Docstoc

Display Interface and Monitor

Document Sample
Display Interface and Monitor Powered By Docstoc
					                                          PPT/2K804/04
                            Revision no.: PPT/2K403/02




Display Interface and Monitor
                                                                                                                                                          Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04



Video Display


• The video subsystem of a PC

  consists of two main

  components:

   – Monitor (or video display). The

      monitor can be either a CRT or an

      LCD panel.

   – Video adapter (also called the

      video card or graphics adapter).


    © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                            Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04



Video Display                                    (contd.)




•   How CRT Display Technology Works
    – CRTs consist of a vacuum tube
        enclosed in glass.

    – One end of the tube contains an
        electron gun assembly and the other
                                                                                                                                 When struck by the
        end contains a screen with                                                                                               beam, the phosphor
        phosphorous coating.                                                                                                     glows.
                                                                                                                                 The phosphor
    – When heated, the electron gun emits a                                                                                      chemical has a
                                                                                                                                 quality called
        stream of high-speed electrons that are                                                                                  persistence, which
        attracted to the other end of the tube.                                                                                  indicates how long
                                                                                                                                 this glow remains on
                                                                                                                                 screen.
      © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                          Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04



Video Display                                  (contd.)




• Refresh Rate

   – The speed at which the electron beam moves across the screen is

      known as the horizontal refresh rate (HRR).

   – The amount of time it takes to draw the entire screen and get the

      electron guns back up to the upper-left corner is called the

      vertical refresh rate (VRR).




    © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                          Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04



Video Display                                  (contd.)




• Phosphors and Shadow Mask

   – All CRT monitors contain dots of phosphorous or some other

      light-sensitive compound that glows red, green, or blue when an

      electron gun sweeps over them.

   – Each dot is called a phosphor.

   – Directly behind the phosphors is the shadow mask, a screen that

      enables only the proper electron gun to light the proper

      phosphors.

    © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                          Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04



Video Display                                  (contd.)




• Resolution
   – Monitor resolution is always shown as the number of horizontal
     pixels times the number of vertical pixels.
   – The horizontal refresh rate (HRR) defines the speed at which the
     monitor can draw one line on the screen.




    © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                         Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04



Video Display                                 (contd.)




  – While the vertical refresh rate (VRR) defines how many times per

     second the entire screen is redrawn.

  – These values relate to the number of vertical resolution lines, as

     follows:

         • HRR = (VRR) x (number of lines), so (number of lines) = (HRR) ÷ (VRR)

  – Given the HRR and VRR, you can determine the maximum number

     of lines of resolution a monitor can support.




   © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                          Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04



Video Display                                  (contd.)




• Dot Pitch

   – The dot pitch defines the diagonal distance between phosphorous

      dots of the same color, and is measured in millimeters.

   – Lower dot pitch means more dots on the screen, it usually

      produces a sharper, more defined image.

   – The dot pitch can range from as high as .39 mm to as low as .18

      mm.



    © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                           Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04



Video Display                                   (contd.)




• Interlacing
   – Some low-end Monitors produce interlaced images, means that
       the monitor sweeps or refreshes alternate lines of pixels on the
       display.

   – Interlacing is a way of creating eyestrain and headaches, and
       should be avoided.




     © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                          Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04




• Video Adapter Types

   – The signals that run to your monitor come from a video adapter

      inside or plugged into your computer.

   – The three ways computer systems connect to either CRT or LCD

      displays are as follows:

          • Add-on video cards.

          • Video-only chipset on motherboard.

          • Motherboard chipset with integrated video.



    © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                          Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04




• Display Adapters
   – Following shows some video standards:
          • MDA VIDEO STANDARD :

          • Resolution of 720x350,text-only (no graphics) standard.

          • Hercules Video Standard:

          •      Monochrome adapter capable of high resolution (720x348) text and
                graphics.




    © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                      Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04




      • CGA Video Standard :
      • Produces text and graphics in two modes; choose four colors from a
        palette of 16 with 320x200 resolution, or two colors with 640x200
        resolution.

      • EGA Video Standard :
      • Produces sharp text and graphics in 16 colors from a palette of 64
        colors with 640x350 resolution.

      • MCGA Video Standard :
      • It produces sharp text and graphics in several modes and 256 colors
        from a palette of 256,000 colors with 320x200 resolution.
      • Two-color display has 640x480 resolution.
      • MCGA also offers 320-200 resolution with 64 shades of gray.



© CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                          Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04




• Video Graphics Array
   – The VGA BIOS (basic input/output
     system) is the control software residing
     in the system ROM for controlling VGA
     circuits.
   – A standard VGA card displays up to 256
     colors onscreen, from a palette of
     262,144 (256KB) colors.
   – When used in the 640x480 graphics or
     720x400 text mode, 16 colors at a time
     can be displayed.
   – VGA outputs an analog signal, you must
     have a monitor that accepts an analog
     input
   – Pin Configuration of VGA Connector
    © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                          Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04




  – 1 Red out                               6 Red return (ground)                                                     11 Monitor ID 0 in
  – 2 Green out                             7 Green return (ground)                                                   12 Monitor ID 1 in or
                                                                                                                        data from display
  – 3 Blue out                              8Blue return (ground)                                                     13 Horizontal Sync out
  – 4 Unused                                9                                                                         14 Vertical Sync
  – 5 Ground                                10 Sync return (ground)                                                   15 Monitor ID 3 in or
                                                                                                                        data clock
• Super VGA
  – SVGA provides capabilities that surpass those offered by the VGA
    adapter.




    © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                          Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04




• VESA SVGA Standards
   – Standard for a uniform programmer's interface for SVGA cards
      known as the VESA BIOS extension (VBE).

   – VBE supports resolutions up to 1,280x1,024 and color depths up
      to 24-bit (16.8 million colors), depending on the mode selected
      and the memory on the video card.

   – Today, VBE support primarily for real-mode DOS applications,
      older games, and for non-Microsoft operating systems, that need
      to access higher resolutions and color depths


    © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                          Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04




• VGA Desktop Monitor
   – Digital signals from the operating environment or application
      software are received by VGA adapter.
   – The adapter runs the signals through a circuit called a digital-to-
      analog converter(DAC).
   – The adapter sends signals to three electron guns located at the
      back of the monitor's cathode-ray tube (CRT).
   – The intensity of each stream is controlled by the signals from the
      adapter.



    © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                          Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04




• LCD Displays
   – LCDs have low-glare, completely flat screens and low power
     requirements
   – The color quality of an active-matrix LCD panel actually exceeds
     that of most CRT displays.
   – Three basic LCD choices are available today on notebook
     computers:
          • passive-matrix color
          • active matrix analog color
          • latest-active-matrix digital
   – Desktop LCD panels are analog or digital active-matrix units.
   – The passive-matrix color panels are primarily found in low-cost
     notebook computer displays or in industrial-use desktop display
     panels.

    © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                           Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04




• Flat-Panel LCD Displays
   – LCD desktop monitors offer the following benefits over
     conventional CRT "glass tube" monitors:
   – Virtually 100% of LCD size is viewable area .
   – Small front-to-back dimensions free up desk space.
   – Removable bases on some models enable the screen to be
     mounted on a wall or stand
   – Low power consumption and less heat buildup make LCD units
     less expensive to operate.
   – Because LCD units lack a CRT, no concerns exist about
     electromagnetic emissions.
   – A number of LCD panels offer a pivoting feature, enabling the unit
     to swivel 90 degree.
   – LCD panels weigh substantially less than comparably sized CRTs.

     © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                           Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04



Changing a Video Driver

• To install a new video driver, just follow these steps:
   – Select Start > Settings > Control Panel and click the Display icon.
   – Click the Settings tab and then the Advanced button. This opens
     even more settings. Click the Adapter tab here.
   – The Adapter page shows the name of the video card and
     something about its features. Click the Change button.
   – The Update Device Driver Wizard will launch and search for
     updated drivers.
• Optimizing Video Settings
   – To modify your video settings you need to open Display
     Properties.
   – Clicking the Display icon in the Control Panel. (right-click on a
     blank spot on the desktop and select Properties from the pop-up
     menu.)
   – Then click the Settings tab.

     © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                          Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04



Changing a Video Driver (contd.)

• Making Advanced Changes
   – Setting page is a button labeled Advanced.
   – Click this button to get to additional pages for video
     configuration.


• Monitor
   – If you change your monitor, you usually only need to plug it in and
     start Windows 98.
   – The monitor will be detected and correctly installed.
   – If monitor is not correctly detected,Click the Change button and
     then supply the name of the manufacturer and the model.

    © CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute
                                                                                                                                                      Revision no.: PPT/2K804/04




                                                    Design & Published by:
      CMS Institute, Design & Development Centre, CMS House, Plot No. 91, Street No.7,
                                          MIDC, Marol, Andheri (E), Mumbai –400093
                                                           www.cmsinstitute.co.in

© CMS INSTITUTE, 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced, stored or emailed without the prior permission of Programme Director, CMS Institute

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Tags: Monitor
Stats:
views:22
posted:9/23/2011
language:English
pages:21