FALCON FALCON Management and by yaofenjin

VIEWS: 16 PAGES: 121

									  FALCON
Management and Monitoring
Introduction

   Rudi Schlösser, CTO
       Email: schloesser@atecom.com

   Customer Support
       Email: support@atecom.com

   Additional Information
       WWW: www.atecom.com
       FTP: ftp.atecom.com/pub
Agenda

   Technolgies
     PDH, SDH, and ATM
     MPEG and DVB-ASI
   FALCON
     System Architecture
       General Aspects
       Components
     Management
       Boot Monitor
       Firmware
       Configuration
       Monitoring
     Troubleshooting
Please...

   Cry and stop me, if there are any questions and
    more details are needed.

   There are no stupid questions, but only stupid
    answers

   Let‘s skip over parts already known, there‘s never
    enough time
Technologies
      Network
Signal Chain

                           MPEG Compressed Video


   Compression (Source to MPEG-TS)
       MPEG compression, Multiplexing

   Network Adaptation (MPEG-TS to ATM, IP, …)
       Encapsulation / De-Encapsulation, Clock Recovery

   Decompression / Modulation (MPEG-TS back to Source)
Network Technologies

   PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy)

   SDH / SONET (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy / Optical
    Networks)

   ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

   SONET NG (SONET Next Generation)
       RPR (Residual Packet Ring)
       GFP (Generic Framing Procedure)

   MPLS

   Ethernet

   IP, UDP, RTP, …
Network Stacks



ISO    ATM       SONET NG   IP
Network
    PDH
PDH      Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy


   Different Standards by ITU and ANSI

   Multiplexing of 2.048 Mbps (ITU) or 1.558 Mbps (ANSI) signals

   Based on Line Switching

   Supports Add & Drop functionality

   No synchronous network clock

   Operation & Maintenance on Section Level (OAM F1)

        ITU          Bitrate [Mbps]       ANSI        Bitrate [Mbps]
        E1                      2.048       DS1                  1.558
        E2                      8.448       DS2                  6.312
        E3                     34.368       DS3                 44.736
        E4                    139.264
PDH Alarms & Statistics


PDH Status
LOS              Loss of Signal
SECTION
OOF              Out of Framing
LOF              Loss of Framing
AIS              Alarm Indication Signal
RAI              Remote Alarm Indication


PDH Statistics
LCV              Line Coding Violation
FAS              Far End Alarm Signal
BIP              Bit Interleave Parity
FEBE             Far End Bit Error
PE               Parity Error
PPE              Path Parity Error
Network
    SDH
SDH      Synchronous Digital Hierarchy


   Similar Standards by ITU and ANSI

   Multiplexing of 2.048 Mbps and 1.558 Mbps based signals

   Based on Line Switching incl. Protection Switching (< 50ms)

   Supports Add & Drop functionality

   Synchronous network clock

   Operation & Maintenance on Section, Line and Path Level (OAM
    F1..F3)
           ITU                   ANSI               Bitrate [Mbps]
          STM-1                  OC3c                             155.56
          STM-4                 OC12c                             622.08
         STM-16                 OC48c                          2.488.32
         STM-64                 OC192c                               10G
         STM-256                OC-768c                              40G
SDH Frame Format


                   SDH Frame
SDH OAM Flow

          SDH OAM (Operation & Maintenance) Flow
SDH Alarms


SDH
LOS       Loss of Signal
AIS       Alarm Indication Signal
SECTION
OOF       Out of Framing             A1, A2
LOF       Loss of Framing            A1, A2
LINE
AIS       Alarm Indication Signal    K2
RDI       Remote Defect Indication   K2
PATH
AIS       Alarm Indication Signal    H1, H2
RDI       Remote Defect Indication   G1
UNEQ      Path Unequipped            C2
PLM       Path Label Mismatch        C2
SDH Statistics


SECTION
OOF       Out of Framing
BIP       Bit Interleave Parity Errors
LINE
BIP       Bit Interleave Parity Line Overhead
REI       Remote Error Indication
PATH
BIP       Bit Interleave Parity Path Overhead
REI       Remote Error Indication
Network
    ATM
ATM         Asynchronous Transfer Mode


   Enables parallel Transport of video, audio, telephony and data
    over one network.

   Runs on top of PDH, SDH, dark fiber

   Asynchronous, no common clock

   53 Byte Cell based, high granularity, low delay
       5 Byte Header, 48 Byte Payload (~11% overhead)

   Circuit Switching on VP (Virtual Path) and VC (Virtual
    Connection)

   Guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) and scalable Bandwidth

   Supports different Adaptation Layer (AAL) for service mapping

   Operation & Maintenance on VP (F4) and VC (F5) level
ATM Cell Structure

                     ATM Cell




                ATM Cell Header
Synchronization
ATM Cell Delineation



   Receiver must find the start of an ATM Cell to synchronize to
    the received Cell Stream

   Procedure:
       Receive 4 Byte and calculate the HEC
       Compare calculated HEC with next received Byte
       Lock after 3 matches in 53 Byte distance, otherwise start from
        scratch
       In locked state single mismatch will cause a LOCD (Loss of
        Cell Delineation)

   The link must be constantly filled with ATM cells, even if no
    User data is to be transferred.
    Stuffing done by IDLE or UNASSIGNED Cells (VPI = 0, VCI = 0).
VC and VP

                                VC (Virtual Channel)
   Each service is mapped to an dedicated VC
   A VC is identified by its VPI/VCI pair
   The VPI/VCI pair must be unique on a physical link
   Point-to-Point (P2P) and Point-to-Multipoint (P2MP)
   Individual QoS and Bandwidth per VC


                                 VP (Virtual Path)
   Bundles multiple (up to 65.535) VCs with the same VPI
       Fast re-routing
   Multiple VPs with individual Bandwidth on a single physical Link
       Link sharing by different customers
Reserved VPI/VCI Values

Meaning                               VPI           VCI           PTI     CLP
Idle or Unassigned Cells               0              0           xxx       0
OAM F4 Segment                         x              3           000       x
OAM F4 End-to-End                      x              4           000       x
Signaling                              x              5           0xx       0
VP Resource Management                 x              6           110       x
OAM F5 Segment                         x       5,8,9..65.365      100       x
OAM F5 End-to-End                      x       5,8,9..65.365      101       x
VC Resource Management                 x                          110       x
Reserved for future                    x                          111       x
functions
The VCI values below 32 are reserved for special functions and shouldn’t be used
for user services
OAM Cell Format

                  OAM Cells
AAL           ATM Adaptation Layer




   The AAL defines, how user data is mapped to ATM cells

   An AAL consists of two sublayers
       CS:          Convergence Sublayer
       SAR:         Segmentation & Reassembly

   Four AAL types are defined
       AAL1:        Services with constant bit rate, isochronous timing
                     i.e. Video, Audio, Circuit Emulation
       AAL2:        Services with variable bit rate, isochronous timing
                     i.e. Video Conferencing
       AAL3/4:      Services with variable packet size, i.e. data
       AAL5:        Services variable packet size, i.e. data
AAL1

   For bit streams with constant bit rate (E1/T1, DVB-ASI, …)
   3 bit Sequence numbering (SN) plus Sequence Number Protection (SNP)
   47 Byte payload


                             Data stream with constant bit rate



                      SAR                            47 Byte Payload


                  3 Bit   5 Bit

           CS     SN      SNP                        47 Byte Payload




    Cell Header                           48 Byte ATM Cell Payload
AAL1 FEC              Forward Error
Correction




   4 Byte RS (Reed Solomon Code) for every 124 Byte data
    resulting in ~3.2% overhead

   Byte Interleaving matrix 128 by 48
       Spreading of block errors (cell losses)
           Write data row by row, send column by column
           Receive data column by column, read out row by row

   Error Correction Capabilities
       Up to 4 consecutive lost cells in each row
       2 lost cells and 1 bit error per row, if position of lost cells is
        known or
       2 bit errors per row
      AAL5

         For data with variable packet size (Ethernet, IP, …)
         65.536 Byte max. packet size
         8 Byte trailer with original length and CRC32 over the entire PDU

               Data packet with 1 to 65.535 Bytes



                                                n
SAR        48 Byte                 48 Byte
                                               Byte
                                                             1 Byte   1 Byte    2 Byte    4 Byte

                                                             UU       CPI      Length    CRC32


                                                    n Byte    Stuffing         Trailer
CS

Hdr        48 Byte        Hdr     48 Byte     Hdr       48 Byte
ATM Cell Rates


Network Interface   Cell Mapping   ATM Cell Rate
E3                     ADM                80.000
                       PLCP               72.000
DS3                    ADM               104.253
                       PLCP               96.000
STM-1 / OC3c           ADM               353.207
STM-4 / OC12c          ADM             1.412.828
Technologies
        MPEG
MPEG-TS           Transport Stream




   Multiplex of ESs (Elementary Streams, like video, audio, data, …)
    identified by its PID (Packet ID)

   SI (Service Information) describes content of the TS

   Segmented into packets of 188 Byte

   Each packet starts with 0x47

   Second Byte contains control information, like TEI

   Constant Bitrate is achieved by inserting NULL packets (PID
    8191)
MPEG-TS SI       Service Information



  PAT (PID 0)
     NIT PID             NIT (PID 16)
   PMT # 1 PID
   PMT # 2 PID             PMT #1
                           ES #1 PID    Video

   PMT # n PID             ES #2 PID    Audio 1

  CAT (PID 1)
                           ES #n PID     Data
  SDT (PID 17)

  EIT (PID 18)             PMT #n
                           ES #1 PID    Video
  TDT (PID 20)
                           ES #2 PID    Audio

                           ES #n PID     Data
Technologies
      DVB-ASI
DVB-ASI          Asynchronous Serial Interface


   Standard interface for transport of MPEG-TS

   Serial (Coax 75Ohm) interface with 270MHz carrier signal
    (compatible to SDI) and up to 300m reach

   8B/10B coding

   Supports 16 Byte Reed-Solomon Error Correction

   Byte and packet mode
MPEG-TS over ATM
AAL1

   TS packet size is adopted to ATM AAL1
       188 Byte TS-Packets fit exactly into 4 ATM Cells
           Divide TS packet into 4 blocks of 47 Byte as AAL1 payload
       31 TS packets fit exactly into the AAL1 FEC matrix
           FEC matrix must start with 0x47 (TS sync Byte)
           204 Byte TS packet size not supported
               Strip off MPEG-RS before mapping

   Receiver must perform adaptive clock recovery (ACR)
       Accuracy:      0.2ppm
       Max. Drift: 0.0027ppm/s
MPEG over ATM AAL5

   Previously recommended by ANSI
       No specialized SAR required
       New traffic type VBRrt (Variable bit rate, real-time)
       Recommendation changed to AAL1 for professional services

   2 TS packets plus 8 Byte trailer are mapped to 8 ATM cells
       No stuffing required
       Same overhead as with AAL1 without FEC

   No error correction scheme
       Single ATM cell loss causes loss of min. 2 TS packets
     System
Architecture
FALCON Installation

   Don‘t block air inlet (bottom) or outlet (top)

   Don‘t use mounting brackets (covering Slot #13)

   Use external 1RU fan unit instead

               0&1              2&3                  4..11   12 & 13
System Architecture
Internal Data Distribution

   ATM Cells received by the Network Interfaces are broadcasted
    to
       both Controller Cards
       all service cards

   ATM cells from Controller- and Service-Cards are always send
    to a Network interface (bps-0 to Slot #12, bps-1 to Slot #13)
       VCCs on Service- and Controller Cards must be unique per
        network interface

   No traffic relation between service cards and/or controller
    cards:
User Configuration

   The configuration reflects the SNMP MIB tree
       The configuration stays valid after a firmware upgrade
       Full SNMP support is easy to achieve

   Central database runs on the Controller. Databases on the
    individual cards are mapped to the central database dynamically.

   The configuration is always stored on the particular card
       Pre-configuration of a card is possible.
       The card boots up with it‘s local stored configuration.
       No controller card is required
   System
Components
PSUs

                                   Hot-swap and Hot-plug

                                   Load Balancing

                                   AC: 100V~to 250V~, 50Hz to
                                    60Hz, auto-sense

                                   DC: -32V= to -76=

                                   Mixed operation possible

                                   Indications:
                                     OK:            Primary power
                                     Failure:       Overload



ATTENTION: DC-PSU is not protected against polarity reversal
  Common Card Controls

                         Console (RS232)
                             Baudrate 115k
                             8N1, no handshake

   Consol                Hot-Swap (HS) LED
     e                       Lights blue, when the card is
Hot-Swap     Status
  LED         LED             powerded down (hot-swappable)

Throw-out                Status (OK) LED
 Handle                      Constant red: booting
                             Constant green: operational
                             Red Blinking: out0 alarm active
Controller Card

                           Can be inserted to Slot #2 and #3

                           Hot swap and hot plug

                           Central configuration and monitoring
              Digital        SNMP agent
              Inputs
    eth0
                             Web server
                           Not required for System operation
    eth1

                           Interfaces

 Console
             Contact
             Closures        2 * 10/100BaseT Ethernet
                             RS232 (115k, 8N1)
                             5 * Contact Closures
Throw-
  out                        4 * Digital Input
Handle
                           Supports IPoA and Ethernet Bridging
Network Interfaces

                              Can be inserted to Slot #12 and Slot #13

                              Hot swap and hot plug

Physical
                              Physical Interface carried out as
Interfac                       pluggable module
    e
                                E3/DS3, STM-1 electrical / optical,
                                 STM-4 optical
 RX/TX
  LED        Status LEDs
                              Reference clock input and output
Ref. Clock
                              Indications:
 Console                        SIGNAL: Carrier detect
                                  green:   OK
Throw-
                                  red:     no carrier
  out
Handle                          ERROR: Any error on the physical
                                 layer
                                TX/RX: ATM cells are send/received
ATM Tributary Interfaces

                              Can be inserted to Slot #4 to #11

                              Same as Network Interfaces

Physical
Interfac
                              Additional:
    e                             Quad E3/DS3 interface

 RX/TX
                                  Traffic shaping and policing per
             Status LEDs
  LED                              VCC (max. 2048 VCCs)
Ref. Clock                        Automatic Protection Switching
                                   per VCC based on CLIP (Cell
 Console                           Loss Integration Period)
                                   configurable in n * 20us (max.
                                   1024 VCCs)
Throw-
  out
Handle
  DVB-ASI Input

                     Can be inserted to Slot #4 to #11

                     Hot swap & hot plug

                     Two ASI inputs with integrated A-B switch
   Input 1
Status LEDs          Active monitor output (configurable)

   Input 2
                     Byte and Packet mode, 188 and 204 Byte packet size
Status LEDs
                     TS rate from 800kbps to 160Mbps (CBR)

Monitor Output       TS rate measurement, switch off if configured rate is
                      exceeded

     Console         AAL1 or AAL1 FEC (configurable)

                     2 ATM VCCs to Slot #12 and Slot #13, individual
                      configurable
    Throw-
      out
    Handle           Indications:
                       STAT: Input signal status
                       ACT: Active input
DVB-ASI Input Block
Diagram



    port        interface   link
    Quad DVB-ASI-Input

                    Can be inserted to Slot #4 to #11

                    Hot swap & hot plug

                    4 independent ASI channels
     Input 1
                    Active monitor output (configurable)
     Input 2
                    Byte and Packet mode, 188 and 204 Byte packet size
     Input 3
                    TS rate from 800kbps to 213Mbps (CBR)
     Input 4
                    TS rate measurement, switch off if configured rate is
Monitor Output       exceeded

      Console
                    AAL1 or AAL1 FEC (configurable)

                    2 ATM VCCs per channel to Slot #12 and Slot #13,
                     individual configurable
      Throw-
        out         Indications:
      Handle
                      STAT: Input signal status
                      ACT: Active input
 DVB-ASI Output

                 Can be inserted to Slot #4 to #11

                 Hot swap & hot plug

                 2 ATM VCCs from Slot #12 and Slot #13 with APS,
                  individual configurable
 Output 1
                 AAL1 or AAL1 FEC (configurable)
Status LED
                 Adaptive Clock Recovery
 Output 2          TS rate from 800kbps to 160Mbps (CBR)
                   Accuracy: 0.2ppm, Drift: 0.0027ppm/s
                 Two ASI outputs (same signal)
   Console
                 Byte and Packet mode, 188 and 204 Byte packet
                  size (configurable)
   Throw-
     out         TEI tagging for uncorrectable errors (configurable)
   Handle
                 Indications:
                   STATUS: Output signal status
DVB-ASI Output Block Diagram



   port         interface      link
    Quad DVB-ASI Output

                    Can be inserted to Slot #4 to #11

                    Hot swap & hot plug

    Output 1
                    2 ATM VCCs per channel from Slot #12 and Slot
                     #13 with APS, individual configurable
    Output 2
                    AAL1 or AAL1 FEC (configurable)
    Output 3
                    Adaptive Clock Recovery
    Output 4          TS rate from 800kbps to 213Mbps (CBR)
                      Accuracy: 0.2ppm, Drift: 0.0027ppm/s
Monitor Output
                    Active monitor output (configurable)
      Console
                    Byte and Packet mode, 188 and 204 Byte packet
                     size (configurable)
      Throw-
        out         TEI tagging for uncorrectable errors (configurable)
      Handle
                    Indications:
                      A/B: Active VCC (A = Slot 12, B = Slot 13)
 DVB-ASI Switch

                             2 DVB-ASI Inputs

                             Output protected by passive loop-through
                               188/204 Byte, Byte- or Packet mode
  Input 1     Monitor 1
                             3 active monitor outputs (configurable)
  Input 2     Monitor 2
                             Indications:
                               Inputs:
  Output      Monitor 3
                                  STAT (Input): Input signal status
Status LEDs                       ACT (Input): active input
                               Output:
 Console                          TAG: TS packets with TEI received
                                  SFN: Seamless mode
   Throw-
                                  STAT: Output status
     out
   Handle
                                  SYNC: Synchronization status
DVB-ASI Switch Block Diagram



    port        interface      port
DVB-ASI Switch

   Input signals from different sources (i.e. redundant MUX):
       Non-seamless switching on
           LOS and LOF
           Missing ES (Elementary Stream, PID repetition rate)

   Input signals are identical (copies of the same source):
       Seamless switching after synchronization of the input signals
       Packet exchange of corrupted TS packets identified by
           TEI (Transport Error Indicator)
           MPEG-RS-Errors (204 Byte packets only)
  Quad E1/T1 CES

                  Can be inserted to Slot #4 to #11

                  Hot swap & hot plug

                  4 independent E1/T1 CES channels
Ref. Clock
                  Uni- or bi-directional operation
Channel 1 &
    3             Unstructured mode, n * 64k under development
Channel 2 &
    4
                  2 ATM VCCs to/from Slot #12 and Slot #13 with APS in
                   receive direction, individual configurable

                  E1/T1 Output Clock:

    Console             Looped E1/T1

                        Adaptive Clock Recovery
    Throw-
      out               Network Clock
    Handle
                        Internal reference clock
E1/T1 CES Block Diagram



     dsx1           atm
  Ethernet Bridge

                       Can be inserted to Slot #4 to #11

                       Hot swap & hot plug

                       10/100BaseT (auto-negotiation or fixed)

Status LEDs            Point-to-Point Bridge (802.1q)

                       Support of VLAN-tagged frames
10/100BaseT
                       Multicast aware

                       STP (Spanning Tree Protocol)

    Console
                       Up to 16 ports (VCCs) with individual QoS

                       Indications:

    Throw-
                         LINK: Carrier detect
      out                100M: 100Mbps (off = 10Mbps)
    Handle
                         RX/TX: Received / transmitted frames
Boot Monitor
Boot Process

   Three stage boot

   First stage Boot-Loader:
     Fixed stored in ROM
     Memory test, etc.
   Second stage Boot-Loader
     Hardware probing
     Boot Monitor
     Boot process will be interrupted here in case of a
      hardware problem

   Third stage: UNIX

   You can stop the boot process after the second stage
    boot, entering the boot monitor.
Boot Monitor

   Only accessible on the Console

   Stop boot process by pressing any key

   Prompt „ok“

   Main Functions
       Firmware Image Management
           Firmware Download
           Deletion of Firmware Images
       Configuration Management
           Save / Load
           Delete (Factory Defaults)
Boot Monitor TFTP Configuration

   Display of Configuration: printenv

   Changing Configuration: setenv <Name> <Value>

   TFTP Configuration:
     Client-IP: Local IP-Address
     Netmask: Local netmask
     Server-IP: IP-Adress of the TFTP-Server
     Gateway: IP-Address of the gateway to be used
                        to reach the server (if any)
     TFTP-Device:
       Controller: eth0 or eth1
       Service- and Network Cards: bpe-0 or bpe-1
        Gateway must be configured to 169.254.0.2 (bpe-
        0) or 169.254.1.3 (bpe-1)
User Configuration

   Command „cfgclear“
       Factory Defaults
       Reverts all settings to default (incl. Password)

   Command „cfgsave <Filename>“
       Save the configuration to a TFTP-Server

   Command „cfgload <Filename>“
       Load a configuration from a TFTP Server

   Command „cfgdump“ list the SNMP configuration
    as a Hex-Dump (OID – Value pairs)
Firmware Images

   Command „li [-d boot]“
       Listing of installed firmware images
   Command „ai [-d boot]“
       Append a new firmware image

   Command „ii [–d boot] [Number]“
       Deletes the specified number of firmware
        images (starting with the latest installed
        image


ATTENTION: When deleting the last firmware
 image, installation of a new firmware image can
 be installed from the boot-monitor only.
Configuration
Management Interfaces


   CLI (Command Line Interface)
       opsh (Operator Shell)
       Telnet or Console (RS232, 115k, 8N1)

   HTTP
       Any browser with XML, XSLT and CSS support i.e. IE, Firefox,
        Safari, etc.

   SNMP
       SNMPv1, SNMPv2c and SNMPv3
       Access to an individual card by using the associated
        CONTEXT (SNMPv3) or user-configured COMMUNITY
        (SNMPv1/SNMPv2).
CLI „opsh“


   Access to configuration, status information and statistics

   [TAB] expansion of command

   Command history (up/down keys)

   Commands can be passed as command line parameter

          opsh –c “<Command>”
CLI „cmdsh“


   Access to all information as via SNMP

         Walk, Get, Set, …

   Access to values not accessible within “opsh”

   Usefull for debugging

   Tool for integration of the system into SNMP based management
    systems
       Initial
Configuration
Initial Network Setup

   Access via SNMP and Web-Interface require valid
    network configuration
       bootp
       Manual configuration over Console (opsh)
           Required Parameter
               IP-Address and Netmask
               Default Gateway / static routes

           Syntax:
            > net interface eth0 addr x.x.x.x/z up
            > net gateway y.y.y.y
Changing Network Settings

   Because different settings (IP-Adress & Gateway)
    must probably be changed at a time
       use local console, or
       use a script within a Telnet session
           opsh –c „<Command>“

   Example:

        #!/bin/bash
        opsh –c „net interface eth0 addr 10.2.0.3/2 up“
        opsh –c „net gateway 10.2.0.1“
Firmware
Firmware Management


   Each card has it’s own store for installed firmware images
     Different versions can be used within a system
     To ease troubleshooting one firmware version within a system is
      recommended

   Multiple Images can be installed (Number depends on card type)
     It‘s always possible to switch back to an old version
   Controller Cards have seperate boot- and a system images
     Both, boot- and system image must have the same version
   Always the latest installed image will become active after a reboot
     Switching to an older firmware image by downloading and activating it
   A newly installed image must be activated
     Activation will cause a reboot of the particular card
     Scheduled activation possible
Firmware Download


   Download from a TFTP-, FTP- or HTTP-Server

   Controller Cards:

      > firmware local update boot “<Protocol>://<Server-IP>/[Path/]<Filename>”

      > firmware local update system “<Protocol>://<Server-IP>/[Path/]<Filename>”

      > firmware local update activate

   Service- and Network Cards:

      > firmware slot-xx update system “<Protocol>://<Server-
         IP>/[Path/]<Filename>”

      > firmware slot-xx update activate

   Checking the progress of the download

      > firmware <local|slot-xx> update show
Web-Interface
Monitoring
SNMP-Traps


   Each Interface generates up/down Traps on changes of the
    operational status
       up – The Interface up and running
       down – The Interface isn‘t work correctly

   Each change in the alarm status generates a SNMP Trap
       One event can cause multiple traps
       Trap generation user-configurable per alarm
       Filtering by severity
       User-defined alarms in combination with alarm filtering can be
        used for alarm correlation
Alarms


   User-configurable severity
       DEBUG (=off), INFO, NOTICE, WARNING, ERROR, CRITICAL,
        EMERGENCY, ALERT
       Default = INFO

   User-configurable alarm message

   Set-Delay to suppress short events

   Clear-Delay to suppress fast repeating events

   Trap generation can be activated/deactivated for each alarm
    individually
User-defined Alarms

   Combination of other alarms by the logical operations „and“,
    „or“, „xor“ and „not“

   Example: „Two Input Signals in1 and in2“:
       Loss of one input only:

        Result: The service is still available, loss of redundancy
            Condition: in1 xor in2, Severity: WARNING

       Loss of both Inputs:

        Result: Service failure
            Condition: in1 and in2, Severity: CRITICAL
Common Alarms


   Hot-Swap (hs0)
     The Hot-Swap switch inside the throw-out handle has been
      activated (Card exchange or reboot).

   Temperature Alarms (temp#)
     The max. operational temperature of one of the sensors is
      exceeded. The number of sensors depends on the card type.
     The card will switch-off itself in case of a further increase of the
      temperature by 10°C. Reactivation of the card by using the hot-
      swap switch.

   NVRAM (pwr16)
     Backup battery voltage is too low. The configuration of the card
      will get lost in case of a power fail.

   Card Alarm (out0)
     User-defined condition
CPU-Alarms


   PSU Alarms (ps0, ps1, fan0, fan1)
       ps<0|1>      - Failure of the power source
       fan<0|1>     - Overload / Temperature

   Backplane Alarms (bpXX, XX = Slot-Number)
       The backplane alarms are activated, when alarm “out0” is
        activated on a card or in case of a reboot of the card.

   Input Alarms (in0..in3)
       Status of the digital Inputs, i.e. used for monitoring of the
        external fan unit
       User-defined Output Alarms (out1..out5) controlling the
        contact closures
CPU Interfaces

                          FALCON with redundant CPUs




                                    Alarms


   los2   - Carrier Loss eth0, Router down or LAN cable problem
   los3   - Hardware defect
   los4   - Redundant CPU has been removed
Management Connections

   Communication between CPU and Service- and Network-Cards uses internal
    Ethernet-Links (CPU: bph-xx, Service- or Network-Card: bpe-0 or bpe-1)

   Failure of the internal Management Connection
     Results
       Card isn’t displayed anymore in the “opsh” and the Web-Interface
       No impact on the active service of the card
     Possible reasons:
       Ethernet                  (check Link-Status, i.e. ping or Telnet)
       Central or local database (dbrestart)

                                Internal Management Connections
SDH Interfaces

   SDH = Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

   Hierarchies STM-1, STM-4, STM-16, ...

   STM-1 has 155.52 Mbit/s rate incl. all Overhead

   Max. 353.207 ATM Cells/s (~132Mbit/s User data)

   Physical Interface
       Electrical 75 Ohm, Connector DIN 1.6/5.6, max. 100 Meter
       Optical, Connector Duplex-SC, up to 80km
           ATTENTION: No external loop on L1.2 without attenuation
SDH Frame Format


                   SDH Frame
SDH OAM Flow

          SDH OAM (Operation & Maintenance) Flow
SDH Alarms


SDH
LOS       Loss of Signal
AIS       Alarm Indication Signal
SECTION
OOF       Out of Framing             A1, A2
LOF       Loss of Framing            A1, A2
LINE
AIS       Alarm Indication Signal    K2
RDI       Remote Defect Indication   K2
PATH
AIS       Alarm Indication Signal    H1, H2
RDI       Remote Defect Indication   G1
UNEQ      Path Unequipped            C2
PLM       Path Label Mismatch        C2
SDH Statistics


SECTION
OOF       Out of Framing
BIP       Bit Interleave Parity Errors
LINE
BIP       Bit Interleave Parity Line Overhead
REI       Remote Error Indication
PATH
BIP       Bit Interleave Parity Path Overhead
REI       Remote Error Indication
PDH Interfaces


   PDH = Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

   Hierarchies: E1, E2, E3 and E4 or T1, DS2 und DS3

   E3 has a rate of 34.368 Mbit/s incl. all overhead

   Framing: G.832 or G.751, Default G.832

   ATM-Cell-Mapping: ADM or PLCP, Default ADM

   Max. 80.000 ATM-Cells/s (~30.08Mbit/s user data)

   Physical Interface
       Elektrical 75Ohm, Connector BNC, max. 150 Meter
PDH Alarms & Statistics

PDH Status
LOS              Loss of Signal
LINE
OOF              Out of Framing
LOF              Loss of Framing
AIS              Alarm Indication Signal
RAI              Remote Alarm Indication



PDH Statistics
LCV              Line Coding Violations
FAS              Far End Alarm Signal
BIP              Bit Interleave Parity Line Overhead
FEBE             Far End Bit Errors
PE               Parity Errors
CPE              Path Parity Errors
ATM


   ATM = Asynchronous Transfer Mode

   PDH and SDH are used as transport layer

   Cell-based, Cell size is 53 Byte,
       5 Byte header, 48 Byte data

   Connection oriented
       VPI/VCI identifies all Cells of a data stream.

   For synchronization (Cell Delineation) cell are constantly send
       Cells without payload (Idle / Unassigned) have a VPI/VCI value
        of 0.0
ATM Alarms & Statistics

ATM Status
LOCD             Loss of Cell Delineation



ATM Statistics
LOCD             Loss of Cell Delineation
HEC corrected    Header Errored Checksum, corrected
HEC              Header Errored Checksum, uncorrectable
uncorrected
TX Cells         Number of transmitted ATM cells
RX Cells         Number of received ATM cells
Network Interfaces


     Transmit Direction   Receive Direction
DVB-ASI Input




                                     Alarms

   inloss<0|1>   -   Loss of the DVB-ASI carrier signal (270MHz)
   ininv<0|1>    -   Invalid input signal (no MPEG-TS or too high TS rate)
   nw0           -   Reed-Solomon errors on input TS (204 Byte only)
   swo0          -   APS between the inputs
Quad DVB-ASI Input




                                  Alarms


   inloss<0..3>   - Loss of DVB-ASI carrier (270MHz)
   ininv<0..3>    - Invalid input signal (no MPEG-TS or too high TS rate)
   nw<0..3>       - Reed-Solomon errors on input TS (204 Byte only)
DVB-ASI Output




                                     Alarms

   inloss<0|1>   -   Loss of ATM input (no Cells received within the CLIP)
   swo0          -   APS between the ATM inputs
   acr0          -   Failure of the adaptive clock recovery
   aal10         -   AAL1 FEC errors (correctable and uncorrectable)
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting SDH

   Status of the physical Interface in case of local LOS
      > atm ltm status
      ATM LTM SONET STATUS:
      SL INDEX   SECTION         LINE    PATH      ATM ..
      12 atm-0   LOS,LOF,OOF     AIS     RDI,PLM   LOCD


            Fields „SECTION“, „LINE“ and „PATH“ MUST
             be empty
         LOS        – no carrier
         LOF, OOF           – invalid framing
         Line AIS caused by local LOS
         Path RDI, PLM caused by local Line AIS
         ATM LOCD caused by local LOS
Troubleshooting SDH

   Status of the physical Interface in case of LOS on next
    Regenerator
      > atm ltm status
      ATM LTM SONET STATUS:
      SL INDEX     SECTION       LINE     PATH    ATM ..
      12 atm-0                   RDI      AIS


           Fields „SECTION“, „LINE“ and „PATH“ MUST
            be empty
         Line RDI caused by remote LOS
         Path AIS caused by local Line RDI
Troubleshooting SDH

   Status of the physical Interface in case of LOS at the far
    end
      > atm ltm status
      ATM LTM SONET STATUS:
      SL INDEX     SECTION       LINE    PATH      ATM ..
      12 atm-0                           RDI


           Fields „SECTION“, „LINE“ and „PATH“ MUST
            be empty
         Path RDI caused by far end LOS, LOF or OOF
Troubleshooting SDH

   Physical Statistics
      > atm ltm statistics
      SL   INDEX SECTION-OOF       SECTION-BIP   LINE-BIP LINE-REI
           PATH-BIP PATH-REI
      12   atm-0   202             13697         42038   91377770
           15225         4628333


          SECTION-OOF – local OOF events
          SECTION-BIP, LINE-BIP & PATH-BIP bit
           errors in received overhead sections
          LINE-REI & PATH-REI bit errors in line and
           path overhead reported by remote end
Troubleshooting ATM

   ATM Statistics
     > atm ltm statistics
     ATM LTM ATM STATISTICS:
     SL INDEX   LOCD HEC-CORRECTABLE HEC-UNCORR..
     12 atm-0    256           1973         2021


        Correctable HEC Errors:       single bit error
        Uncorrectable HEC Errors:     multiple bit
         errors
        Uncorrectable HEC errors will cause LOCD
Troubleshooting ATM

   Bit error ratios on the physical layer of up to 10-4
    can be corrected by AAL1 FEC (DVB-ASI only).

   If only one direction is failing, only bi-directional
    services will fail. Uni-directional service (ASI,
    E1/T1) are probably not affected.

   No errors in the statistics of the network interface
    does not guarantee error free transmission,
    because user data isn‘t checked.
Troubleshooting ASI-Input

   Checking the Status of the ASI-Ports

> video slot-04 port show

    VIDEO PORT INPUT
    SL     NAME ...         ADMIN-STATUS    OPER-STATUS
    04 dai-0-0                        up           down

> video slot-04 port status

    VIDEO PORT INPUT
    SL     NAME STATUS BITRATE MPEG-TYPE-DETECT
    04 dai-0-0 LOS,LOF       0             none

       No DVB-ASI input signal detected (LOS)
Troubleshooting ASI-Input

   Checking the Status of the ASI-Interface

> video slot-04 interface show

    VIDEO INTERFACE INPUT
    SL   NAME ...    ADMIN-STATUS         OPER-STATUS
    04   mt-0                  up                down

> video slot-04 interface status

    VIDEO MPEG STATISTICS
    SL NAME DISCARDED-PACKETS ...
    04 mt-0             109527

       The TS-Rate exceeds the configured limit
Troubleshooting ASI-Input

   Checking the Status of the ATM VCCs

> video slot-04 link show

    VIDEO LINK INPUT
    SL     NAME ...          ADMIN-STATUS     OPER-STATUS
    04 avc-0-0                         up              up

> video slot-04 link status

    SL    NAME ... TX-CELLS DROPPED-CELLS
    04 avc-0-0      1282022        156398

       The ATM link rate of the network interface is
        exceeded (overbooking)
Troubleshooting ASI-Output

   Checking the Status of the ATM VCCs

> video slot-05 link show

    VIDEO LINK OUTPUT
    SL     NAME ...          ADMIN-STATUS     OPER-STATUS
    05 avc-0-0                         up            down

> video slot-05 link status

    SL    NAME ... CELL-LOSS-STATUS RX-CELLS
    05 avc-0-0                 true 5642894

       No more ATM cells are received on the configured
        VCC.
        RX-Cells indicate, that cells were received in the
        past.
Troubleshooting ASI-Output

   Checking the Status of the Interface

> video slot-05 interface show

    VIDEO INTERFACE OUTPUT
    SL    NAME ... ADMIN-STATUS      OPER-STATUS
    05    mt-0               up lower-layer-down

       No data is being received from the ATM VCCs
        (lower-layer-down).
Troubleshooting ASI-Output

   Checking the Statistics of the AAL1 Statistics

    > video slot-05 interface statistics

    VIDEO AAL1 STATISTICS
    SL    NAME LOST-CELLS MISINSERTED-CELLS ...
    05    mt-0       1109                43

       Lost Cells:            single cell losses
       Misinserted Cells:     burst cell losses

    > video slot-05 interface statistics

    VIDEO AAL1 STATISTICS
    SL    NAME ... FEC-CORRECTED FEC-UNCORRECTED
    05    mt-0             17312             894

       FEC Corrected:         no errors in MPEG-TS
       FEC Uncorrected:       MPEG-TS affected by errors (TEI)
Troubleshooting ASI-Output

   Checking the Statistics of the Adaptive Clock Recovery

    > video slot-05 interface statistics

    VIDEO INTERFACE STATISTICS OUTPUT
    SL    NAME ... RESTARTS BUF-UNDERFLOWS BUF-OVERFLOWS ...
    05    mt-0           12             10             1

       Restarts:          Total number of ACR resets
       Buffer Underflows: Caused by interruption in the received cell stream
       Buffer Overflow:    Caused by changes in the TS rate

    > video slot-05 interface statistics

    VIDEO INTERFACE STATISTICS OUTPUT
    SL    NAME ... FEC-CORRECTED FEC-UNCORRECTED
    05    mt-0             17312             894

       FEC Corrected:              no errors in MPEG-TS
       FEC Uncorrected:            MPEG-TS affected by errors (TEI)
UNI Signaling
General Requirements


   UNI signaling is only supported by AF-SYS-IB controller cards

   On the controller card(s), the network interface(s) and the DVB-
    ASI service cards firmware version 2.9.x must be used

   The FALCON must be connected to an ATM Switch supporting
    UNI 4.0 and ILMI
Redundancy


   Redundant network interfaces
       Each network interface gets its own ATM address
       When both interfaces are connected to the same switch the
        ESI of the network interfaces MUST differ.

   Redundant controller cards
       Network interface in Slot #12 is served by Slot #2
       Network interface in Slot #13 is served by Slot #3
       Controller monitor each other. In case of a failure of one
        controller the remaing takes over control of ILMI and SVCs for
        Service Cards
ATM Address Formats


   The FALCON supports NSAP and E.164 numbering plans. The
    NSAP address format is prefered.

   The selector Byte is used to select a particular service:
       Upper Nibble:         Slot
       Lower Nibble:         Channel

   Alternatively an ATM Subaddress can be used:
       1st Byte:   Slot
       2nd Byte:   Channel
       3rd Byte:   Subchannel (structured E1/T1 only)
ILMI


   ILMI = Integrated Local Management Interface

   SNMP based protocol between ATM switch and Enddevice

   Main functionality is the Automatic Address Registration
       NetPrefix of the ATM switch + ESI of the Enddevice build the
        ATM Endsystem Address (NSAP)

   Changes of the ESI result in a new Endsystem Address for a
    device.
       ESI is preconfigured to a unique value
       In case of hardware exchange the ESI must be reconfigured
ILMI Implementation


   The ILMI daemon (ilmid) is running on the controller card

   Single Controller Card
       Controller serves both network interfaces

   Redundant Controller Cards
       Slot #2 is serving Slot #12
       Slot #3 is serving Slot #13
       The controllers are monitoring the state of each other.
           In case of a failure the remaining controller takes over
            control

   For accessibility by both controller cards the ESI is stored on
    the network interfaces.
IPoA


   First a LIS (Logical IP Subnet) must be created
                     > net ipoa lis create <IP-Address/Maskbits>
       This creates an interface “ipoa#” with the given IP address
       Multiple LISs can be defined

   ATMARP entries provide the mapping of VPI/VCI (PVC) or
    ATM-Address (SVC) to an IP-Address:
       PVC Entry:   > net ipoa config-pvc create bps-<0|1> <VPI> <VCI>
       SVC Entry:   > net ipoa config-svc create bps-<0|1> nsap <ATM-
        Addr>

   For IPoA the Selector must be set to “0x00”
IPoA using PVCs


   ATMARP Requests are send immediately over configured PVCs
    to resolve remote IP address

   PVCs can be configured for both interfaces in parallel
       Can lead to a mismatch in the mapping PVC <-> IP
       Solved by next ATMARP request
       Redundant controllers: VPI/VCI must be unique per network
        interface.

   IP packet with unresolved destination IP will trigger ATMARP
    request on all unresolved PVCs
IPoA using SVCs


   Static Remote IP address can be assigned to a SVC

   IP packet with unresolved destination IP will trigger Setup of all
    unresolved SVCs

   Single Controller:
       SVCs can be configured for both network interfaces (bsp-0
        and bps-1) in parallel

   Redundant Controllers:
       On Slot #2 SVCs using bps-1 are ignored
       On Slot #3 SVCs using bps-0 are ignored
DVB-ASI using SVCs


   SVCs are always originated on DVB-ASI Input channels to
    support P2MP connections

   The interface “mt-x” must be configured (Bitrate, AAL1-FEC)
    and the link (avc-x-0 or avc-x-1) must be switched off before
    the first SVC is established

   By default SVC redial is used, it can be disabled

   The ATM address can use addressing by the selector Byte or by
    the ATM subaddress

   On ASI-Output channels the acceptance for SVC connections
    must be enabled explicitly

								
To top