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"rebirth"        Humanism         Elizabethan Chain of Being
definition   popular philosophy            hierarchy
                of the period
        country of origin=Italy

        renewed interest in
         ancient Greek/Roman

        turning away from
         Medieval focus on God
         to focus on man and his
         intellectual abilities
Exploration & Discovery
In addition to exploring art, the
   Renaissance era was a time of
   territorial exploration and
   discovery. Knowledge was
   expanding in the areas of
   science, geography,
   transportation, building, etc.
Results of this exploration:
   *learning about other cultures
   *trading with others
   *economic & political links
   with others
Elizabethan tastes and attitudes

Art and Literature old+new
OLD = “rebirth” classics
NEW = humanism philosophy
*elaborate patterns
*complicated ornamentation & design

    verbal patterns for ear and eye

Artifice = word of praise, positive
   extension of the root word ART

Emphasis was on the human skill,
  ingenuity, ability to improve on
  the natural world.
Humanism Philosophy
            Root word= human

            Belief=we should celebrate and
             emphasize human abilities and

            VERY elaborate patterns,
             designs, decorations,
             embellishments etc.
                  (Today’s BLING!)

            IN EVERYTHING: literature,
             wallpaper, song/music, lace, art,
             gardens, clothing, architecture
 Elizabethan chain of being
*named for Queen Elizabeth

*complicated system of ranking for everything

*high end=all SPIRIT, no MATTER

*low end=all MATTER, no SPIRIT

*Man has a choice--Be more spiritual, more angel-like, or less
  spiritual, more inanimate.
 Renaissance literature
 highly popular
 all social classes attended plays
       rich in balcony
       poor on ground for penny (“groundlings”)
 long performances
 no artificial lighting or complicated stage decorations
 actors only
 theatres closed often because of disease
 Shakespeare’s theatre called The Globe
  Renaissance literature
Sonnet--in Italian sonneto = “little song”
*three types:   Italian (Petrarchan)
                English (Shakespearean)

*requirements: 14 lines
               10 syllables per line
               5 accented syllables per line (rhythm pattern)
               rhyme scheme (pattern of rhyme)
               two parts separated by a volta (“turn”)
Reading Renaissance sonnets

    read it more than once
    pay attention to the defined words
    look for use of figurative language
    paraphrase a quatrain at a time
           (or other line grouping as appropriate)
    locate the volta
      --change in rhyme scheme
      --strong mark of punctuation
      --shift in meaning
    state the theme/overall idea in one sentence
        Prose vs. Poetry
 Line breaks for    Condensed
  a reason            language
     patterns        LOTS of meaning
     rhyme            in a little space
     rhythm
     line length      HOW?
     stanza
     spacing        FIGURATIVE
    Figurative Language
 Simile             Comparison-- using as, like, than

 Metaphor           Comparison- not using above

 Symbol             One thing represents something

 Allusion           Reference to earlier work
                      reader is expected to recognize
                       Greek Roman mythology, Bible, folk tales
 Personification
                     Giving human characteristics
                      to non-human things

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