Psychoanalytic Therapy by zhangyun


									Reality Therapy
   Formulated by William Glasser stemming from
    his doubts about the traditional psychoanalytic
    approach. Established Institute for Reality
    Therapy of the Education Training Center and
    the William Glasser LaVerne College Center
    both in Los Angeles. (Gilliland & James, p. 270)
   It is geared toward verbal clients in the
    technological society of the United States.
    (Gilliland & James, p. 291)
   Common sense teaching approach that targets
    problems, not people
     Reality Therapy Basic Beliefs
       Emphasis  is on responsibility
       Therapist’s function is to keep therapy
        focused on the present
       We often mistakenly choose misery in our
        best attempt to meet our needs
       We act responsibly when we meet our
        needs without keeping others from meeting
        their needs
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 To fulfill one’s needs, in such a way as to
  not deprive another of their ability to fulfill
  their own needs.
 Focus on total behavior: acting, thinking,
  feeling, physiology.
Major philosophies and nature
of humans
   Basic premise of theory is that the brain operates to gain
    the perception of what is wanted from the environment.
   People control what they perceive, not what actually
   A fundamental philosophical tenet of control theory is
    that people are ultimately self-determining.
   Internal and external psychosocial pressures may relate
    directly to present emotional functioning but in the long
    run clients are autonomous, selective, responsible people
    who can control their own behaviors, thinking and
    destinies. (Gilliland & James, p. 271)
Major personality constructs
 Everything clients do is to satisfy their
  basic needs.
 The brain is a control system with inborn
  genetic instructions that drive both
  physiological and psychological needs.
 Physiological needs are those that ensure
  the survival of the individual and the
Five Basic Needs
 the need to survive (physiologic),
 the need for love and belonging,
 the need for power,
 the need for freedom,
 the need for fun.
     Basic Needs
       All   internally motivated behavior is geared
           toward meeting one or more of our basic
           human needs
            – Belonging
            – Power
            – Freedom
            – Fun
            – Survival (Physiological needs)
       Our     brain functions as a control system to
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           get us what we want
Basic Tenets
 Nothing that drives our thinking, feeling
  and behaving is moral or immoral.
  (Gilliland & James, p. 272)
 Control theory states that we choose
  behaviors and in choosing, we discover
  consequences that are desirable or
  undesirable. (Gilliland & James, p. 273)
Glasser identified two general
types of personality:
 People who view themselves from their
  own internal frames of reference
 Those who perceive of themselves as
  others see them.
 Success Identity—where one comes to
  possess a willingness and set of skills for
  attaining our basic needs in positive and
  constructive ways
 Failure Identity—failure to attain one’s
  needs in responsible ways
Development of Identity
   In each of the above identities, three stages of development exist:
   Success Identity
     – Needs are fulfilled in positive ways
     – We cope with life through positive and constructive symptoms (i.e.,
       altruistic activities, effective thinking, positive affect, effective
     – We become positively addicted to life-enhancing choices.
   Failure Identity
     – Giving up: We perceive that we cannot attain our needs.
     – Choosing negative symptoms (i.e., negative thinking, debilitative
       feelings, and negative physiological conditions)
     – We become negatively addicted to activities which we perceive to give
       us instant belonging, power, etc. (i.e., alcohol, drugs, gambling, food,
       work) (Gilliland & James, pp. 274-275)
Love and Worth
   A person’s success identity is based on
    experiencing both love and worth in
    balance. Love but no worth can lead a
    person to become dependant on others for
    validation, worth without love can lead to
    alienation because there is never a feeling
    of being cared for by significant others.
    (Gilliland & James, p. 275)
Nature of “maladaptivity”
   Maladaptivity is equated with the failure identity. This is
    characterized by a person’s tending to be lonely, self-
    critical, and irrational. A maladaptive person’s behaviors
    are likely to be rigid and ineffective, often exhibiting
    weakness, irresponsibility and lack of confidence.
   Maladaptivity generally begins during the very early
    years of life, when the individual does not or cannot
    fulfill the need to experience love or self-worth. The
    person who does not feel worthwhile cannot give and
    receive love in appropriate ways.
   Since all behavior is an attempt to control perceptions,
    Glasser says that people choose their misery to gain
    control over others and to excuse their unwillingness to
    do something more effective. Glasser describes a person
    rather than being in a state of depression as engaging in
    ―depressing.‖ (Gilliland & James, p. 276)
Depression described as ACHE:
Major goals of counseling
   The major goal of counseling is
    responsible behavior on the part of the
    client. The overall objective is to help the
    client feel better. This is accomplished
    when the client is able to meet needs by
    taking effective control of his or her life.
    (Gilliland & James, p. 277)
Major techniques/strategies
   The major techniques and strategies employed by
    reality therapy are: confrontation (the counselor
    allows ―no excuses‖ for inappropriate behavior),
    plans and contracts (similar to other behavior
    theories), being specific and ―pinning down‖ the
    client (the counselor will probe the client’s plan
    until it is completely specific and detailed) and
    resolving conflicts. (Gilliland & James, pp. 282-
   Cognitive-behavioral approach to counseling
    process. Explore problems, evaluate behaviors,
    create a plan and goals.
  Procedures That Lead to
  The “WDEP” System
      W Wants - What do you want to be and do?
            Your ―picture album‖
      D Doing and Direction - What are you doing?
            Where do you want to go?
      E Evaluation - Does your present behavior have a
        chance of getting you what you want?
      P Planning – “SAMIC”

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     Planning For Change
S Simple - Easy to understand, specific and concrete
A Attainable - Within the capacities and motivation
           of the client
M Measurable - Are the changes observable and helpful?
I Immediate and Involved - What can be done today?
                         What can you do?
C Controlled - Can you do this by yourself or will
            you be dependent on others?

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Major roles of counselor and
   The major role of the counselor in reality therapy is to
    talk about, focus on and reinforce positive and
    constructive planning and behaving on the part of the
    client. (Gilliland & James, p. 282)
   Believe client needs to be responsible.
   The client’s role is to be the sole judge of his or her own
    behavior, to identify what they are doing to cause the
    difficulty or failure and decide what they must do to
    begin to behave in more responsible ways. (Gilliland &
    James, p. 280)
   Counseling environment is one of authenticity, warmth,
    rapport and trust. Client must be heard. Focus on here
    and now.
  Total Behavior
  Our Best Attempt to Satisfy Our Needs
       DOING – active behaviors
       THINKING – thoughts, self-statements
       FEELINGS – anger, joy, pain, anxiety
       PHYSIOLOGY – bodily reactions

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