (OID)
   A MIB series of non-negative integers, separated by periods (dots), that delineates the
   path to the object through the SNMP global naming tree.

   A group of fixed-length binary digits, including the data and call control signals, that are
   transmitted through an X.25 packet-switching network as a composite whole. The data,
   call control signals, and possible error control information are arranged in a
   predetermined format. Packets do not always travel the same pathway, but are arranged
   in proper sequence at the destination side before forwarding the complete message to
   the addressee.

packet capture group (RMON)
   Allows packets to be captured after they flow through a channel. Information gathered
   from a packet capture includes size of buffer for captured packets, full status (alarm),
   and the number of packets captured.

permanent virtual circuit (PVC)
   A virtual circuit that is permanently established. PVCs save bandwidth associated with
   circuit establishment and tear-down in situations where certain virtual circuits must
   exist all the time.

ping (packet internet groper)
   ICMP echo message and its reply. Often used in IP networks to test the reachability of
   a network device.

   An inquiry from the TrafficDirector application asking for a specific set of data (for
   example, statistics) from a SwitchProbe device.

   An interface on an internetworking device, such as a router. In IP terminology, a port is
   an upper-layer process that receives information from lower layers. Ports are numbered,
   and each numbered port is associated with a specific process.

                                                                               Glossary I-16

   An ATM RMON MIB group that defines the ports to be included in a particular stats,
   host, or matrix collection. This group can collect different ports into one group, so that
   aggregate collection of stats on the selected ports can be done.

probe configuration (RMON 2)
   Includes information about the RMON groups supported by the SwitchProbe device, the
   hardware and software revisions of the device, how to update the firmware, serial-line
   configuration for out-of-band management, including modem setup commands, and
   configuration of each interface.

properties file
   Consists of domains and their associated (modifiable) parameters that determine how
   statistics on data (matching the domain’s criteria) are to be collected and logged.
   Properties files also provide for the establishment (or removal) of traps/alarms per
   domain. You install properties files on a device using the Configuration Manager
   application. (See also: shared properties file and custom properties file.)

Property Editor
   The application within Configuration Manager that allows you to define shared and
   custom properties for an agent, agent group, switch, or Frame Relay.

Protocol Decode
   A TrafficDirector application that allows you to examine captured data packets stored
   in a file that you defined. (See also: data capture.)

protocol directory group (RMON2)
   Presents an inventory of those protocol types the SwitchProbe device is capable of

protocol distribution group (RMON2)
   Counts the number of packets and octets for the different protocols detected on the
   network segment.

protocol domains
   One of two types of domains (the other is generic). Protocol domains allow you to
   classify traffic by network- and application-layer protocols.

                                                                              Glossary I-17

Protocol History
   The TrafficDirector application that allows you to view various statistics for a selected
   agent or Frame Relay agent within a selected domain.

Protocol Monitor
   The TrafficDirector application that allows you to view in graphic format the utilization,
   packet rate, or kilobyte rate for a predefined domain group.

Protocol Zoom
   The TrafficDirector application that allows you to examine more closely the activity for
   a specific domain. (See also: Protocol Monitor.)

proxy SNMP
   A feature of the TrafficDirector Property File that allows you to configure an agent to
   send out SNMP get requests to a particular host to retrieve the value of a specific MIB

read community
   Allows you to read the MIB on a switch MIBs. (See also: write community.)

remote agent
   A software-based probe for monitoring RMON2 statistics (Microsoft Windows-based).

Remote Login
   The TrafficDirector feature that allows you to remotely log into a SwitchProbe device
   and perform various administrative functions.

remote monitoring (RMON)
   A network management protocol that allows you to gather network information at a
   single workstation. Unlike SNMP, which gathers network data from a single type of
   management information base (MIB), RMON1 defines nine additional MIBs that
   provide a more comprehensive set of data about network usage. (Refer to RFC 1757 for
   more information on RMON.) For RMON to work, network devices, such as hubs and
   routers, must be set up to support it.

   A standard that defines network monitoring above the data-link layer, allowing you to
   analyze traffic by protocol.

                                                                              Glossary I-18

RMON conformance (RMON2)
   This group allows you to find out which groups and instances of a group that a
   SwitchProbe device supports.

Report Editor
   The TrafficDirector application that allows you to define report format, graph type, and
   sorting statistics for host- and conversation-related reports.

report template
   The kind of information that will be included in a report and how it is displayed and
   organized. Report template files have the extension of .rt and reside in the
   $NSHOME\usr directory. You can create and edit report templates using Report Editor.

resource alarms
   Alarms that monitor results of an agent performing round trip delays (pings) or proxy
   SNMP (SNMP gets) of whole integer MIB object values.You can only configure
   resource alarms in an agent’s custom traps file (agent_name.act).

Resource Monitor
   The TrafficDirector application that allows you to monitor the resources of any SNMP
   device by downloading MIB variables selected from a list to the agent.

   Allows you to enter the number of times you want the TrafficDirector application to
   attempt to reach the switch if there is no response. The value must be an integer between
   1 and 1000.

Ring Monitor
   The TrafficDirector application that allows your to view statistics and errors specific to
   Token Ring and FDDI networks.

rising threshold
   The threshold that is crossed when the value of the network variable is equal to or
   greater than the rising threshold.

Round Trip Delay
   A TrafficDirector protocol-level application that allows you to configure an agent to
   ping a specified IP address to check network connectivity to a remote device.

                                                                              Glossary I-19

                  Refers to how the TrafficDirector application can direct full RMON2/RMON analysis
                  to any switch port you select. Roving involves connecting a SwitchProbe device to an
                  analyzer port on the switch, then mirroring traffic from a selected switch port to the
                  specified analyzer port. The SwitchProbe device then examines the traffic as if it was
                  receiving the traffic directly.

               roving RMON
                  The ability to use software to control and direct full RMON to any switch port on
                  demand. (See also: mini-RMON.)

               Segment Details
                  The TrafficDirector traffic-level segment monitoring application that allows you to
                  display a variety of tabular (formatted text) statistics, depending on the device you
                  selected in the TrafficDirector main window—agent, switch port, or Frame Relay

               Segment Zoom
                  The TrafficDirector traffic-level segment monitoring application that allows you to
                  display statistical data available from a particular agent and generic domain in graphical

               shared properties files
                  Contain properties—such as domains you want to monitor, logging for domains, and
                  traps—that you can install (using Configuration Manager) on a single device (agent,
                  Frame Relay agent, or switch), or applied consistently across groups of such devices to
                  compare similar statistics for multiple network segments.

                  Shared properties files are designed to be shared between different devices of the same
                  topology. You can create one shared properties file, install it on multiple agents, and
                  monitor the same information across multiple network segments.

               Short-Term History
                  A TrafficDirector application that shows statistical history over a preset time period.
                  You define the number of samples and the sample interval using the Property Editor
                  application. The short-term default number of samples is 50; the sample interval is
                  30 seconds.

I-20   Using the TrafficDirector Application

Simple Management Protocol (SMP)
   Another name for SNMP2, an enhanced version of the Simple Network Management
   Protocol (SNMP) with features required to support larger networks operating at high
   data transmission rates. SNMP2 also supports multiple network management
   workstations organized in a hierarchical fashion.

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
   A standard for network management that uses a common software agent to manage
   local and wide area network equipment from different vendors; part of the Transmission
   Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite and defined in RFC 1157.

SNMPv2 (Simple Network Management Protocol, version 2)
   A combination of proposal updates to SNMP, most of which deal with security.

   A device or software subsystem that functions as a protocol analyzer and statistics probe
   on a network.

SQL server
   An SQL database to which another TrafficDirector application is logging.

statistics group (RMON1)
   Contains statistics measured by the SwitchProbe device for each monitored interface on
   this device. Elements include packets dropped, packets sent, bytes sent (octets),
   broadcast packets, multicast packets, CRC errors, runts, giants, fragments, jabbers,
   collisions, and counters for packets ranging from 64-128, 128-256, 256-512, 512-1024,
   and 1024-1518 bytes in size.

summary aging
   A dbupdate configuration file parameter. This interval shows the number of days that
   information ages before the aging daemon deletes it from the daily table. Daily aging
   must be greater than one day. The default value for protocol and segment statistics from
   the Summary (Daily) table is 366 days; for host, conversation, and IP ping statistics,
   31 days.

                                                                             Glossary I-21

                  A device that microsegments a network to dramatically increase the number of network
                  segments, reducing the number of users per segment, thereby increasing the bandwidth
                  available to each user. A switch also segments networks into logically defined
                  workgroups called VLANS (virtual LANs).

               switch agent
                  Agent firmware embedded on switch ports. Depending on the type of switch used, you
                  can monitor and collect mini-RMON and/or SMON group statistics. For example, the
                  Cisco Catalyst 1600 switch supports mini-RMON; the Cisco Catalyst 5000-series
                  switches supports SMON.

               switch port
                  The port to which the roving or proxy agent is connected.

               SwitchProbe device
                  A hardware device that monitors and collects RMON statistics. Individual SwitchProbe
                  devices are often placed on network segments to monitor network usage and trends.
                  When you configure a SwitchProbe device with the TrafficDirector application, you can
                  view data about the entire network from a central location. SwitchProbe devices and
                  network manager applications communicate using standard SNMP commands sent over

               SwitchProbe agent
                  The agent firmware embedded on a SwitchProbe device to monitor and collect RMON1
                  and RMON2 group statistics.

               switched virtual circuit (SVC)
                  A virtual link, with variable endpoints, established through an ATM network. With an
                  SVC, you define the endpoints when the call is initiated; with a PVC, you predefine the
                  endpoints. A single virtual path may support multiple SVCs.

                  Any entity that is talking on a network segment.

               Test Agent
                  A TrafficDirector application used to quickly determine if a selected agent (either a
                  common agent or a Frame Relay agent) or a selected switch is operational.

I-22   Using the TrafficDirector Application

   A limit value associated with a specific parameter or attribute of device or network
   performance. Detection of this value triggers an appropriate response from the local or
   remote systems or device. For example, when a threshold value is crossed, a warning
   message can be sent or a module or port can be partitioned. (See also: rising threshold
   and falling threshold.)

   The field that allows you to enter the length of time (in seconds) that you want the
   TrafficDirector application to wait before retrying an SNMP request. The value must be
   an integer between 1 and 1000.

Token Ring
   Token-passing LAN developed and supported by IBM. Token Ring runs at 4 or
   16 Mbps over a ring topology.

Token Ring group (RMON2)
   Token Ring-specific information.

TopN Talkers
   A three-dimensional generic graph that includes every entity that is talking on a network

Traffic Analyzer Port (TAP)
   The port on a switch that is designated by the switch management console to host a
   SwitchProbe device or analyzer. Most often this port is put in receive-only mode and
   packets are mirrored to it when you activate the mirroring function.

Traffic Management
   Techniques for controlling traffic load and balance across a network that allow links to
   operate at high levels of utilization by scaling back lower-priority, delay-tolerant traffic
   at the edge of the network when congestion begins to occur.

Traffic Monitor
   The TrafficDirector application that provides you with a top-level view of the network
   by monitoring selected MAC-layer statistics for the agent (agents must contain the
   RMON domain) or switches selected.

                                                                                Glossary I-23

                  A term used interchangeably to describe both the thresholds configured in an agent to
                  monitor specific conditions on a segment, and what occurs when the specified
                  conditions occur.

               Trend Reporter
                  Used to create reports from data which is collected over time and stored in an SQL
                  database. There are two distinct components of the Trend Reporter: logging, which
                  involves configuring SwitchProbe devices, configuring logging daemons which poll
                  SwitchProbe devices for data, and storing the data in an SQL Database, and reporting,
                  which involves retrieving SQL data and presenting report information. To configure
                  SwitchProbe devices and logging parameters, use Configuration Manager. To run
                  reports, use Trend Reporter.

               User History (RMON2)
                  Custom history tables based on supported OIDs.

                  A menu option that allows you to choose statistics that you want to look at.

               virtual circuit
                  A logical circuit set up to ensure reliable communications between two network devices.

               virtual LAN (VLAN)
                  A closed, logically defined community of interest, such as a department or project team.
                  VLANs allow you to build software LANs regardless of each user’s physical location.
                  VLANs constitute a broadcast domain—similar to a subnet—within which broadcasts
                  are contained. Routers are required for inter-VLAN communication.

               vital signs
                  A TrafficDirector term for base-level statistics for each port. A default display of Traffic

               write community
                  Enables you to enter the switch write community name. If the name you enter matches
                  the established write community name for the switch, the TrafficDirector application
                  can write to the MIBs on the switch. Otherwise, the TrafficDirector application will not
                  be able to write to the MIBs on the switch. (See also: read community.)

I-24   Using the TrafficDirector Application

  Allows you to take a closer look at a specific interval of a TrafficDirector history report
  or a section of data samples at a lower display resolution by using the mouse to select a
  start and end time for the zoom.

                                                                              Glossary I-25

I-26   Using the TrafficDirector Application

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