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					Ancient Philosophers
     A Study-Guide
 Click on a group of philosophers to
             learn more!
Pre-Socratics       Epicureans



The Great Masters   Stoics
               Pre-Socratics
► Thales


► Anaximenes


► Anaximander


► Heraclitus
                     Thales
► Believes  God is just and
  expects men to behave justly
► World originates from water
► Attributed natural phenomena
  to gods
► Fire, for example, is moved to
  hotness by the daemon of fire
                  Anaximenes
► Air is the source of all
  existence
► Everything is air, at
  different degrees of
  density
► Condensations of air
  produced the sun and
  stars
               Anaximander
► Believes in the
  Apeiron, an unlimited
  primordial mass
► This concept is the
  source of everything
  that can be perceived
► It embraced the
  opposites of hot and
  cold, wet and dry
                   Heraclitus
► Disagreed  with the
  other pre-Socratic
  philosophers
► Claimed that the
  nature of everything is
  change itself
► Believed in the unity of
  opposites: Good and
  bad are equals
              The Great Masters
► Socrates


► Plato


► Aristotle
                  Socrates
► Believed  in virtue; that men
  should focus on self-
  development and not personal
  wealth
► Discusses reincarnation
► Learning is a process of
  recalling “innate knowledge”
                        Plato
► Wrote   dialogues featuring
  Socrates as a central
  character
► It is unknown how much of
  his writing is Socrates’ point-
  of-view and how much is his
  own
► Discusses democracy
                   Aristotle
► Student  of Plato
► Five elements: Fire,
  water, earth, air, and
  aether (divine substance)
► Focused on finding the
  mean between two
  extremes
► True virtue is found in
  the mean
               Epicureans
► Epicurus


► Philodemus


► Lucretius
                   Epicurus
► Allgood and bad are
  derived from sensations of
  pleasure and pain
► Death is not to be feared
► When we die, we no
  longer exist and we feel
  nothing
► Advocated living in
  seclusion
                   Philodemus
► Claims   that anger is
  natural
► The trick is to express
  or handle one’s anger
► Anger and hunger are
  both inevitable
                   Lucretius
► Against superstition
  and fear of the gods
► Death is the dissipation
  of a man’s material
  mind
► Value of life is
  something that only
  matters during life
                      Stoics
► Epictetus


► Zeno


► Marcus   Aurelius
                   Epictetus
► Held  that our aim was to
  be masters of our own
  lives
► Eudaimonia (happiness
  or flourishing
► Eudaimonia is achieved
  by living virtuously, in
  accordance with reason
                     Zeno
► Emphasized   self-control
  and detachment from
  emotions
► Overcome the outside
  world and find peace with
  one’s self
► Regarded society as unruly
  and unreasonable
              Marcus Aurelius
► Did not believe in the
  afterlife
► Even legends will fade
  into oblivion
► Death is desirable,
  because it brings an
  end to all desires

				
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posted:9/23/2011
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