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					            Gulf Coast Carbon Center
           Industry-Academic Research Partnership




Assessment of options for carbon capture and sequestration
in an area of large sources and large geologic capacity
Geologic Sequestration Emplaces Dense-Phase
        CO2 in Pore Systems in Rock
                                   To reduce CO2 emissions
                                   to air from point sources..

                                   CO2 is captured as concentrated
         is currently burned and   high pressure fluid by one of several
         emitted to air            methods..
                                   CO2 is shipped as dense-phase
                                   fluid via pipeline to a selected,
                                   permitted injection site

                                   CO2 injected at pressure into
      Carbon extracted             pore space at depths
      from a coal or other         below and isolated (sequestered)
      fossil fuel…                 from potable water.
                                   CO2 stored in pore space
                                   over geologically
                                   significant time frames.
Who is the Gulf Coast Carbon Center?
        Industry Sponsors                  Hosted by:




                                            Staff




             New Members
           Sempra, Shell, TXU
Fayette Power Plant (LCRA/Austin Energy)
     Gulf Coast Carbon Center
          Collaborations
• DOE funded Southeast Regional Carbon
  Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) led by
  Southern States Energy Board
  – $4.9 M Phase II “Stacked Storage” = EOR+Brine
    storage
  – $35M “early” demonstration with Denbury Resources
    Cranfield Mississippi
  – Sponsored projects –SE US power companies
• DOE funded Southwest Regional Carbon
  Sequestration Partnership (SWCARB) led by
  New Mexico Tech
  – Project at SACROC hosted by KinderMorgen
  GCCC Strategic Plan 2007-2010
Goal 1: To educate the next generation of carbon
management professionals and regulators
Goal 2: To develop selection criteria for
commercial CO2 sequestration sites
Goal 3: To define an adequate and reliable
monitoring and verification strategy applicable to
long term storage
Goal 4: Evaluation of sources risk and liability
potentially associated with CO2 sequestration
Goal 5: Evaluation of economic potential of CO2 to
enhance oil and gas recovery in the Gulf Coast
Goal 6: Development of market framework and
economic models for CO2 capture and storage in
the Gulf Coast
Goal 7: GCCC service and training to partners
Goal 1: Educate the Next Generation of Carbon
 Management Professionals and Regulators

• Support from Jackson School of
  Geosciences
• Student training
• Post-doc program
• Internships and visiting scientists
  – Rebekah Lee - Oxford University –public
    acceptance survey
 Goal 2: Develop Selection Criteria for Commercial CO2
                  Sequestration Sites

                                                                GASIFIER SITING
                                                                    (IGCC)
Vanessa Nunez and Mark Holtz



                   INPUTS                OUTPUTS            CO2 SINK          INFRASTRUCTURE           SUPPORT              PERMITTING




                                                                                                                  AIR QUALITY
  FEEDSTOCK
                            DEMAND AND                                                  PUBLIC / PRIVATE
(AVAIL., TRANSP.                               GEOLOGIC CHAR.      TRANSPORTATION
                              MARKET                                                       SUPPORT
    COSTS)


                                                                                                                  PLANT SITE



     WATER                   COMMITED                                  TRANSMISSION        FINANCIAL
(AVAILABILITY, VOL.,                               RIGHTS
                            CONTRACTS                                     LINES           INCENTIVES             INJECTION SITE
  COST, QUALITY)




    Objective 2.1: Guidance Manual
   •Create a rigorous, comprehensive manual with pragmatic guidance in non-
   technical language on best practices for selecting a geologic sequestration site
   in brine-bearing formations (saline aquifers).
   •Guidance derived in part from assessments of sites for Texas FutureGen –
   two successful sites selected.
   Objective 2.2: Reduce current uncertainty in
   estimates of the capacity of brine formations
                  for CO2 storage
                                         Storage in coal
Participation in DOE Regional Carbon                                                                         Storage in brine
  Sequestration National Atlas
  www.natcarb.org
Development of advanced methods
for capacity assessment
                                                                    Storage in oil
     JeanPhillipe Nicot and
                                                                    and gas
     Srivatsan Lakasminisarihan


                                                                                                                Rebecca Smyth

                                                                                                                                 500
                                                                    800
                                                                               Injection rate
                                                                    700
                                                                                                                                 400




                                                                                                                                       Injection Rate (Mt CO 2/yr)
                                       Total Water Flux (Mm 3/yr)


                                                                    600

                                                                    500                                                          300

                                                                    400          Total water flux at 30 km
                                                                                                                                 200
                                                                    300                          Total water flux at 100 km

                                                                    200
                                                                                                                                 100
                                                                    100

                                                                      0                                                          0
                                                                          0   250               500           750             1000
                                                                              Time from Start of Injection (years)
                        Options for Estimating Capacity
                         • Volumetric approach: Total pore volume x
Risk-based Volumetric




                           Efficiency factor (E)
                           – Free CO2 volume in structural and stratigraphic traps
                           – Trapped CO2 residual phase
                         • Volume dissolved
                         • Volume that can be stored beneath an area
                           constrained by surface uses or by other
                           unacceptable risks – well fields, faults
                         • Maximum pressure as a limit on capacity
                         • Displaced water as a limit on capacity
                              Effect of Depth of Formation in Storage
Volume injected/pore volume
                                             Capacity




                         • Increased capacity with depth of formation
                           almost entirely due to higher safe injection
      Goal 3: Define an Adequate and Reliable
       Monitoring and Verification Strategy
         Applicable to Long Term Storage
• Objective 3.1: Evaluate existing approaches for
  monitoring and verification of CO2 storage in brine
  formations by assessing sensitivity, accuracy and
  precision of tools relative to plausible leakage
  signals.
• Objective 3.2: To Develop and evaluate innovative
  technologies for “Early Warning” detection of CO2
  leakage
• Objective 3.3: Test an innovative approach to
  monitoring and verification of CO2 storage by
  combining measurements of deformation with
  geomechanical modeling.
   Goal 3: Field Tests of Monitoring and Verification
                     Technologies
                 Proposed
                 East Texas                      Field project #2
                                Frio Test Site
                 FutureGen Site                  in process
                                                 Cranfield




   SACROC

Proposed
West Texas
FutureGen Site
       Frio Brine Pilot near Houston TX
                                                             Observation well
                   Injection well




             Injection Well    Observation Well
                           U-tubes
Downhole P and T            30
                             m
          RST logs


                                             Tubing hung
                                            seismic source
                                           and hydrophones
Early Warning Monitoring Options
                         •   Atmosphere
                               – Ultimate receptor but dynamic
                         •   Biosphere
      Atmosphere               – Assurance of no damage but
 Biosphere                        dynamic
                         •   Soil and Vadose Zone
    Vadose zone & soil         – Integrator but dynamic
                         •   Aquifer and USDW
  Aquifer and USDW             – Integrator, slightly isolated from
                                  ecological effects
                         •   Above injection monitoring zone
                               – First indicator, monitor small
                                  signals, stable.
        Seal
                         •   In injection zone - plume
    Monitoring Zone            – Oil-field type technologies. Will
                                  not identify small leaks
       Seal              •   In injection zone - outside plume
                               – Assure lateral migration of CO2
    CO2 plume                     and brine is acceptable
In-house software development for fault/fracture
               stability analyses
   Assessing Pressure and Tilt




                                           tip
    Goal 4: Evaluation of Sources Risk and
    Liability Potentially Associated with CO2
                  Sequestration
• Objective 4.1: Write a primer based on literature review
  on risk and liability potentially associated with CO2
  sequestration in the Gulf Coast
• Objective 4.2: To develop a predictive ability to evaluate
  the risk of leakage of a seal for a brine formation during
  and after injection.
• Objective 4.2: Assess the effectiveness of “phase
  trapping” nonwetting-phase residual saturation in
  lowering leakage risk in long term under various injection
  conditions.
• Objective 4.3 Assess the risk of CO2 storage in brine
  reservoirs to the quality of fresh water resources
      Non-wetting Residual Phase
         Trapping Mechanism
 Land surface
                                Capture




> 800 m



                      Seal = capillary or
                      pressure barrier to flow



                CO2
                              Injection Zone
Risk to Underground Sources of
Drinking Water    Capture Land surface




> 800 m


                   Hypothesized
                   CO2 leak path        Hypothesized
                                        Brine leak path



            CO2
                       Injection Zone
    Preliminary Analysis of Risk to
   Drinking Water from CO2 leakage




                                   U           1
                                               2
                 30                            3
                 20                            4

                 10                            5
                                               6
                  0
                                               7
                 -10 0   2     4       6   8
                                               8
                 -20
                                               9
Corrine Wong                 Sample
                                               10
Goal 5: Evaluation of Economic Potential of
CO2 to Enhance Oil and Gas Recovery in the
                 Gulf Coast

• Objective 5.1: To create more accurate
  predictions of oil-production and CO2
  usage for CO2 EOR floods in Gulf Coast
  clastic reservoirs
• Objective 5.2: Quantify the sequestration
  potential and feasibility of enhanced gas
  recovery potential for depleted gas
  reservoirs in Texas.
 Simplified Model Using Dimensionless Groups for Rapid
 Assessment of CO2 Flooding and Storage in Gulf Coast
                       Reservoirs

• Model can be applied
  to candidate Gulf                                       CO2 Injection and Production

  Coast reservoirs in                      4.00E+09
  BEG database –



                            Volume (SCF)
                                           3.00E+09
  limited data on many                     2.00E+09
                                                                                               Injected

  reservoirs                               1.00E+09
                                                                                               Produced


• Potential for use by                     0.00E+00
  small and big                                       0    25     50     75     100      125
                                                                 Time (days)
  operators alike to
  quickly identify best
  reservoirs
                          Derek Wood, Larry Lake
                                                                               Derek Woods Larry lake
        Improving Economic Assessment (EOR)




Mark Holtz and others
Decision Tree for Screening Candidate Reservoirs
                                                                         Bureau of Economic Geology

   Oil-
reservoir
data base                                                                           Candidate
                     Cumulative
                                                                                    reservoir
                     production
                     > 1 MMSTB

                                      Minimum
                                     miscibility
          Rejected                Pressure (depth,
                                    temperature,
                                    pressure, oil
                                      character)


                           Rejected                    Reservoir
                                                         depth
                                                        >6000 ft


                                            Rejected               Has reservoir
                                                                       been
                                                                   waterflooded?


                                                                                   Does reservoir
                                                                                    have water-
                                                                                       drive
 Bureau
    of
                                                                                    mechanism?
    Economic
  Geology
                                                                       Rejected
                                                                                                      QAc4748x
Recovery Efficiency of Sandstone Reservoirs from
    Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects (1980’s)
                                                  Bureau of Economic Geology

     7
                      Single well huff ’n’ puff                      Submarine fan
     6
                                                                     Barrier/strandplain

                                                                     Fluvial/deltaic
     5
                      14.5 %, Paradis, LA, Texaco
     4
                          17%, Little Creek, MS, Denbury (2004)
     3                        Quarantine Bay, LA, Chevron

     2


     1


     0
         0   6   12        18       24       30   36          42
                                                          QAc4237c
                 Recovery efficiency (percent)
CO2 sequestration capacity in miscible oil
    reservoirs along the Gulf Coast
                                Bureau of Economic Geology
Goal 6: Development of Market Framework and
Economic Models for CO2 Capture and Storage
              in the Gulf Coast
• Objective 6.1: Provide to the GCCC
  partners scenarios and analysis of the
  policy options under consideration at the
  State and Federal levels.
• Objective 6.2: To model possible
  evolutionary pathways for CO2 pipeline
  networks in the Gulf Coast and their
  impact on CO2 value chains
Model possible evolutionary pathways for CO2
pipeline networks in the Gulf Coast and their
        impact on CO2 Value Chains




                                     Assessment by
                                     Joseph Essandoh-Yeddu
                                     Energy Commission, Ghana
     Goal 7: GCCC Service and
       Training to Partners
•   Training tailored
    to sponsor
    requests
•   Public materials
•   Specific data sets
    developed for
    sponsors

             Workshop for operators
Gulf Coast Carbon Center

  www.gulfcoastcarbon.org

				
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posted:9/23/2011
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