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                       U. S. DEPARTMEI{TOF LABOR
                               JULIA C. LATHP.CP, Chi:{

                       TYPESAND PREPARATION


                       ANNA LOUISESTRONG,Ph. D.

                          MISCELLANEOUS SERIES NO.4
                                   Publication 14

                                    flaewr oi

                                        e of-.,i

                          GOVERNMEN'i" PRINTiNG OFRCE

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                        ftlotioru Picturqs

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      Hosurtt I oeNrAL '.                              Centrel
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                                                     fntertainmenls                                             .   PLAY
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         Health                                                                                       ornfrDano e LtvlEa


       tHtLo tIwELFARE

      xa9t(fiL    ..

        F R O N T I S PI E C E , - T Y P I C A L F L O O R P L A N O F A C H I L D - W E L F A R E E X H I B I T ( i ] E L ]
           I N R O C H E S T E R ) S H O W I N G C E N T R A L C O U R T , W I D E A I S L E , L A R G E S E CI i O N S

    Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                   TABLE OF CONTEI{TS.

      Letter of transmittal_ . - -.                                                    o
      Introductory.                                                                         I

      Scopeof thc exhibit-..                                                                8
      Use of traveling exhibits-                                                      10
      Wall panels                                                                     12
      lnfrrnt-weifareexhibit.. - .                                                 11-13
            Baby in the home.-..                                                      T2
            Exhibit on food                                                           13
            Directory of organizatious.- . _-.                                        l3
      Children's health conference- . -.                                            13-19
           Method of organization                                                      74
           Equipment needed-                                                           16
           Baby week.                                                                  16
           Permanent centers-State circuits-... _                                      17
      Exhibit on children's interests.- - -. -                                      19-23
           Itethod of organization                                                    19
           Home-playexh.ibit-..-.. -                                                  2I
           Supplementaryexhibits.. - _.                                               22
           .qtatc-wideexhibit. . -.                                                   22
          Rccreation survey-                                                          22
      Communitychild-welfarcexhibits.                                         --_-_ ZZ-g2
          Committee organization-    _                                          ... 24_Zz
                Finance, or wa,B anclmeans-                                           24
                Publicity....                                                         24
                Installation...                                                       25
                Hcspitality ancl expla-iners...... .                                 25
                Program....- -                                                      26
                Exbjbiting committees.                                              26
          Floor plans.                                                              27
          L-nit construction... .                                                 28-31
                Constructionof traveling exhibite.... -..                           28
               More permanent constructiorr-..... - -                               30
          Coltir scheme.                                                               nr
        ('oritroli:y exccutiveoffice
     Sugrr.s-1ions exhibitors.
                  for                                                             QO   AR

        \\,-rll crhibits-                                                         33-36
                T r,flprirro                                                           el

                 Ph,rtoqraphs             and iilustrations- - - - -
                 Tralsprre;rcies..- . ..         -                                   35
                    -          ,
          T i ^ i , , . ; r r 'r , - . r t o r l i i l , i t s
                                       .                                          36-42
                 ti,.t,.1..                                                          36
                 ),1,''. yl,',1,.1-. clcctric,ai
                         i:,;                  3.;rr1          clevices----          39

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                                            T.\BLE     OF CO].ITDNTS.

     Sugre:ti.u" ior eriribitols-tlontinued.                                           pagc.
        i . r ' i.r . -e r l r i l ' i r s . . . . . .
                       -                                                     .. "... . 42-4A
                  li:;t,jrrir,ors-                     ----i-.                           42

     Airor''rrccrhil,rit.                           .----,-..--.-----;--
                                                                        ::              ii
                                                                       hrunry 1,
     Appercli:r 1. Child-vrelfareexhibits owned by Siate cleirertmerrts,
       1915...                                                                          49
     Apperrdix2. Record of Chiidren'sHealth Conference----                              52
     Appendix 3. Table of weights ancl measures:                                        54
     Apperrciix4. Announcemert and eltry fortn of Scrttle Jurrior Exhibition.-- -.      55
     Appeirdix 5. Bureau's exhibit at Panama-PacificInternr,tionr,l Exposition-. -.     57


     Frontispiece, Typical floor plan of a chiltl-rvelfare exhibit (held in Rochester),
       showing centrai court, rvide aisie, large sections arranged lry subjects.
     No. 1. Children's Ileaith Conference. I)octor, nurse, parent, and child are sepr-
       rated from the general public b5'a glass rvall through \vhich the e\aminatioD
       can be seen.
     No. 2. exhibit.
     No. 3. Balauce bearn ancl slide iu home-play exhibit.
     No. 4. \Yall panel from the exhibit of the Chiltl'en's Buleau, shou,'ingthe use of
     No. 5. lYall panel from the exhibit of the Chiltlren's Bui'eau, shorving r.n arrallge-
       ment of photographs aDd strtemellts pested or r larger brtcligronnd whiclr
       forms the unit of construction,
     No. 6. \YaII panel from the exhibit of the Children's Brlreau, showing a conbi-
       natiou of photographs and cartoons.
     No. 7.       panel on infant care.
     No. B. Wall panel on infant care.
     No. 9. Wall panel on pren:rtai care.
     No. 10. Morlel macle for a chiltl-welfare exhibit by a vocational class in the
       Rochester public schools.
     No. 11. Dental exhibit comprising photographs, statements, Iantern lecture, clen-
       tal equipment, models of teeth, aDd a demonstratioD of dental examination,
       all in one 8 by 12 space, made by the Rochester Dental Society.
     No. 12. Starting a fly campaign at the Rochester Chikl-Welfare Erhibit.             A
       combination of " living exhibit " with charts.
     No, 13. A good exhibit for a librury in a community chilcl-welf;rre exhibiticn is
       a children's room in operation.
     Nc. 1,1.Diagram of rvall plnc.l coruposecl cards.
     No,15. Cross section of an iilusion. (Sitle vierv rvith cloor reuroved.)

    Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                             LETTER TRANSI{ITTAL.

                                      IJ. S. Dnr,.lRr'lrENTor.L-rnon,
                                     IT ashington,D. C., Iepternber 90, I g15.
          srn: r transmit herewith a bulletin on child-rvelfare Exhibits:
       Types and preparation, by Dr. Anna Lo'ise Strong, exhibit expert
       of the Clhildren'sBureau.
        -      _exhibithas pro'ed, in recent years, an important means for
       the rvidespreadpublication of facts. Especialry effective have been
       the uses of this form of publication in retation to chilcl and infani
       rvelfare' The children's BureaLr receives many letters of inquiry
       from organizations and individuals desiring to hold such exhitits;
       and it is in ansn'erto inquiries of this kind that this bulletin has been
         Ii espectfuli;' sribmitted.
                                                 Jur,u C. L.rrrrnoe, Chief.
         IIon. \\'rr,lmr   B. \\-rr,sox,
                            Becretaryof Labor,

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                        This page is blank in the
                          orieinal document.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University

              rn the past five years the.e have occur.recl nearly every part of
          tire united states three distinct series of exhibits ail deaiing with
          subjectswhich may be classecl     under the generar head of child wel-
          fare. The New York child-welfare Exhibit, heltl in January, 1gL1-,
          aimed to show all influencesaffecting the *erfare of children in the
          city of New York, and gave rise to a series of similar exhibits in
          Chicago, Kansas City, Northampton, St. Louis, Bufialo, Nfontreal,
          Louisville, Providence, I(noxville, Rochester,Ne'v Britain, peoria.
          Toledo, Seattle, lndianapolis, and Dublin (Ireland), and. many
          smaller places.
             The Philadelphia Baby-saving shorv, in -r\ray,1912,gave its atten-
         lion to one aspect of child welfare-that of baby .ui-irrg, covering
         this in much greater detail than had previo.sry been done. This
         show led not only to other baby-savingexhibits but to an enrichment
         of the seriesof larger child-welfare exhibits as far as the subject of
         infant welfare was concernecl. A further enrichment came from the
         Junior Exhibitions, held in cleveland and san Francisco, a display
         on a large scaleof objects   madebychildren; andfromthe bovs,hobbv
         sho*s of the Young Men's chi'istian Association, dealing with th;
         specialinterestsof adolescent   boys. The chilclren'shellth conference,
         consistingof a free physica-l  examination for child.en. held in linox-
         ville, Tenn., in september-october, the children,sbuilclins of
         the National conser-rationcongress,establisheda technique fo. still
         another feature of'a child-welfare exhibit. Each of these exhibits
        has been held at times alone and at other times as part of a larger
        child-welfare exhibit.
             The demand for arl exhibit may arise in a courmunity in many
        r/ays. A motherts club or infant-welfare station may desire some
        nerv and graphic way of teaching mothers the methods of infant
        cale: a settlementor ciub may wish to interest parents more vitally
        in the der,elopmentof the gron'ing boy and girl I several childrenis
        philrrnthi'opiesmay v'ish to explain their *'ork to the public or a
        gloui) of i',:presentativecitizens from all theseorganizationsmay feel

l-   Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       6                     CHILD.WELFABE     E\H]BITS.

      that the time has come for a grapliic presentation of all the condi-
      tions that affect the rveli-being of the cornmunity's children, so that
      the whole community may knon'those conditions nnd take action con-
      cerning them.
         Iror all these purposes the exhibit has proved a useful methocl
      of popular education. Comments of parents, teachers,and visiting
      nurses after the exhibit show conclusively that many homes are
      reil.ciredand influenced by the sectionsintendecl especially for par-
      crnts. rn securing community aims througir pubiicity the exhibit has
      shorvn itself equally effective. New laws or ne\y machinery fcr. larv
      enforcement or community administration har-e been secured by
      praetically every large child-n'elfare exhibit. A comprehensive
      exhibit of this kind should combine both the appeal to the parent
      and that to the citizen, using each to reenforce the other. rn this
      respect it offers a peculiarly democratic approach to the problems
      inr-oh'ed in the welfare of the child, since it takes as point of depar-
      ture not the ('poor child tt nor the ,. bad boy," but all children, ieading
      the parent to that interest in communitv action through which alone
      his o'wn child may be safeguarcled      and ilie citizen to i knowledge of
      the individual problems of hereility, ignorance, and poverty on the
      adequatesolution of which dependsthe community,s future.
         At first only the larger cities felt able to undertalre the expenseof
      a child-welfare exhibit, which variecl from 980,000in New york to
      $3,000 or 94,000 in Toledo, Seattle, and Rochester, and even in a
      small community like Northampton, Mass., rvas as high as $g4?.
      But with the improrement of exhibit technique ancl n'ith the con-
      struction of many trar.eling exhibits owned by Federal and state
      authorities or by national organizations practically any comrnunity
      can no\tr hold sometype of child-rrelfare exhibit {or very little cost.

                         SCOPE OF THE EXHIBIT"
         The first thing to be decided when a demand arises for an exhibit
      dealing rvith questionsof child welfare is the scopeand exact pur-
      pose of the exhibit.
         fs the exhibit to be part of a larger eiposition ? It so, it will be
      conditioned in the choice of its field bv the classification already
      made by the exposition authorities. EJen if no external situation
      compels the lirniting of the field, reasons of economy, whether of
      time, money, or effort, may make it wiser to undertake only one part
      of the 'ast subject of child rvelfare and cover that part with greater
         Care in naming is desirable if the exhibit is to reach its proper
      audience. The tendency to use the title '. child-rvelfare exhibit ,' for
      s'rail exhibits sliich deal with the care of babies,horne play, child-


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                 Cr{ILD-WELFAREEXTIIBI.IS.                        g

           licl1'ng agencies, or any one partial aspect of the rvhole question of
           tht ciiild's rvelfare leacls to rnany misconceptions. rb is far better
           tr-, give these exhibits more specific names, such as infant-welfare
           eshibit, baby-saving show, child-heiping exhibit, children's healtir
           cc,nference and exhibit. ,\n exhibit n-hich covers a large variety of
           subjects of special ilterest to parents, such as infant care, foocl,
           play, interests, and ideals, b't whicir does not include any refererrce
           to conmunity probler:rs. may perhaps be designated by the genernl
           name of " child-*'elfare exhibit," altho'gh er-en in this case a.tho
           child in the home " rvould seem a better name. If the name of a
           citv or state is usedas a prefix,as '( Kansascity chilcr-\velfareEx-
           hibit," the publichasa .ight to expecta n'eli-rouncledpresentationof
            the l'hole qrrestion the welfare of tlie communitl':schilclren,in-
            cluding health, education, recreation, and the many _problemsthat
            arise in dealing with the defectir-e,dependent,ancl delinquent chilcl.
            Further description of manv difrerent types of exhibits suitecl to
            varying needswill b.egiven later: here it rvill be sufficientto note the
           special situations rvhich call for special kinds of exhibits.
               If the main purpose is to arouse parents to a knorrledge of thc
           physical needs of their own children and the way to care for those
           needs,a children's health conferencecombined rvith a sinall exhibit
           on the care of the baby and the preparation of food is perhaps the
           rnost direct method of accomplishingthis end. A conference       requires
           for its fullest success cooperation of the countv medical ro"i"t;r,
           tlie local women'sorganizations,and the local authorities on domestic
           science. rf, on the other hand, the attention of parents should be
           di'ected torvard the mental and social.neeclsof the grorving chilcl,
           a junior exhibition or exhibit of children's interests is perhaps the
           most desirabie type of exhibit. A playground or schoor or any
           orgrrnizrtion u'hich has direct access a large number of chilciren
          may mrrnagesuch an exhibit, but for a many-sided display it is weli
          to inciucle other organizations dealing with the interests and ideals
           of chiidren. such as the library. the young Nren,schristian Asso-
          gilt-ro", the Young I4/omen,sChristian Association, the Camp X.ire
          Girls, the Boy scouts. and anv boys' and girls' clubs that may exist.
          A combination of a childrents health conferenceand a junior exhibi-
          tion might make a fairly comprehensir-e      exhibit on (6the child in the
          home," the purpose of which would be to stir parents to a knowledge
          o-fwhat they might do to encouragethe well-rounded developmentof
          their children.
              If,,it is desired not only to help individual parents, but
          to secureneededlegislation or comrrunitv action for the n'elfare of
          children, then the exhibit must be more extended in scope. rt may
          be a baby-saving shou', emphasizing the nceil of birth registration,
          proper inspection of milk, a child-hygiene crivision in the boaril of
          health, or similar needs,and using tire chi1,I'en,shealth conference

      Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
      10.                   cllrLD-wELltARE   EXrJrBrrs.

      r-s one feature among many othels. Or it rnrry be a child-welfare
      exhibit, mocleled the lines of the lzrrgegeleral exhibits held under
      that name and containing divisions on health, schools,r'ecreation,
      rnoral and religious training, 1-.hilanthropy,   lrrrv. industritrl condi-
      tions, etc., and shorving the rvork of many crganizations as 'nell as
      many needs,such as r ne$' child-labor ltrw, more plavgrounds, chil-
      rf,rentswork in the library, or rnedical inspection in the schools.
         An exhibit on a specific subjcct, intencledto be of use to parents,
      cln well be held by any woman's club, settlement, church, play-
      ground, school.or similar olgtrnization. On the other hand, a com-
      nunity child-welfare exhibit, designeclto more the community to
      action, shoulclinclude on its governing committee representativesof
      a-ll agencies denling with children-the scirools,  the plnygrounds, the
      board of health, the various      philantlrropies, as rvell as rnembers
      representing, perhaps unofficirlly, nny lrrrge leligious or inclustrial
      groupings rvhosecooperationis needecl      for perrilrnent lesti-lts.

                     USE OF TRAVELING             EXFIIBITS.

         One of the first suggestionsmtrde rrhen a chilcl-u'elfnre exliibit is
      pianned is to save expense collecting as rrruny exhil:its es possible
      from National and State sources. To meet this clemandmany State
      universities and State health clepartinentshar-e prepared tra'r'eling
      exhibits, usually available for the cost of, transportation. Many
      na'uional   educationaland philanthropic organizations    have trriveling
      exiriLits, n-hich they loan for a ncrninal rental.
         The list of State depaltments-State herrlth departtnents,exten-
      sion departments of State universities and of Strrte rgricultural col-
      leges-owning exhibits on January L, l-915,rvill be found in Appen-
      dix 1. Progless in this field is so rapicl that no local cammitteeneed
      liesitate to inquire of State departmentsn'hich c-[c   not appear in this
         Thc extent to which it is rvise to make use of borrorveclexhibits
      is a question to be consiclered"   seriously by the local executire com-
      rriittee. The advantagesare plain. The;r save a heavy expenseof
      photographs,cartoons.and lettering, and they are probably designed
      rvith more care and n'-ith access a wider range of facts than ctrn be
      securecl a local committee in the rush preceding an exhibit. But
      the disadvantagesare equally plain. They rarely apply I'ith great
      fcrce to peculiarly local needs; they fail to arouse local effort and
         An exhibit clesignecl    primaril;t for parents may venttire to bor-
      rorv rill its n'all charts on infant care from someatrtholitative sollrce.
      Local interestsill be -qu{ficientlv   excitetlbv the exatninltion of L-'cai
      c'hilch'en  and the coilectionlocallv of ihe babv's clothing, bathing

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                  CI{ILD.WELts.C,RE   EXiIIBITS.                   11
             anrl , ar,rangcrnents,and local exhibits on food antl home
            l''l tr.i"
                 liut in a larger child-welfare exhibit. rvhich aims to secul.ecom-
            nrrrnity action, it is a seriousmistake to send out hastily for collec-
            tioru of borron'ed exhibits, good these may be. The local
            e-rhibit should first be carefully planned under appropriate subjects
            rrnclborrorred rnaterial used sparingly and only n'hen it will give
            forcs and n'ider background to important local facts. The .r'ork of
            Iocrrl committees,eyen when cr.ude,is of such eclucationalval,-re  that
            it is often more to the cornm'nity than tlre technicallv better
            work of outsiders. This is not rnerely because contains local frrcts
            and catch'n'ordsancl describeslocal needs, but becarr-se process
           cf collecting those facts. analyzing them, stating them graphicrlly,
            and coming to conclusionsconcerningthem, may mean more for the
           community'sfuture. l-hen done by a local committee,        than the por-
           trayal of the facts in the most effectiveexhibit form. A committeeon
           health, for instance.or on recreation,or on child labor comprises
           many factions with many vierrsl its memberspossess        many isolated
           bits of knowledge. Lrnder the pressureof a coming exhibit factional
           discussion    must be brought to someconclusion;the bits of knowledge,
           more or lessvague before,must be rveldedinto a community program,
           clear and definite, which the committee is rvilling to present to the
           public. rf this is carefully clone,then through this cornmitteework,
           l-reforea single wnll exhibit is lifted or a single moclelin place, the
           chiid-welfare erhibit mav h:rve more than justified itself.

                             I.NFANT-WELFARE            EXHIBIT.
              Pclhaps the simplest and most easily planned type of exhibit is
           tirc :,iulll infant-weifare exhibit held in connectionwith Sttrte and
           corinir- fairs, baby contests,or children,s iiealth conferences. Such
           an exhibit ila-v be designedmerely to gir-e information to the mothers
           of a co'rmnnity or it rnay hare the more definite cbject of arousing
           interest in a p.oposed infant-rrelfare station or chilcl-welfare cenier.
           rt 'ray be heicl bv an infant-rrelfare committee of a woman,s chrb,
           by a settlement,a r-isiting-nulse association. similar organization,
           and may be planned to influence a small torrn, a country clistlict. a
           city neighborhood,or an entire city.
              The organization of an exhibit intended to incl'cle alr the acti'ities
           of a large cit;' ir-ill be consiclerecl
                                                later under:the heacrof cornmunity
           child-ivelfare exhibits. For smaller exhibits. held by an infani-
           r,velfarecornrnitteeor association.   little forrnal organization is neces-
           snry. Each main subdivision of the exhibit should be placed in
           charge of an individual or a small committee; these are nameci ancl
           described later. Questio's of place, publicity, lect'res, and bor-

      Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       12                                    ExrrrBrrs.

       rowed exhibits may or may not need attention by special committees
       or designated individualsl frequently in srnall exhibits such ques-
       tions already have beendeterminedby the circurnstances which called
       the exhibit into beins.
                                     WALL PANELS.

          The questionrnust be decidedrvhetherthe panelsshall be borrowed
       or shall be prepared under rnedical direction. Living demonstra-
       tions and actual objects form bv far the most efiective part of any
       exhibit. These can be prepared locally, horvever,with better r:esults
       than attend any traveling exhibit. Wall panels, on the other hand,
       while in many ways the least effectir.epar.t of an exhibit, &re ex-
       pensive and difficult to prepare, but they a desirable addition
       and one rvhich with ad'i-antage   can be loaned again and again.
          If it is decided to borrorv exhibit material in the form of wall ex-
       hibits, application may be made to the local State board of health,
       or the State university, rnany of 'which possess    lending exhibits on
       infant vrelfare. (SeeAppendix 1.) The Children's Bureau also sends
       out small collections of 'rcall panels and lantern slides on this sub-
       ject, though they in no senseform a completeexhibit or a substitute
       for local efiort. The follorving organizationshave traveling exhibits
       on infant welfare: The Association for the Study and Prevention
       of Infant Mortality, 1211 Cathedral Street, Ilaltimore, Md.; the
       Russeli Sage Foundation, 130 East Twenty-secondStreet. New york
       City; and the National Child-Welfare Exhibit Association, B0 East
       Forty-second Street, \'ew York City.
          rn caseit is decidedto prepare the panels locally with the advice
       of the local society doing infant-welfare work or of a committee of
       physicians, various methods of preparation, dependent upon the
       amount of money to be expended,may be used. (see sectionon'lyalt
       Exhibits, p. 33.)
         Among the many forms of locally prepared exhibits which are
       effectivewithout being costly may be mentioned the follorving:
                                 BABY IN THE HOME.
       IPr€pareal local socictydoing infant-welfarework or by women'sorganizations
         clothing   for baby.
         Sleeping arrangements.
         Bathing arrangements.
         Toys-plain, unpainted.
         I3aby killers-long-tubed bottles, flies, etc.
         Scalesfor weighing baby.
         Lloocland bad earriages.
         Any good ideas for the care of babies.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                  CIIILD-WELFAREEXITIBITS.                                          13

        I''r,1 1]1i'esliibit local stores would lend articles, but the choosing
    ,i [rrr,,:r.:a.ticles should be done under a responsible committee of
    1,t,r1,lccloing infant-welfare work. The exhibit might profitably shorv
    lr,,rnr-mrde outfits at minimurn cost, as well as good ideas for families
    c,f f,iir incorne.
                                   EXI{IBIT ON FOOD.

       lUnder   local commlttee   of chllthcn's   speelalists   antl alomestic-scicree teachers.l

       (a) Ilodification of miik---objects and demonstrations.
       (D) Demonstration of preparing various foods for young chilclreir.
       (c) Right food for babies9 months to l-8 months. (Sample rneals
    for one day.)
       (d) Right food for children 18 months to 2 years.
       (e) Right food for children 2 to 3 years.
       (l) Good school lunches.
      (g) An exhibit of a good and a bad Saturday-night family market
       (A) A good and a bad grocery, preferably prepared by the local
    food inspector or the housewivestleague.

                          DIRECTORY OF ORGANIZATIONS.

      Bach organization dealing with babiesshould be allowed one panel
    on which to state, in briefest possibleform, the preciseplace it occu-
    pies in the infant-welfare work of the comnunity. This shourd be
    done under the supervision of a comrnitteecomposedof representa-
   tives of all the organizations.
      Every organization planning an infant-welfare exhibit should con-
   sider the possibility of holding a children's health conference ir.r
   connectionwith it; in fact it may prove advisable to make the con-
   ferencethe central feature of the exhibit. The organization of such
   a conferenceis so important that it must be consideredat Ereater

                 CHILDREN'S HEALTH                         CONF'ERENCE.
      An activity frequently combined x'ith an infant-welfare exhibit,
   1.,.t important enough to deservemore detaiied description, is the
   chil'l.enrs heaith conference,consisting of a free physical examina-
   ti',rr t't' children under 15 yearsof age. A record is given eachparent
   contairiing a statement of the childts condition and any general
   lclr-ice thrrt seernsneeded regarding diet, exercise, and. general
   Ir.gi311g. A conferenceof this type formed the central feature ot
   tirr' esliibit of the children's Bureau at the panama-pacific Expo-
   sitr,.n.:ln Ijlancisco.1915. (Seeillustration No. 1.)

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       l4                   CTTILD_WELFARE    EXIIIBITS.

                conferenceis not a clinic, in that no sick children are ad-
       mitted and no treatment or prescriptions given. lYhere there is need
       for treatment the case is referued to the fanil;r physician or to a
       clinic, or the type of specialist to be consulted- indicated on the
       record. The veight and height of each child is cornparedwith the
       ayeragefor its age. (SeeAppendix 3.) ^\or is it a ('contest,"since
       children aie not graded or scoreil on a, percentagebasis-a method
       which would require the presenceof several specialists-and conse-
       cprentlyno comparing of children is possible. The kind of children
       that come,the needswhich are folrnd) and the type of acl'r'ice     given
       are indicated in the set of typical records founcl in Appendix 2.
          The pai'ticular method of this confercncewtrs foreshadon'ed thein
       many local child-welfare exhibits in rvhich locai infant-n'elfare or-
       ganizaiions offered a free physical examination for all babies as a
       part of their exhibit. It rvas not, ho$'ever, r corlsciouslydistinct
       plan of baby-savingrrorl< nntil the National ConservationExposi-
       tion in Knoxville, Tenn., September-October',      1913, r,i'herea chil-
       dren's building'was managedby a comrnitteecomposed representa-
       tives of the Childrents   Bureau, the Russell Sage Foundation, the
       National Child-Welfare Exhibit Association, the National Ohild-
       Labor Committee, and other National, State, and locnl organiza-
       tions. As a contribution to the joint exhibit the Russell Sage
       Foundation gave the servicesof l{iss Ellen C. Babbitt, who planned
       and organized the Children's Heaith Conference,which rvas later
       conductedby Dr. Frances Sage Bradley. It was in continuousoper-
       a,tion for two months, and d.rew children not only from Knoxville
       but from remote countrv and mountain districts. It rvasimmediately
       follol.ed by similar conferencesin Peoria. Atlanta, Toledo, and
       Dublin (Ireland), all held in ccnnection n'ith locnl child-weifare
       erhibits. The Dublin conferenceattracted rvide attention and gave
       prcmise of spreading the movement to other countries in Europe
       hacl it not been for the outbreak of the war.

                           METHOD OF ORGANIZATION.

          In some of the cities children were examined by r, single out-of-
       to'wn physician, paid for the eniire time; in others by membersof a
       committee of the Iocal medical society. Both of these rnethods
       have their strong and weak points. The examination by local
       ph;,'sicianscan be conducted for less expense ancl helps to arouse
       the interest of the local raedical society in infant welfare. It is not,
       howerrer,adapted to conferences    lasting more than a short time, and
       it raises several problems. Many good children's specialists have
       had little experience in giving simple advice helpful to mothers.
       The local meciical societv is l-ithcut cloubt the organization which

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                          CITII-D_WEI-FARE EXITIBITS.                      15

      shouldtake part in callins the ccnference   a'tI in directins its noiicv.
      deciding after careful consiileration rvhether the exarninitio". ,t uii
      be mnde by its own members o' shali be *nder the charge of a
      phvsician from another city.
         The conference  held in Jacl<sonr-ille,
                                               November.-December,    1914,in
  . connectionwith the rrnnual neeting of the American public Health
     Association, deser'es detrrilecldescrlption" since it combinessome of
     the good points of both methods. rt was organizeclat the request
     of the city boarclof heaith ancl the connty meclicalsociety.b't crr-
     ried on uncler n phvsician rrith pr.e'io.J experience in conference
     u-ork but 'cvitn- local connections,
                      no                   who camethree weeirsbefore the
     opening to organize the n-ork. Local phvsicirns ancl clentistsgaye
     'alrr-ableassistance. the 'work rvas too gr.eatto be hanclleclblione
     person. Three school nurses .vere p't at the clispostrlof the con-
     ferencefor the entire tine.
        A conferenceof this type the organization of four com-
        1. A committee of the medical society. *-hich ffcnres the eq'ip-
    ment ancl go\-ernsthe policv of the conference.     decicles the p1"*,
    hours, age limit. and form of recorcl.
        2. A committee of the clental society.n-rrichsecllresthe equipment
    and takes chargeof the examinationoi chilclren's       teeth.
        3: A publicity committee,on rrhich are representecl    the press, the
   business    men's orgrrnizations.anclthe rromen' rt is isneciallv
    important tirat information about the conferencebe rridelv ,rrr"u,i
   among mothers. This can sometimesbe clone partly th.ougl tlre
        4. ,l coinmittee on exhibits. rf the confe;:ence part of a larger
   exhibit with its own committees,special committee. itr th. confer-
   enceon publicitv and exhibits rroulclbe unnecessarv.
       rn Jacksonville the exhibits connectecl   with thl conferencewere
   prepared under a committeecomposecl the state chairman of pub-
   lic health of thc Federationof ryoinen's clubs. the presicle't of the
   Jaclrsonville            Club, and the president of the parent Teachers,
   Association. This cornmittee clesignatecl     the cliffe.ent rvornen'sor-
   ganizations. which, under the direction of the physicians in charge.
   prepared exhibits on baby feecling,clothing. tqvs, anil sleeping and
   bathing arrangements.
       rYith enihusiastic local cooper.ation most of the equipment of the
  conferencecan be bon'ol.ecl or maclebv various lro-"irra organiza-
  tions. The hall can usually be obtained free ancl should allow ampre
  spacefor the examinatio' of ser.eral    children and a place from which
  the public can seervhat is going on, preferably through a glass wall,
  without coming near enough to interfere. rhis is o] ,p"fiol varne.
  as one of the main objectsof the conference to eclucaie public
                                                   is             the

Provided bv the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University

         16                   CI{ILD-IVELFARE   EXITIDITS.

         in the r-aiueof a periodic exanination macleb..,' physician, not only
         after the child has entereclschool, but also before school age. In
         m8"nvcommunities the irnportance of meclicai inspection for school
         children has lonE been recognizedIbut wirile a ferv infant-*'elfare
         stations now include the oversight of cirildlen betteen 2 and 6 years,
         this peliod is neglectedin most communities. The children's healih
         conferenceshows the importance of an examination for children of
         all ages. in order that bacl tenclencies rnay be c'riscorerecland cor-
         rected l-.eforethey becomeserions defects. In tire Jacksonville eon-
         ferenc,e tire salary of the organizer ancl the printing of the records
         formed almost the oni;' expense.

           The eqriipment needed fol the examination of the chiltlren is as
           Desli for exrmining phl-sician.
           Table for esaminations.
           Table for scales.
           Scale for infants.
           Scale and measuring rod for older children.
           Tape measures.
           Pad for examining table.
           Stork sheetingfor examining table.
           Supply of sheetsfor both tables.
           Lavatory or substitute.
           Paper towels, soap,bichloride tablets, etc.
           Electric flasher.
           Tongrie depressors.
           To5's (to amusefrightened children).
           Summarl,-sheetfor ph.ysician's   orvn lecord.
           Helpful literature for distribution.

                                     BABY WEEK.

            Follon'ing the lead of New Yolk Citv ancl Chicago, r-ariotts cities
         during the last year hare been setting asicle one x-eek. usually in the
         late spring or early surnmer. fcr a speciai celebration in honor of
         the balry. during which er-erv phase of infant-n'elfare work is thor''
         oughly advertised. There is no rea.sonwhy smaller towns rnC conntry
         districts should not also har-e a " baby weeli," rising anv of the many
         features aclopted in the hrger cities. Anong the spocirrl features
         'wliich hale been used on tirese occasions are ttrie folloirinc:

    Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                           CII]LD_\VEI-F,IE]]   EXIIIBITS.                    T7
        special stories in alI the rier','sira1;el's before a'd d, baby
        rllurninated signs.billboard Posters,   l'indou- cnrcls.
                                                               streamers. ancl      I
     other forrns o{ poster adrertisine.
        Lantern slicles exiribiteil between films in all the motion-pict*re
     honses. Educational litcreture distributed by school chiidre^.
        Leaflets on piroirerclotiring distributed b;, department stores in ali      I

     pacliages  containinginfant wearllenflets on the cirreof baby,sbottle
     inserted in dr'g-store pacliages; tags on pure milk wired to milk
     bottles by the rniili deaiels.
        Special advertising of babS'goods by many large fii.rns.
        Lectures in a central hall and in various districts.
        Flag-distribution da;r (first introducecl i. trre pittsburgh baby
     n'eek). A special pennant is taken to each home in rrhich tf,ere is a
     bab.' under a ye&r old and fastenedin the l-indow. At the sametime
     each mother is gir-en an enr-elopcof liter.ature on the care of the
        House-to-house   can'ass for funds for trre infant-welfare actir.ities
    of the city. This n'as done in the crricago baby week. The city was
    districted and assignedto various wornen'sorganizations. Contribu-
    tions, evenof 5 cents,were n-elcomed, the main object .vas to inter-
    est the entire city in supporti.g the rvork for babies. A daily
    luncheon was held to report progr.ess.
       A bab5'rveek   may n-eil include an infant-werfareexhibit and chil-
    dren's health conferenceheld in some centrar place, or a children's
    liealth conference ma5' be adlertisecl by many of the publicity
    methods of baby week. The diile'ence bet'-een these tn'o plans ii
    melely one of naming nnd emphasis.
                  PERMANENT      CENTERS_STATE         CIRCUITS.

       rn sei'eral communitiesinfant-n-elfareexhibit, or health confer-
    ences, hale lecl to tire establishmentof permanentcenters. rn oregon
    a baby health contestand exhibit. held at the state fair, lecl to a
   manent parents'educationalbureau. rn rorva it is hopedthat tlie baby
   health contestsand conferences. the organization of rrhich the
    strrte uni'e'sity sencls ph.vsician,
                               a              will leid to.a seriesof chiltl-
   rrelfare centers,  with regular examinationsof children. rn New yorir
   tlie exhibit of the State depar.tment health is sent out in accordance
   '-ith a definite polic.v. and has led in many casesto local infant-
   rrelfaie stations. The work of the infant-welfare station, supple-
   mented bv instructiye work by nurses in the home. has proved the
   rnost successfulmeans fol the cirre of those babies ghoie parents
   can not alIord such regular carefrorn a pri'rte
                                                        llh.ysician. Tlie baby
   is blouglit l'eelily to the station t'o be l-eighed; ihe mother is encour-

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
      18                                  ExgrBrrs.

       aged in eyery way to nurse the baby I rrhen this is impossible the
       feeding is prescribed by the physician, ancl the mother is taught in
       her orvn home by the nurse how to prepare the feedings. Many
       communities, especially srnall towns ancl rural communities, have
       not as yet, however,been able to support such stations, and somesub-
       stitute such as one of the other forms of permancnt stations must be
          The Parents'Educational Bureau, in Portltrnd, Oreg., is operated
       by the State Congressof trIothers in three roolns in the courthouse
       placed at their disposal by the county commissioners. Although its
       origin was a baby contest,the bureau has dropped not only all prize but even the name of contest,finding that it detracted fr:om
       the effectiveness the work. The bureau is not an infant-n'elfarc
       station, as each baby is not brought back every week. It lays em-
       phasis on the r.alne of a completephysical and mental examination,
       at least once, and preferably at intervals for every baby in the
         LTsually applications are made sereral weeks ahead, as only 15
       to 20 children can be cared for in the one session weeli, which lasts
       from 1 till2.30 p. m. Six doctors,a dentist, and fi.vegeneral workers
       come for this period-all as rolunteers. The children range in age
      from 6 months to 6 years, but in communities where there is no
      efficientsystemof medical inspection to care for school children, the
       age rnight profitably be extended. The mental examination is made
      first, then the generalphysical eramination, and. finally, the examina-
      tion of the noseand teeth. Four doctors are engagecl the physical
      examinations. in order to keep pace with the tirne taken by the
      special tests. In two 5rears   z.ziO cnlaren har e been examinecl.
         The Parents' Educational Bureau also maintains a series of lec-
      tures on infant care,a supply of free literature collectedfrom various
      sources,  ancl an exhibit of an inexpensir-e layette, rvith free patterns
      for yonng mothers. A 25-centregistration fee for each baby corers
      all incidental charges except the salary of a clerical rvorker, rvho
      ans\\-ersthe teiephone. rnakes appointments, ancl attends to other
         Obviously, in many rural counties,the continuoustime even of one
      rvorlrer can not at oncebe securecl. tr'or such countiesthe ternporary
      infant-velfare exhibit and children's health con{erencemight n'ell
      leave behind ('child-welfare centers" of the type planned in Iorva.
      These are pelmanent deposit stations of such literature and exhibits
      as may be ayailable,at which it is planned- hold health contestsor
      conferences   from time to time. A physicianto organizeand direct such
      confercnces sentby the extension
                    is                      division of the State university.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                     C}IILD-\YELFARE EXI{IBITS.            19

           -\ :t'rics of county child-welfare centcrs might rvell be placcd on a
        fr':illirr- circuit, supplied from a central soulcc rvith a travcling
        nrt'tiicrrl director, assistecl the county medical society,to conducl
        t'hilclren's health conferencesat definitely fixed dates and accom-
        lrrnied perhaps by a nurse to gir-e demonstrationson the care and
        feedi'g of infants.                           .*'oulcr
                                J!is, in many states,        seema step not only
        natural but not too clifficult to take and would establish a circuit for
        lectures ancl tra'r'eling exhibits and a strong rvorking basis for later

                                 EXHIBIT               ON CHILDREN'S INTERESTS.

          A playground, settlement,school,S*nclay school,or anv orgrrniza_
       tion rvith access a lalge number of children can holcl an erhibit on
       children's interests at srnall expense. lvhere it is clesireci r.each
       all the pa,rentsof a large community the school systemusually ollers
       the meanscf accomplishingthis end with little tr.ouble.
          The object of an exhibit of this type, whether knorvn as j'nior
      exhibition, child-life exhibition, back-to-the-horneexhibit, or ex-
      hibit of children's to show parents the rriile extent of the
      interests of chilclren and the neecl of supplying adequatematerial
      and tools for their expression,and thus to lay a foundation for the
      enrichment of home life in its contribntions to the clevelopmentof
      the growing chilcl in bocly, mincl, character, anrl social
      Supplernentary exhibits from playgrounds, libraries, Camp Fire
      Gills, ancl similar orgtrnizationsmalie a useful aclclition and clrarv
      the attention of parents to the use that crrn be macle of comrnunitv
                                                  METHOD OF ORGANIZATION.

          The c.ganization of an exhibit of this liincr 'ray be illustrrted by
      the j.nior exposition held as part of the seatlle child-lVelfare
      i'lxhibit. ancl accomplishecl  .with a minimnm of cost.
                first step was the calling of a committeeof 20,at a meeting
      .i' ri-hich the classificationof exhibits l'as settled unil o committee
      , f i' placetl in charge of each department. The departments
      tl,t' >eirttleexhibition \yereas follows (seeAppendix 4ior completc
      tt      t..
      | .illlli   I    :

                      t r i , ' r r l r r n , l n i e c h a n i c a la p p a r a t u s .

                       : l t . , l, : . i l t :

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universify
     qn                     CEILD-WELFARE   EXHIBITS.

       Iloirrcstic alt.
        I'he departments were further dii-ided into age groups-those
      under 13 in one grollp and those betrveenl-3 ancl 16 in another. In
      an exhibit for parents of voung children a special division rnight
      be made for children under school age.
        Trientv-fir.e thousand printed announcementsof the exhibition
     'wele sent through the schools.reaching every home. The back of
     this announcementcontaineclan ently folm, l hich was to be re.
     turned Liv a gir-en date. These fonns l-ere assignedas received to
     the committeesresponsiblefor the different deplr.tments,which then
     made requestsfor space on the basis of the appiications receir-ed.
     'Xhehali l'as
                    then dirgrammed and tnbles \\'eresecrlrecl  and assignecl
     to vllions conmittees. Since the space eyen of an rrmorv pro.r-ed
     insufrcient to accommoclate demands.large numbers of Cuplicate
     exhibits rvere lejected, the choice being determined paltly by order
     of application and partly by the desire to rcpresent ali sectionsof
     the city.
        At the oirening of the exliibition the children to tire hall
     rrith their exliibits and were sent to the proper cleptrl'irnent,I'here
     they met the cornnitteein charge. The committre reccired eachex-
     hibit and attached to it an identifying tag, macleby tairing an ordi-
     nary manih tag. rrriting the child's nane on it" and then tearing it
     in half. The cliild kept half as his checkon the exiribit, and when he
     retulned to chim his article he proved his orvnclshipby fitting the
     two piecestogether. (For a slightlv adclitionll cost a somerrhr,t
     more con\-enientset of numbered tags coulcl be secrirecl.) Big boys
     from the schoolsacted as gnards. but many of the children wished
     to stav through most of the day with their exhibits iri
        Tables. ropes, ribbons. manila tags, and the prelirniirar.v printecl
     announcementcontaining the entrv form rvere the only items of ex-
     pense. Prizes htr-e beenfound to be not only rinnecessary stimu-
     lating the willingnessof the children to participate,but productive
     of embarrassrnent   and distru'bance. The Seattle committee even de-
     cided at the closeof their exhibit thnt r merit badge for all partici-
     pants l ould har-ebeen better than tire Jrlueand retl ribbons with
     their suggestionof conpetition. The children should feel not that
     tircl' are corupetingrvith eacir other. but that thev ale all ruriting
     in a conunon clisplal' of the ('wor.k of the bols ancl girls of the
     cc,nmrinitv.shorting somclhingof tl.eir skill. persevernnce, inge-
     nuitr'. anclho.r thev risetheii

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                            C]IILD-\\TELFARE EXTIIBIIS.                                                    2L

                                                 HOIfE-PLAY EXI{IBIT.

          ,\n e:rhibit on home plar., showing equipment for a back yard ancl
       f,.,r'indoor play, is a valuable addition to a displaS' of cirildren's in-,sts. A possible list of such equipment is gilen belorv; soine of it
       cau be made b"r.parents, some by a mnnual training class in tlie liigh
       scliool (see illustration No.2), and soln€ can be borrowecl from locrl
          Irlay loom.
                                  PL.I]: IN 'IIIE       HOUSE-GOOD             EQUIP}IENT

          Play room.
          Crrpboaldfol plavthings.
          Cololcd cril\-cns.
          \\'ater-color paints.
          Colored paints.
          llolcling wax or clay.
          Pennants, flags.
          A fel. xell-chosenmechanical

                                   PL.{Y    IN   TIIE    IARHOOD              EQUIPTIENT.

             Sand box (preferablv raised on legs. n'ith benchesaround" to avoicl
       dampness and dirt).
             Lon- swing.
             Inciian costume.
             Iispress wagon.
             I-ri,i,'s climb (2 laciclei's,8 feet hish. connecteclat top rrith
       i , ' - i , ' , r i t o r i z o n t a ll a c l c l e r ' ) .
             > 1 . , 1 , ,(.i f c e t h i g l i . 8 f e e t l o n g .
             l i : r l r r l r . t .l , e l m . 1 0 f e e t l o n g . 6 o r ' 8 i n c h e s a l ; o r - eg r o u n r l . ( S e e
       : l l r : ' : : , ' r r\ . . 3 . )
             (i::: i"tr
             ) r . : , , f g : r r ' , i c no o l s .

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
      22                    CITILD-WELFARE    EXI.IIBITS.

                           SUPPLEMENTARY      EXi{IBITS.

         An exhibit of chilclren'sintcrestsis crrprible inrlefinite expan-
      sion, limited only by time and space,and to u lcss clegree. money.
      An o'ganization of lloy sco'ts or c*mp Irire Girls rvo*kl rra'e a
      wealth of material to show on the interests ancl ideals of olcler boys
      and gi'ls. I(inclerga.ten material rniglit be clisplayed frorn the
      standpoint of its use. not in school roorns liLrt i' tire home. Tirher.e
      the material is expensi\-e.  \\-aysshould be sho*-n in n'hich tire mother
      can follorv the same iclea in homemar-le      mrter.ials. Ifothels who
      have prer-iously been teachers or kindergaltner.s shotrlclbe able to
      prepare exhibits of this t1'pe.
        The local public librar;. rroulcl probably tre glad to prepare an ex-
      hibit of a child's librar5', shorring books fcr ciifferent ages. A sepa-
      rate exhibit might also be macle of educational pursuits which can
      bc introduced to the chilcl as hobbies. Boolis on insect life, simple
      electrical eqnipment, a gooclrnicroscope,   indicate the kincl of articles
      to be included here. The rlranrrtic instinct in chilclren could be
      shown by a program of chosenperformances          mlcle up by children.
      This should, horrerer, be omittecl nnless grorlps of children are
      already gir-ing such per.for.nances their' {r.iencls.

                              STATE-WIDE EXHIBIT.

         rt is quite possibleto malie an exhibit cf chilclren'sinterests on a
      state-wide scaleth'ough any state o'ganization rrhich has county
      or clistrict branches. This would inr-ohe countv clisplaysat county
      fairs, culminating in a State exhibit, in whicir each county is as-
      signed definite table space and n-a1l spacc rvhich it is asked to fill
      rrith an exhibit selectecl  for its sriggestire value to parents. Ele-
      ments in determining this yalue would be the rariety of interests
      shown, their use in the child's development.their applicability to
      children of varying agesand tastes,ancl the easeancl economy with
      rvhich the materials can be seculcd. Local exhibits which can not
      be shippecl.  such as plavhonses,  cnn be illustrrrteclby photographs;
      but these should nerrer form a part of any exhibit. The first
      exhibit of this lrind is planned for Portland, Oreg.,in October,1g15,
      under the State Congr-ess }Iothers.

                             RECREATION SURVEY.

         In communitieswhere the tirne, money, and rvorkers for a recrea-
      tion survey are obtainablethe results can be clisplayecl gr.eatad-
      vanttrge as the central feature of an exhibit cf children's interests.
         In casen completesurvey seemsimpossibleor inadvisable,some
      of tlie investigationscc)inmonly useclin such suryeyscan be car,ried

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                              C}IILD-WELFAEE            EXHIBITS,

         on by local committees of rolunteers ancl rvili
                                                             furnish intere-.ting ex-
         hibit material. Among these are:
            (a) A study of typictrl clistricts on
                                                     a bright lfternoon or. Satur-
         day to see wh.t the chilclren .re cloing, rrhetler they
                1. Plaving in the yarcl.
                2. Playing in the streets.
                3. Loafing on the streets.
                4. Pla.r.'ing in .r.acantlots.
                5. I'laying in pla;,gronncls.
                6. Going sc.'mewhere.
           (b) A studl' of school chilclrents comnositions
                                                                   r-rritten on l{on-
        da;r in the sixth, se'r-enth.ancr eighth g,:,r,les ql ,. ivn-"t
                                                                               r riid on
        sat'rdav and s.nclay.t' The chilclren shorilcl be askecl
                                                                         to tr), to put
       dorvn as manv things as they clrlt renernlrer rt-rtherthln
                                                                          an elnborate
       account of one e'r'ent. These actiyities ean l.,e groupecl
                                                                           as (1) orit-
       door pla)" (2) outcloor loafing, (3) indoor .t.r.1...
                                                                    i+y   irraoor q.iet
       pla;r, calling, etc.. (il reacling, (ti) motion pietures,
                                                                     (ii t o,,."*,ork,
        (8) miscellaneotts. The number of chilclr..r oloi.rg
                                                                   *ny'nf these and
       the number of times each actir-itv is rnentioneclfoJl
                                                                    se"pa.ate    stpclies.
       compa.isons of            ancr girls are interesting. comparisons of crif-
      ferent sections of town often will show the inhuerr..
                                                                   of n lrtn.lg.ouncl,
      settlement. cr gymnasium in an interesting ri,ai.
          (t) children's compositions on ('The kincl If
                                                                 motion pictures r
      like l"rest,tt other suitable subject. properlv classifiecl
                    o.                                                  ancl charte4.
          ('1) Chilch'en's designs for an icleal
                                                    I'arcl'ancl garclen. preferably
      ccndnctecl through the art clepartment oi th. scirools.
                                                                      rn the Toleclo
      Chilri-I\relfare Exhibit a group of selecteclchilclren nracle
                                                                             inorlels in
      sand. grar-el. paperr felt. ancl other materials l-iiich
                                                                    they thenrselres
     chose to embodv their icleas.
          (,) A clirectory of orgrrnizations n'hich clertl 11
                                                                  it5 the interests
     anC icleals of children. the arnount of space allor-ecl
                                                                      to each being
     cleterminecl by a committee composecl oi ,..1r..senttltires
                                                                            of all the
     o.ganizations. A.,t cornmunitv *-ork-pla1'gr.o'ncls
                                                                      or social cen-
     ters-shoulcl be especiallv featurecl.

                    C O MMU N IT Y              C H ILD .W E LFA R E              E X H IB ITS .I
        The cxhibits so ftrr discussed har-e been chiefly concernecl
                                                                     ivjth a
     clirect rrppeal to_ parents regarcling the health nnti proper
                                                                   care or
     the interests and idenls of their chilclren. Ihey hor.i been
     such as could be prepared without great expense antl rvithout
                                                              rvhich u gro.,p of interested people
                              oyotr:oecli1.            National Chitd_Welfare Exrribit Association, 3 0 E a s t
    F o :::"_l^ll:,t::_ S t r e e t . N e w
        rtl'-second                           .the .
                                l:ork (-\it\.. r
                                     tr4.rhe co;;iAe,?ii;;^;?i;;l'";J.}i1..1r.?, n . t . , ttv-r
    tlctajtetlrlescriiption rarge'dxiiiir'iti&rs^ano [11",,,il?]"'t1i::?.it3"X?; o

provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                               CI{II-D_ITELFARD                iIXi{IBITS.

      willing tc gi-,-e tinie and y;ork can l,.e asscrnbled. The preceding
      discttssion htis sho.,.'tt.hol-eler'" that the telciency in all sr-icirexiribits
      is to expancl tii inclucle colrrnlunitv problems in heaith, recreation,
      ancl other lispects o1l chiid l'elfale.      ITnless tlic probler-ns involvecl
      in such exprrnsion rncl the cornmittee orgtnizirtioir necessaryto rneet
      thern ale cleliberrtelv facecl. tire esliibit is in clurger: of beconiing a
     miscelleneous conibination rvithorrt proportion, touching upon sornc
      problems extensir-elv ancl perhans one-sidedly and ignoring others
     that are equallv impoltent for the n'elfar.eof the chiicl.
         l\rhile anv crgrrnization ri ith suflicient meclical linowledge may
     hold an exhiLiit on the cirre of babies, urcl rnv org.'ization             *'ith
     accessto cnough chilcilen mtrv hokl an exliibit cr cliiidren's interests,
     a cornmunity chilcl-welfare exhibit can not be efiectivei5' held ivith-
     out the cooperation of all forces in the community l-hich deal rvith
     the rvelfnle cf the chilcl. No community is ready for such an ex-
     hibit until therc is a united conviction ainong the ie*ding social
     workerq including those interested in health. edncation, and recrea-
     tion as 'rvell as in pirilanthropv. tliat thev linr-e cer.tain definite frrcts
     in their possessicn rvith rvirich tlie p-trblic -qhoulclbe niacie acqnaintecl.
     This does not necessirr:ily implv a complete cornmunitv survey, but
     does irnply a kno*'ledge of definite conditions, of la-nvs afrecting
     them, and of clesiled impror-ements. \\'itliout the consciousness of
     a rnessagebased on such llrorrledge and the cooperation of an effec-
     tire group in the exp.ession of it an exhibit clealing rvith cominunitv
     needs is a rvaste of tirne.

                                           COIyIMITTEE               ORGANTZATION.

        The genernl committee resironsible for s*ch an erhibit, should con-
     tain lcpresentntir-es of all prominent mor.erncnts on behalf of the
     I'elfare of cirilch.en ancl of all religious an.f industrial group-
     ins-s of the cornnrunity rviricli neeil tr-r be consiriereil in securing the
     results advocated b1' tlie exhibit. This conimittec rvill probably be
     too lnrge foi' actir-e '-orli ancl shoiiki fron its number a
     smaller' -.nbcorlnrittec to llnnclle adninistlative cietails.
        If thc exhii.rit is n ltlge onc. this smallef executir-econinitiec ivill
     s'isli bo plrrcc rnanv rietlils. such as finance. Pubiicitv. progr.irrn, in
     the hrncls o1i s;pecill conruittees. The follou-ine is a possible list
     of such committecs, although in a verr large city c-rhibit even these
     committees mar. fincl it ncce'ssalv to clivicle their: l'or.k aurong sub-
     cornmittecs. ns thc detril mru' pro\-e too great to l_; by tire                                                               i

     gforlps oritlinecl.
        Fi*ance, or 'rvays anc means.-This                                           conirnittce is chrrr:ged u.ith                          I

     sccilling gifts of rnateli:r1sas u'eli us of m,-rn,:r'.
        Publicity (-"ee          trl;cit cf ltrilrlicitv rlrcritroltd uirur-",,n0.. the heaclof
              n ' e c l i" ) . - ? ' i : i s r , , r r r i l i t i e c u l s o i r r . v i r . r - e c h i r r g e o f a l l p u i j l i -

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                              C}{ILD-lVELFARE   EXHIBITS.                   z5
         cations, such as the hanclbookof the exhibit and the various icafets
         fol distribution in the sections,or, if it seemsadvisable,a literature
         cornmitteemay be created to supervise all educational publications.
         Even if no funds are ailorred for special literature, such a committee
         often can secrlre a 'rvell-balanced  supply by oflering suggestionsto
         boards of health and other olganizations n'hich have a fund for
         printing. All exhibitors shonlcl submit to this cornmitteecopies of
         any leafletsthey .wish to distribute. and the appror-ecl  copies should
         be kept at the information desk as a check against unauthorized.
         literature. Appeals by exhibitors for rnoney or members usually
         are not permitted, unless forming an unimporiant part of educa-,
         tional pamphlets already printed.
            Installation.-This committee is charged with the planning of the
         floor space,the decorations,the color scheme,and the general ap-.
         pearanceof tire exhibits. Its work will be otitiinecl later in some
         cletail uncler those heads. A public-spirited architect makes a good
         chairrnan for this cornnittee. Secretariesof the carpenters,and the
         painters' unions have been found to be useful nernber:s,   especialiyin
         strongly unionized cities. where they har-e often saved much time
         and many conplications in getting the bicls for construction .work
         and materials. Persons who ar.ein a position to secure volunteer
         serviceflorn artists, cartoonists,or decoratorsare also useful on this
         committee. One or two aclvertising men or headiine rvriters may
         also be of use for consultationby exhibitors regarding efiectivervord*.
        ing, but so much rrork of this kind is neededthat it rviil probably
        be necessaryto have for this purpose a paid exhibit expert in ths
        administrativc oIfice.
            Hospitality and explainers.-This ryorli mav be done under one
        or trio cornmittees, seens desirable. \Yhiie each exhibitor or ex-
        hibiting committeeshoulclas far as possiblefulnish deuronstrators     or
        explainers, a superr-ising committee is needeclto supply gaps in
        special exhibits. to furnish general guides arouncl the exhibit, to
        nanage the infoi:mation cleslr,   and to seethat the public is n-elcomed
        and shorvn the objects of greatest interest. Explainers furnish the
        living element in an exhibit; they h'eip to stop aimlessly wanclering focus attention on special points. ancl to correct mistaken
        irnpr:essions.fn some exiribits the hospitaiity committee has talren
        charge of the check room. the rrater supply. the rrornen'sr.estroom,
        and has greatl;' assistecl the promotioir of cooperation
                                   in                                and friend-
        line:,sbv occasional   sociril functions. before ancl iminediatelr'after
        the exhibit. An informa,l clinner helcl a f,ervch.,'sbefore the exhibit
        ()l)ers. which all coinmitteernerlbers.
                 to                                 explainers.donors,and peo-
        ple ritaltry interested are invited to hear'fir-e-minutepresentationsof
        thc r';c;r'liof the cornmittees,is a simple matter to arrange and is
        rusriallv scene rerl intelest and enthusiasm. An in{onnal gath-
                  the      of

I     Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       26                     CIIILD-WELFARE        EXHIBITS.

       ering) lieid for three-quarters of an hour on closing night, at 10
       o'clock, in the main court of the exhibit, l-ith light lefreshrnents
       and impromptn anecclotes       about the rveek's hnppenings, prol'es a
       pleasant way of relieving the strain of the weelr'sl-ork and welding
       together the working grolrps which have been formecl by the exhibit.
          Program.-The l-ork of this cornmittee y;ill be trcatecl later in
       more detail. It inclucles the direct control of all lectures, motion
       pictures, and general entertainments,with sufficiento\rersight of all
       living demonstrations prevent interfering programs. fts member-
       ship shoulclusually include all personsnho ale clirectly responsible
       for any large special performance. such as the superfisors of music
       and gymnastics in the schools,the playground clirector, the hea-dof
       the Boy Scouts,etc.
          Exhibiting committees.-fn addition to the committeesabore men-
       tioned, charged n'ith the control of certain aspectsof the exhibit, it
       will be found ad'r'isable, orcler to al'oid duplication, contradictory
       statements, and lack of proportion, to group the exhibiting orguniza-
       tions and individuals into committeeson a fen' rnain subjects,each
       allotted a share of floor spaceancl charged rrith rrorliing ol1t a com-
       prehensive,well-balancedexhibit in its particular fielcl. An exhibit
       of subjects is much more effective in securing poprilar support for
       community measures    than an exhibit of organizations; yet when vari-
       ous organizations pay for exhibits their rvishesnlust be considered.
       A grouping of the tvpe suggestecl     should be the first step in an efiort
       to persuadecontributing organizationsto suborclinate      self-aclr-ertising
       to the display of community problems ancl resources. A simple
       grouping night comprisecommittees thesesubjects:
          Social sen'ice.
          Approximately one-quarter of the floor sprce shoulcl be given to
       ea,ch subject and on each committee should be pltrceil representatives
       of all the organizations   entitled to be considerecl planning a com-
       rnunity progrrm on that subject.
          For a large city a rnore cletailedgrottping l'oulcl be necessaly,ar-
       ra,ngedin accordance   rvith the neeilsof the comrnunity ancl the plans
       for the exhibit. The following lists of committees,from the Tolerio
       and Rochesterexhibits, neeclnot be followed in Cetail, birt rrill sug-
       gest subjectswhich shorild be includecl:

                         NCCIIESTER   EXI{IBITING    CO}ITIITTEES.
         tlornes, inclucling food, clot]ring" stanclarclof lir-ing.
         Schooi-". public and parochial.


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                               C}{ILD.V,TEI-FAP.E   EXHIBIl'S.                'a'(
        . Settiemeutsand clubs.
          The child in industry.
          Churches ancl Sundny schools.
          La'n' and tlie chilcl.
                              TOLEDO DXIIIBIT   COUII]TTEES.
                 Care of babies.
                 The child's food.
                 Child hvgiene.
                 Children's health conference.'
                Toledo health sur\-ev.
           Interests and ideals:
                I{orne ocbupations.
                Ilome surroundings.
                Boys' and girls' interests.
                Sunday schools.
                Toleclo recretticn srtryey.
          The worliing chilcl.
          The dependentand delinquent child.
          I\'hen an exhibit reachesthis proportion, however, an execr,rtive
        office rrith an experigncecl director in cha'ge becomes longer an
        advisability but a necessity, and further. details of or.ganizationrnust
        be rvorlieclout in accorclance  l'ith local conditions.

                                     FLOOR    PLANS.

            fn any exhibit, except a \-e.y s'rall one, the problem of the proper
        ru'i'.urgerlrent spaceis an irnportant one and becomes
                        of                                          increasingly
        coniplex as the exhibit grows larger. Arrnngernents for *o**i.
        rest rooms, baby rest r'oorns,toilets, dressing r.oomsfor performers
        in living clemonstrations,  lecture rootns for stereopticonancl motion
        pictures, administration office,and storage place for apparatr:rs  rnust
        all be consideredin plnnning the exhibit, er-enif someof these con-
        veniences finally cleciclecl
                    are                unnecessary. Aside fr,om thesearrange-
        rueirtsa carefnl planning of the exhibit spaceitself will greatly add
        to the efrectir-eness the lvhole exhibition ancl of every division in it.
        Sevelalpoints shoulclbe considered a good floor plan.
           1. 'Ihe observershoulcl be able on entering to gain a fairly clear
        i,.lcl of the extent of the rlhole exhibition ancl its main clivisions.


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
       9.9                     CHILD-.WELITARD     EXI{IBITS.

       This is usually accoinplislied bv der'oting t,he centel of thc hall either
       to a central court (see llrontispiece) surr.orLndeiibv coiiimns ancl rril-
       ings und reselr-ccl f.ll ltrlge living clernonstratio;rs c.ri' lorv exhibits,
       which rvill not obstruct the vierv of tlie entire hrll the entrance.
       Arouncl this court r'uns a'iricle aisle (12 to 20 feet). anrl bevonri,
       nest to the walis, corne the various exhibit sections,rrith a sign
       abole each, ri-sible fron the entrance and as far as possible frora all
       points in the liali.
          2. A " one-\yr5r exhibit,t' in rvhich the sperrtator. travels a path
       which passes ail exhibits in a fixed order, is undoubtecllv desirrrbie
       when it can be attainecl. An exhibit fiiled rvith crossing aisles rvith
       bootirs on each side is confusing, bnt it is not necessar\r to go to the
       othel cxtrenre and compel observers to travel a deiinite rnd intr.icrite
       patli grrardecl by ropes. A clear exhibit rrrang^en1eni,        such as that
       desclibecl above, with a rope a.t the entrance to stirlt the crowd in the
       right clirection, rvill ans\yer the purpose. If an exhibir is ireld in
       se'r-ei'alconnecting loomsi insteacl o{ in one main hall. er-er'v eiTor.t
       shorilcl be rrrade,by signs anal arro$'s. to malie tlre subject matter and
       the Cistribution of the entire exliilrition clell ic the entering lisitor.
          3. Lon$ rvalls cor-ered t'ith rr.ail cxiribits ancl {acing each othcr at
       a distance of less than l-6 feet ale very ineffective. Consequentiv it
       is unrvise to clir-iclethe exhibit into a large numbeL of trarrol. booths,
       each occupieclbv an organization. It is beiter to dir-ide it irrto
       sections,under the comrnittee groupings slrggestecl      abor-e,and to plan
       each section n-ith re{erence to r-ariety of exhibits. inchiilins^ scme rv&11
       exhibits, some rnotlels. ancl pelhaps soine lii ing cic'monstrations.
       Sliallow booths within the section rnay l-,eneerled fur' llving c-ielnon-
       strations or coliections of mocieis aird materials.

                                 UNIT CONSTRUCTION.

          For rapicl ancl eflicient l'orh and harmonio-Lirs    appearance r fi--iecl
       unit of rvall space is essentitrl.ancl r.aliatioir-q{rorn it shouid onl v be
       allorved for gocd causeby the installation ccnmittee. The cxnct size
       of this rinit will clepenclupcn local rnatcr"ials avnilalrle for rrall con-
       stnrction; 3 by 6 feet or 3 br 5          is a gocrl size ancl riralies a si-rb-
       stantial lool<ing wall, on which al1 tlie ar-nilable sirtice witirin the
       range of easv vision is ritilizecl. Ihnv ti'arelirgl exlriliits use riluch
       smaller units. srich as 22 br' 28 inch cr-rclboerd. These ale conl'enient
       fol tlansporiation, bLrt are inefieciive for large exhibits" as thev
       brcali the rr all snrface into too mairy clivisions anrl inter:fele rvith
       continuity of idca.
          Coirstruction of traveling exhibits.-frr     nrnr- lalg'e esirilrits wall
       charts are planned n-ith the erpectltion tliat the5' mr..' i,-etseC after-
       rvards for tlaveiins p,-rfposes. It is thelefor-e l'orth l'hile to con-
       sidel iu tliis coirncciion iire forms of e:hibit constluction tliat lend

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                     C}IILD.WALTARE                     EXITIBITS.                                                29

          tiremselves to inexpensive tlansportation. as well as those that are
          nrole.solid and imposing. l\{any state departments or. state organ-
          izrrrions have been deten'ecl from constr.,r"fing tr.trr-eling erhibits be-
          eari-{eof the sripposed cost both of initiai coristruction and of trans-
          poi'trition. Lui'ge surrls clnl no doul,rt be spent to aclvantage on State
          triLvelirrg exhibits, as in Nerv Yorli. rvhele the st:rtc boaril of heaith
          nrrrinttins tliree cornplete tmveling erhibits on in{ant r.ieifare. ench
          in cbr-lge of an e'xhibit manager, r nurse. and a ruechanic. and euch
         coi-ei'ing 70 linear feet of rvail splce and containing. in :rddition, the
         cornplete equipment of an infant-welfare station. I3ut states, ancl
         evrrn counties. have prepnred exhibits -rvhicli cost little to consrruer
         and *hich are easilv transported. The state Boarcl of Health of
         llaine uses photographs and inscriptions on 11 by 14 inch carils
         tnounted on lons stlips of burlap. The corlnty liealth officer of
         clinton ccunty. ind.. const.ucts re'y inexpe'sivi exhibits on 1-1by
         l:l iircii c:rlds. r,vith the lettering sttrnped b1' a clerk in his oifice. rn
         installing this exiiibit, strips of burlap 3 br ti feet in size nre hung on
         the rvnlls to cor-er ii'r'egultrr.ities of backgrouncl. ancl the celcls-are
         frrstenecl to this bv smell clamps *-itir pin rttachncnt.                                                               These ex-
        hibi+"sare circniated thlough the rural schocls, erch school beilg sup-
        Plied lrith a sirip of bnr-lap. on rvhicli the exhibit is changecl from
        uceir to leeii.
              r'-or sorne prlrposes n better variation of this pran is to hang c:r.rcls
        one above the otherwith a narro\yer card at the top for the title. (see
        iilustlrtion No. 14.) The rneasuleinents here selectec for the larger
        crrlds (1? bv 28 inches) rnalie the entire p*nel aborit ig inches hieh
         (th',s coi-e'ing al1 a'ailable n'all space rvitiiin easv re.rch of tlre eye-j
        an.l give a f:rirly large ulit fol a singie srrbject. T|e J-inch boarcls
        rvill accomnrocllte a 3-inclr title: the l?-inch boalcls are n-ell suited
        t(l one or t*-o photogrnphs each. *-ith approp'irte insc.iptions. The
        Inetsrlrenleilis of lerger carcls should be detelminerl with refer.ence to
        I)rt  f{rel-post I'eqnirements.
             f iris panel cir.n be ining cither on the stationerv frrrneel scr€ens
        n-rrli units of rnoi'e expeusive exhibiis. ol on b.rlap rvalls, or
       srrsPencl-ed               frcm rrii'e-qol ropes attrcheil to poles. Car.dborrrclof this
       sizt. crn easiir- be obtainecl in any tint- rf estrcnre econ()lny is de-
       . i r ' . , , l t t c i r i p b o a r t l . " r e r r r . to f f i n i - h s i r r r i l r r t o n r a r r i l a
                       .                                           l                                .                  l ) n l r e r .i.. r e r . t , i r
       ('!iriil)er than 'w-hite calclborrcl. rt is. horrerer., r'rther
                                                                                                                       1co absolirent
       f , , i f i i ' . , i n l <l o r . l i .
            Tr-;o sheets of cormgatecl stral'boarrl, pastecl togetlier. lrith
       collttgations running in opposite clirections. rr.rrLcsir bo,rel\-hirt
       sulr-t.^tial bacligrorincl, b't oire r,vhicli is tighi n'rl inexpensive,
       to 'hich papcl's and photcgrnphs cal lre prsted rviiho-ut rvarping.
       I'i,.t'.'. of talte gluetl betl-een the sheets ar.o risccl to hang one
       gr'.iuiil fiom iiirotlier'. Tc send tills erliil-,ic
                                                                                                      bi- parcel p-ost.snaller

      Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        30                    CIIITD-WELFANE     EXIIIBITS.

        rnits are required, as the thickness of the stlarvbcald materially
        increases bullr of the package. The North ClarolinaState Board
        of Health rlsesa wzrll panel composedof tliree 12 by 18 inch lioards
        of this type. Its totnl height, rbout 38 inches,is rvell aclaptedfor
        usc againstschoolblackboarcls.This board alsoplans supplementary
        n-o1li in connection 5-ith the nse of these exhibif-c,such &s essays
        frorn the chilclren on 'what they hale learnecl,or on concliiiortsin
        the schoolgrounclsrvhich confolm or clo not conform to the sanitarv
        conclitionsoutlined in the exhibit.
           r\nother clieap and durable folm of travelilg exhibit, used by the
        fol'a State L'nirersitS', can be rnade on holland cloth (rvirrdow
        shades),hekl ttrut bv light rollers at top nncl bottom. Each rcller
        is split lengthrvise into halves (the rneihodnsecl mounting maps),
        and the cloth is fastenedbetl'eenthem. The panel is h'lng flo:n the
        u'all bv srnall lings. through ri'hich pass loops of tape the ends of
        r,lhich are securecl betrveenthe split halves of the top roller.
           The clotli furnishes a lnrge sttrface for lettering, dla'rving, or
        painting. but can not be uscd satisfactorily for photographs,r'hich
        are clamaged rolling. The photcgraphscan be mcuntedseparately
        on cardboard ancl nr"rmbeled con'espondto sprrces the shac'le,
                                        to                                        to
        rvhichthey can be attachedlater by paper fasteners,
           More permanent construction.-I;ndoubteclly the larger framed
        prrnels (size about 3 by 5 feet). mad" 6f fTpson board, berrler
        board, or sorrre the many varieties of builcling boarcl,suu'ounded
        by a rroodenflame, ale both more imposing anclmore dnrable. The
        exact type of t-all board to be securecl iil cle'pcncl
                                                   l              ripon locnl snpply
        houses. In general,boarcls     n'ith a poroussurfacesliould be avoided,
        as thev increasethe cost of pninting ancl pasting. \Yhen panels
        are to be sho*-n for a long time in one place, ancl l-hen the5rcontain
        expensir-e  photogrnphs. cartoons.ancl lettering, the extra cost of the
        heavier backgronnd (about $1 to $1.50per panel, including frame)
        is rvell worth incun'ing.
           Mtrnv States anrl national orgrrnizationshave found this tvpe of
        exhibit backgronnil rvorth u-hile, e\:en for trar-eling exhibits, in
        spite of the much heavier cost of transportation. The State depart-
        ments of health of New York and of Incliana have different styles
        in exlibits of this heavier valicty, especiallyclesigned        for compact
        pacl<ing,durabilitv, ancl speedin installation ancl planned for set-
        ting up rvithout atiachments    either to floor or lvall.
           The rnethodusedby the New York State traveling exhibit, in rvhich
        the rrrlis are fcrmed by the panels set up on detachablelegs, is well
        rvolth consiclering,  cven {or large permanent exhibits occurring only
        once. It mlv be supplemented.        perhaps,by a cheapertype of con-
        stmction rlong the main walls of the builciing or in burlap booths

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                              CHILD-II,'ELFARE    EXIIIBITS.                       31
       tle.ignctl for rnoclels or living clernonstrations. Sone ilstallation
      cottrulittees'will find it cheaper and easier to construct a scaffolding
       u'ith leclges on both sitles about 30 inches frorn the grou16.
      Prnels r'est on these leclgesand are fastened bv means of screrv eves in
      the upper ft'ame of the panel attached to nails drir-en i1 the top beam
      of the scaffolcling.
                      tvpe of wail construction is nsed, two facts sholld be
      borne in mind: First. that easein hanclling ancl arrangernent dernancls
      tirzLt on many occasions the rvall panels rnust be sti.kecl upol e2clr
      other, and that tirerefole hoolis or other projections lct into^the back
      of the frtrmes are objectionable; seconcl,   th"t i-nieciiately before ancl
      ,liiring the exhibit many rearl'arlg'ernents panels rrili take place,
     ditt' to cljscor-eriesregarcling lighting. movements of cron-ds, or com-
      rrittrc pleferences, ancl that consequently tire pauels shoulcl be fas-
     trnr,(l to the scalTolclingin such a \\-aJrthat the;, can be easil;, ir.itns_
      frlreil from one position to anothcl bv uiiskiilccl iabor.ers
     tottritrittee membels. The plan rnentione,l nLo.-e.rrherelrv the fr.nrnecl
     pirnels rest on a ledge and are fastenerl bv nails
                                                                  clriven through
     scre\\' et'es inserteci in the top of the fr'nrne. safeglarcls'botir
     lloints, especially if the scre\\:evcs rlre all Placcil in the saille r.elatir-e
     positions on tlie fraines, so that nails cnce clrir-en rr ill be
     -lior any panel. L-nless the lorver lec.lgeis rvicle, it may neecl raisecl
     piece on the onter eclge.

                                   COLOR    SCHEME.

        I''ol the sake of hai'urouy it is u eil for sorne central rruthoi'ity, prob-
     ably the installation conlnittee, rvith the appror-nl of the executjr,e
     colnnlittee, to fix a unifolm color scheme ancl allol' var.iations                  I

     for good cause. Soft gl'ays }iar-e been more risecl than anv
     color. Soft, clull greens ancl blues are also good. Sometimesilie
     tering is clone <iirectly on this backgrouncl-a methocl rvhich procluces
    t halinonious allpearance. but in l hich it is clifficult tc nlaiie
    slight changes demanded in most exhibits. Another plan is
                                                                           to clo the
    lette.i'g on ca'ds_or hear-y paper) tacriing or prefernbry pasting
    to the backgrotincl, in well-plannec,l clesigns. (See iilustiations
                                                                                4 to
    l). inclusive.) This method tnakes reacljustments possible
                                                                         at the last
    rrrornent before the pasting is clone, and is frequeitiy less
    I's the lettering on carcls is more easily hanclled-. On t6e oth&
    l)irl)er is inj*r'ed by n-ater anc can not be cleanecl as easily a_*oil
    liitini. The exhibit of the Chiklren's Burean in tlie Purn*u-Irncific
    I'-x1;osition.secl a nat*ral color (cr.eam) IJpson board,
                                                                      *,ith a gray
    f'.u'e a'cl *'ith gray papers letterecl in blaci< ancl *-hite.

provided by the Maternal and Child Heatth Library, Georgetown University
      32                                               CITILD-WELFARE                         EX}IIBiTS,

                                              CONTROL                 BY EXECUTIVE                          OFFICE.

         The extent to rvhich cletails ctn be controlled b;' the executive ofiice
      will depend upon the paid force ar-ailable. The centlal courrnittee
      should at least prescribe the dir-ision of space, size of rvall unit, gen-
      eral color scherne, and shoulcl arrange for the joint purchaso of all
      consh'uction nraterials. Lalge signs ancl signs abor-e a certain heiglit
      nust be limited bv the centlal cornrnittee, lr.hich should also send out
      adr-ice legarding styles of lettering, photoglaphs, etc. The effective-
      ness of the exhibit wili be increased mater:izrlly if all the lettering
      and mounting can be handled through the centrai ofiice. This, horv-
      t:ver, necessitates the erup-lounent of an exhil,-it expert 1 to coirsult
      n'ith tiie committees, malie suggestions on arr&ngeincnt and rrording,
      cut clown long, r-erbose statenents. rrliich ale both ineffectir-e ancl
      expeirsir-e. ancl handle all ar:r'angernents for lettering, enlarging of
      photographs, etc. In manv lai'ge exliibits the cxpert has collectecl the
      naterial and planned the panels with little consultation of local corn-
      mittees. This plan usually means a clerr.-cut. attractir-e presentation
      of the subject matter. but saci'ifices the local discussion and the rvork-
      ing out of a statement satisfactor'; to all concer.necl.upon l-iricrh tlie
      final results of an exhibit largelv depencl. A comprornise l:etneen
      these two extlemes demands tact ancl effolt. but for the best results in
      anv conmnnit;. both elernents are needed-a careful rror,king out, by
      the best forces in the community. of the exact program for whicir
      they l-ish public cooperationI and a clear, concise, atti'active, and
      striliilg str,temetit of that program in esliibit form under expert
                                      SUGGESTIONS                                FOR EXHIBITORS.

         Tire chief essential of a successful eshibit is rarietv.   No mlttter
      hon' small the exhibit, the r.arious ways in rvhich fa.cts may be pre-
      sented are n'orth careful consideration. An exhibitor or erhibiting
      comnittee should first ask, " \l-hat, expressed in the simplest, clearest,
      Lrriefest manner, is tlie exact message I n'ish to give the public ? "
      \\'hen the answer to this question is clearlv fornulated the l_rest
      method of presentation should be considered. IIox' rnuch can be
      shorvn by a, liling demonstration, such as a dental clinic or food
      preparation ? IVhat can be shon'n bv electrical devices or models,
      either illustratir-e models, which are copies o{ existing objects, such
      as a babyts stomach, a goocl dairy, a school galden, nr a chili.l-r.eir's
          1 On thc bxsls of past e:hibitions, at lea,st cue pefson shoulcl be employecl in tlle cxccu-
      tive o{iice for eight \\'eeks ior ereri'91.0C0                                   to S1,50C to be c:ri;cnded from tho cettral
      fund.      Eyer snaller c\hil)its *-ili hcneft Lr3'g 1yccli's consuitetion with a_n expert.                                                           Chiid-
      $clfarc cxllibits of sufiicictrt size and inpolta-nce to stir cities lrom 100,000 to 400,000
      b a v e b e c i l h e l d i a t a c o s t o f $ : 1 , ( ) 0 0t o j i 8 , 0 0 0 , i n c l u r l i r g i l r l c r t s t o n e p a i d e x p c r t a n d l o c a l
      ofiico:issi-<taDCc. lliLe contrillution oi'nuall                                    tims an.-l metrli[l                     rnd mal]y e\hibits is
      usua,iJy arcrs-strly ijl addition to this central flttd.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                     CITILD.WELFABE EXHIBITS.                                                                         33

        institution, or diagrammatic and symbolic models used to present
        abstract facts in graphic forrn. such as pasteboarcl
                                                           cubesto represent
        the different expenclituresof the city depart'rents, or the ,. one in
        seren" model, in rvhich e.-ery se\:enthbaby is replaceclby a coffin.
        to shon the death rate ? \Yhat f:rcts can be sholvn only by photo_
        g.aphs, cartoons.  char.ts,
                                  and stateurents?Elch of thesemain types
        of exhibii methotl-rrall exhiLiits. models, and ii'ing clemonstra-
        tion"-u'ill bc cotr"itle serraiatcl
                              l,ecl         i.

                                                               *o"t          u"*tuttr.
            LTndertiris heacl are comprised all flat exhibits, sucrr as printecl
        signs. charts, diagrarns, and illustrations. This exhibit material is
        the least striking of all, anclvet a sinall amounf of it is always neces-
       sarv. The best living clemonstrationor moclel needs explanatorl'
       signs. and many facts can be presented only by graphic charts or
       statements. Preciselv becnlrse the cli{ficriltiesin makins this tvpe
       of niate.ial effective, special care is needed.and if possiille tiie ad-
       vice of an exhibit,or adl-ertisingexpert, to malie the wall exhibits
       striking aad'i-alied.
           The size of the rvall nnit has already been disc'-issed.Tliis unit
       sholrlclbe treateclbJ'the exhibitor not as a bacliground for a miscel-
       ]rneons collection of photographs and aphorisrns,b't as a single
       illiistrated statementon one subject. I\'orcling and grouping of plio-
       tog'aphs sirould be carefuliy pl:rnned, so that the mcst important
       Inaftels stand out most clear.lj' and the rest of the riraterial is prop-
      crlv related. P'obably no part of exhibit techniq'e is as dif8cult as
      tliis. bnt the time spent is n'ell .r.vorth
                                                s'liile if the exhibit is to gir.e a
      true irnpression. Friend-q totaily ignorant of the subject matter
      should be consultedin order to seewhat irnpressiontire exhibit will
      procluceon the casual risitor.l
          special care rnnst i.retrkcn n'ith statistical charts in orcler that
      thev may be accru.ate.      clear, interesting, and not misleacling., If
      m:rps are nsed, an outline mep, on rvhich a ferv things are filled in
      viith color or strong shading, is inuch better than the usual city or
      State map. rvhich is full o{ irrelevant detail. A commonerroL on
      rnaps and cliagramsis to use different colors to designateyalious de-
      greesof the sane condition. such as tiie infant cleathrr,te. Difierent
      sh.d-ings the slme color. or of blacli and l'hite, are far less con-
      i'rr.singrvherer-erclifferencesof tlegree but not of lrincl are to bc
      sho-rn. Colors rnay, quite arbitrrrilv chnsento represent
             1 S(-.e Twelve Good Scrccns aild \Vhy lf lie..- ,\ re {;oo{i. :dationrrl
                                                                                                                                Child-\I'eifarc Erhibit
      .\:\r{'iition,         30 Esst Fort.s-second Strcct, \en ]:orli (-itj'.
            I TLis subject ltas lleen erbaustireli,. trcitril                             i n a ; r r l l h i c ] I e t h o d s for Presenting llarts,
      l i ; r p t ) . W i l l a r d C . B r i n t o n , L l D g i n e e r i r g l h g a z i t r c ( ' 0 . , N c w I o r i r CitJ'.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
      AA                    CHILD-WELFARE     EXITIBITS.

      clilTerent kinds of things, as clifferent trades, difierent cruses of
      death, or different city departrnents.
         lettering.-Plain,      upright letters, r-arying frorn three-fourths
      inch in height-or er.ensmaller for foctnotes, etc.-to 2 ot: 3 inches
      for special display, are the best. The sloping italics, far.ored by
      sigrr rvriters for reasonsof speeil, are especinll;.harcl to rea'JI and,
      contrar;r to the general opinion. recl letters. especially the cheap
      orange recl used by many sign painters, 'nhich proclucesa glnre of
      recl and green shaclowsand obscurcsthe lettering. ale not efrectile.
      A color variation for important n'ords or to lend variety, hcwever, is
      desirable when used in mocleration. Some gray bncl<grcundswill
      take both shite ancl black lelters. Light bucligr:oundsrrill take
      black and sorneother good color.
         Prstecl c,r stampeclletters will prove less expensir-e    than sign let-
      tering if careful r-olunteerscan be {ound to use them. Paper letterS
      in difrerent colors and sizeswith glmmed baclis are obtainable. In
      using these the signs should be designeclby a person rrith a sense
      of artistic balance and then pasteclor stamped ri-ith great care.
      One designer can keep several pasters busv. If an-t'of the rvorliers
      are paid, the final cost wiII be iittle. if any, cheapelthan sisn let-
      tering; but the methoclis useful for committeeso{ r-olunteersor in
      towns l-hele good sign lettering is hard to secure. Pasted letters
      are ciearer and more effectir-ethan stnmped letters, but they are
      more expensive ancl tend to peel off if used in tra'leling exhibits.
      Stamped letters vill rub unless the very best gracle of inli, made
      especially for stamping, is used. \Yith both these for:ms of letter-
      ing lariety in size and style of type siroultl be intloclucecl.
         Photographs and illustrations.-One large photograph shcn-ing
      significant cletail is xorth ser-elalsmall oneschoscnin an atternpt to
      give an exhaustir-e   presentation. Photographs 11 by 14 inchesin size,
      or eyen larger, are desirable; smaller photographs are allowable
      r.:here'thereis little detail. A flat finish is best" as it doesnot reflect
      liglit and will take paint if it is desiredto color any of the photo-
      graphs. Abstract ideas can frequently be presentedby cartoons
       (seeillustration No.4), wliich are expensive buy but nay often be
         l\{any attractive r-aliations can be introdnced in the use of iliustra-
      tive rnaterial. The activitiesof a racation schoolin Toledo,of n'hich
      no photographs had been talien. were shorvnby children's prper cut-
      tings made fr:on rnernory and showing what they had done the
      previous summer. These'wereattr:actir-ely       mounted ancluseclexactly
      as photographswould have been. In pedigreecharts,used to show
      the results of a bad inheritance,figtrres crtt frotn magrzines and
      fashion books can be useclin place of the uninteresting dots, eacb.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                               OHILD-MLFARE       EXTTIBI:rS.                      35
          figrrrc being tinted to representthe idea conveyedand srirrcundeciby
          l cilcle of appropriatecolor.
             De'ices'.hich call forth the activity of the spectatorare especially
          nr.).r11.Thus a rerolving rrheel set in a rvall panel and appropriately
          lcttcred may be usedto illustrate an enclless   sequence)  r.t.h- u. ,, child
         Lrrbor, Lrnskilled Labor, Low \yages, por.erlv. ctrita labor,,' or
         '' P.renthood. fnfancv,
                                    Childhood, youth, parenthood.,, The wheel
         'ruv be partll' hidden so that the spectator has to turn it to find out
         *'irat comesnext, n'hile inscriptions nbo.i-e  anclbelow the wheel indi-
         crrtein the first instancethe yiciousness the circle and the need for
         lr'ealring it at some point ancl in the seconcl    instance the fact that
         gocd health at any-stage is a req'isite for goocl health thro.ghout
        the sequence. rn the exhibit of the Uniied statcs public Health
        senice is a simple bnt cleyer der-ice    bearing the legend: ,( Turn this
        'ahe till the hand points to the name of yoLrrstate; the man on the
        tower *'ill then point to vour state's tjphoicl death rate.', Irany
        cornmunity chilcl-welfare exhibits har-enear the exit a placard with
        the question,tt who is to blame for the conditicns lre.e Jhorvn?,, anc
        the string which the spectatoris directeclto pull ,,to find out , dis-
       closesa mirror in which he r-iewshimself. l{outh hr,.giene             exhibits
        sornetimes     use a small mirror s'et in a wiclely srnilin"g"rnonth,n.ith
       clii'ections ((look at your teeth.,,
            silho.ettes add r.ariety to wall exhibits ancl rvere 'secl .with good
       effect in the New York^city builcling in the panama-pacific Exfosi-
       tion. Diagrams and figures rvere paintecr on carclboard or thin
       tlii'ee-plvr-oocl,  then c*t out and piacedin positio^ o'the wall panel.
       -\ r-erv effectir-esilhouette rras used by the fire clepai.tment illus-
       tlrte the dillerent heights to which water is sent by varying pres-
       s.r'es. The tall skyscraper,the fire engine,and three c.lifferentlets
      \\.irter\rere all crit from a three-ply .voodls.rface and raiseclB inches
      1r'.,ina bacl<gro'nd ivhich showecl     the clistant clouds. rn the B-inch
      :l)rrccthus folmecl rias insertetla thin, r.ecl   electlic-iight buib, rvhich
      flrr.hc-cl and faded, sending a fierv glorr or-er the clo'ds ancl arouncl
      the crlges the building. simpler silhouettes
                    of                                     mav be rnacle paper
      irr ,lillerent colors. A photograph can often be inaclemore efiective
      l,r-rutting ont all the baclrground   anc letting the centralfiguresstancl
      irr ltiief as in a silhouette.
           Transparencies.-Transparenciesmay be usecr         citrrer separateryor
     x: l,ir.t of a wall design into rrhich thLy are fitted; b*t g.oocl        trans-
     J,ri.r':r('ies are often spoiled by poor lighting. Tlie moit efiective
     ligl.ti.s i' the Panama-Pacific       Exposition rvas that of the united
     )t:rtt'. Fo'esi ser'ice, which 'tilized the space in front of large
     rl:- i,,'''.s.f.aming the transparencies a conti'.o.s black
                                                  in                           screen
     rl.: l, .hrit.*t all light.for a heigrrtof 10 feet exceptthat
     ttr" :-:ii tLe tiunsparencies. \\rher.e    natnrar lighting crn not be ob-


Provided bv the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
      36                    (.iIIrLD-wELFARE

      tained the transparenciesshould be placed on a dimly lightecl rvall,
      as the strongest electric light rvill not competeu,ith direct daylight.
      If this rule is follou'ed excessirelystrong lig'hts, 'li'hich tend to make
      a glare in spots,l'ill not be needed a box rvith a rvhitc painted imer
      surface on which a ligirt is indirectlv throl'n rrill be sulicient.
      Transparencies   can be eflectir-elyused in unexpectedplaces,set into a
      large tree stump or an imitation bale of cottcl. A peculiarly beauti-
      ful efrectcan bc obtained rviih landscapes placing }ights of difrer-
      ent colors behind them, one flasliing on as tho other {ades. The
      spectaior spendssome tirne deciding whether tliere is a real change
      of scene.
                          THREE.DIMENSION      EXHIBITS.

         Under this head come all exhibits which occupy floor space or
      table space. including collections of rnaterials and obiects, moclels
      of r-arious kinds, and electrical devices. Most of the erhibits men-
      tioned under the head of infant-welfare exhibits and exhibits on
                                                        such as baby ciothes,
      children's interests are collectionsof
      foodstuffs, and toys made    bv children. These ate effcctive exhibits,
      usually calling folth mrtch local interest and ccopelation,ancl most
      of the materials can be borrowed for short-time loca1exiiibits. Other
      exhibits of this type are:
         The homesof IIrs. Do Care and IIrs. Don't Care. This showsboth
      a goocl and bad kitchen and bedroom. The material for the good
      rooms is borrowed from the stores or the homes of the committeeI
      that for the bad rooms frorn the local relief societiesor the attics
      of committee members.
         A hospital roorn for a child shorving a1l equipment. Used to
      presentthe need for more hospital accommodations.
         Equipment for a dental clinic. This ma-1' maJi not be used as
      the background for a living exhibit consisting of a free dental ex-
      amination for children.
         A childts library, perhaps shown as part of a small children's room
      in the public librarv, with an attendant x-ho allou's children to read
      the books.
         Modeis.-Scale models,or modelsn'hich are reproductionsmacleto
      scale of existing or proposed structures, are rery expensir-eand
      usually unnecessary a child-n'eifare exhjl:it. Illustratir-e moclels
      in which exact dimensions are not follo'wed, but an elTort is macle
      to malie a graphic presentation of an iilea, rnay often be constructcd
      b)' rnnnual training classesor lrindergaltens. The o1d Morar-ian
      'c putz,') which still surrives in the Christmas celebraticns o{ some
      families, is a model of this t.vpe ancl can be marie bv atty clever botr.
      It rvill be ttseful for Sunda-"-schoolexhibits, and :r detailed descrip-
      tion of its prirnitive but efrectir-ecotrstmction may fumish sugges-

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                    CETILD.WELFABE EXI{IBITS.                          37

               tions for other models. A large rough table (4 bv 6 feet) set in a
               corrler is used as the foundation o^ rvhich, by the use of ercelsior,
               c,r'ei'ed with moss and ffr branches, a representation of a hilly
               lrrrdscape is constr'cted. Footpaths and a distant desert, across
               *'liicir the x'ise men ai'e seencoming, are made of sand anil gravel.
              r lake is ma-de     with a large tin pan linecl ryith stonesorrd o.,,e".h,,ng
              r-'-ith mossto concealthe edges. Figrrres are found b;v dilige't search
              tlrrour{h tovshops and 5 and 10 cent stores. A car.e-lilie stable is
              made o{ a paci<i.g box about a foot sqlrare,with a large entrancecut
              a.t one e.d, through which the fig'res in the stable are i'isibie; the
              lines of the box a.e cor.eredwith moss anil hiclden by trees. Among
              tlie_highestfi. boughs is half concealed star. cut from tissue paper.
              and set in cardboard. electric bulb which can be tulnetl
              on f.orn a near-by srvitch. A moder of this type is necessarilyfrail
              and must be constlucted in position, but it riili last for a rreeli's
              exhibit. trruch more moclershave been macle by school
              classes the nse of 'arions materials, srich as woocl. cemJnt, clav,
             plasticine' or pasfeboarcl. A good flooring for a nio,lel rviricir is
             to shori ar open yard is made of ro'gh boards set severar inches
             apart and cor-eredri'ith a fine-meshecl       rvir.e netting. o\-er '.hicir i:;
             pou.ed thin cement. The wire pro'ides an elastic foundation
             keeps tlie cemcnt f'om crrrcliin!'. The cement rnay represcnt ptrths
             o. g'orinds alound whir.ter-er   building is to be shorrn. Grass is macle
             by dyed sarvd'st drgnqgd on with gr,,e o. bv ro'ghenecr felt gl,ecr
             to the cernent. The building on sucir a founriatiorr"-o;,- be made of
            thin *ood or of cardboard with wi'clows e.nrl doors paintccl in.
             Smalier models may be made of clay built up on u ,ooil"r, board.
            Streamsand.iver.sare then paintecldirectly o'tlr" boarcl.
                 Among the models*-hich har-ebeenprepar.ecl cirild-welfare
                                                                    for                 er-
            liibits bv r-olunteerrvork are:
                A good and a bad dairy. This mocrer      r"as made chiefly of n,ooda'd
            cernent,with corrs from a to5rshop       ancl rnilk pails manufactured out
            of old tin cans. (See illustration No. 10.) obvio*srr. rot ail tiie
            features of a dairy co*ld be repr.oducecl, the ,r,,,in iclea of cale
            a*d cleanliness'ersus dirt and carelessness          was e{Iectively carriecl
            ottt. Ilotted fence boards \rere eager.h,      huntecl by the boJ:sfor usc
            in the bad barn. and the ingenuity displayecl collectingmaterials
           sirol'eda intelest on the part of ail tlie class.
                Jr.del shorvingthe spreadof typhoicl"made by the pasadenaFrigrr
           :clicol girls' class in sanitation. Trris rvas a- randscepe
                                                                                  mad-e .f
           (1,\- on a'rvoodenfloor, with st|eamspairrtetlL.rltrc.
                                                                          nn,l tiny horses
           l'r'rrglrt at a toy store. An insc'iption showed triat
                                                                             the tvphoicl
           :trr.tcri at house A near a strea'r; that the discharges from
           l,ritiriri were throy;n into the strearn; ancl that in a"little village
           :irr,\\'lrfrrther down the stream half the horr,ses typhoicl. 'xhese

      Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
     38                     CHILD-WELFARE     EXIIIBITS.

     were the houses that rlreu' 'n'trter from the -.treirm. The remaining
     houses, situated bets-een house A ancl the rest of the village, did
     not contain any cases of typhoid, although they were nearer the
     source of infection.       They dren' their water flom nn uninfected
     'rvell (shol'n in the foleground) by u test tube which pierced thr:
     floor of the model and r.,-as    seen against painted strata of sand belorv.
         Ifodel shorring school plavgrouncls. This rvas ir contrnst model
     shol-ing how the grouncls aronncl one school tllorrec-Lplenty of space
     per chilcl, rvhile the grounds around another schocl rrere so small
     that all the children could not fincl standing room. The grounds
     l'ere made of cement. sand, anil sawclust, as describecl above, the
     builclings and railings of l'ood. n'hile the children rvere represented
     by penny dolls. These clolls fixecl the scale on which the entire
     rnoclel was constructecl. so that their positiorrs iu the school yard
     gaye an accurate pictnle of tlie open ol crorvcled condition of the
         Beans of clifferent colors ale often usecl to lepresent percentages.
     For instance, the nurnber of cleaths amon.g er-elv 100 babies during
     the first year has been shown by black beans mixecl in a jar of n-hit'e
     ones. This is in sorne n-ays & clangerous clevice" as an inconplete
     rlixing rnay give a wrong impression n'hich should always be
     guarded against by an explanatory sign giving the exact figures.
     In addition to this safeptrard, it may pro-,'e better to arrange the
     beans in a yery thin bottle, or in a shallow dish, rvhere they can all
     be seen at once. In the Seattle child-rvelfale exhibit' beans of dif-
     ferent colors in a large shallow box l'ele efiectir-ely usecl to show
     the numbers of people of differ-ent natior-ralities iir the city. A
     placarcl abole thc bcx gare the exact nt'.mbers' but could not have
     gir-en as graphic a presentation of the mixed chtructer of the city's
     population as \ras gii-en by tire bean table. A similar use rnay be
     made of othei' objects than beans to illustrate figures lvhich would
     otherrvise have to be shorrn by a rvail chai't. Tirrts, tire atnounts per
     capita spent by di{felent cities fol liealth. or recrettion' or educa-
     tion, can be shol-n bl little heaps of coin, insirle t ghss ctrse thisI
     seldom fails to'arouse interest.
         A cleler combination of photograph ancl moilel, l'hich nttracted
     attention bccause of its unusutrlness, tr-as sltott'n in the Ne-,v York
     Cit;' building at the Panamtr-Ptrcific Exposition. An upright board
     aborit 2 feet high ran along the rear of the table, and on it was
     mountecl a lirrge photogrtrph showing the sky line of New York,
     beginning at the rvater's eclge. On the surface of the table rvas
     pasted a photograph giling a much foreshortened vierv of a sur-
      {:rce of water; this appeared to be continuous sith the retr picture,
      nncl r'epr.esentedtlle lliirlson Rirer. I motlcl of a municillal recrea-
     tion pier. made of paintecl rroocl, ri'as placecl directly on the tablc.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                           CHILD-\VELFARE EXI{IBITS.                                                      39

       The cont.ast betrveen trvo styles of presentation, usnally i<cpt scpa-
        rrrt,-'. thlt of the photographer and that of the model rnaker', mailc
       ti,t' r'rliibit eflectir-e unrl attracted notice. A siniilar. coml.rirrrrtion
       ,'f tlre r'ethod of the model and that of the cha't can be made by
        t'la,-i.g a rn.p flnt on a table'ancl using colorecl .pright poles in
       I,lrr,.'ecf the brr diagrams rrhich n-o'ld be *secl on a rall.           fn
       !,riinv ctrsesthe ellect thus produced is tnrer tc actual conilitions, as
       '' lrc' grad'atecl poles, placed in a map of Ne'v york City, are used
       t. ill*strate heighis of builciings in difierent sections of torvn.
       \-rrlring cleath rates in clifferent parts of toryn can also be studiecl
       I'ctier in n model of this kinctr than in a cliagram, &s the relative
       lrositiol of various are&scan be discerneclat a glance.
           iy'Io'ing models and electrical devices.-There are many 'olurg
      niodels and eiectrical dericcs l-hich, while e>rpensive for the srnall-
      tor"-n exhibit, are weil worth the consicleration of any or.ganization
      Pitnning a traleling exhibit. one of these is the automatic stere-
      opticon. of rvhit'h there are several type*", ail operating in daylighi.
           Typicnl mocleis are:
           The Fjr.'s '\ir Line, used by boards of health ancl showi'g e srvarn
      <;f flies trar-eling from stable manure to an open privy and then to
      tlie faniily table.
           Part-time schools, a model orrnecl by the MassachrisettscotnteDe-
      partment of llciucation. shorring two sets of chilciren changing
     piaces in a school and a factory as a band of light passesfrom l-eek
     to r..'eeliof a calendar.
                  Path of Life, on'ed by the Ne'rv York state Department of
     Irerrlth. shor-ring a series of mor-ing belts 'pon n-hich clolls. repre-
     --rnting people of cli{Ierent ases, moye from bilih to cleath accorcing
     tc the ratio shon-n by rnoriality tables.
          The *'a-qte of p.evcntable clisease,shown by a mocler ownecl by the
     i'.l,lic I{ealth scr"rice, in rrhich a long ribbon cor-ered l-ith coins
     .l)*S"q€s    continuously out of the pocliet of a faltr I]ncle Sarn into the
     r,)()rth of a croccclile appropriately labeleC.
          ]Iociels of this liincl sho'ld be preparecl by expei.ienceil moilel
     rrrrrlrsrslthose nade by amateurs are ust-iallJlnnsatisfactory. .Ihere
      :rr'r'.   llorreler, a few simple electrical der-ices, the use of rvirich local
      , , 1 , 'r,. i c i l n s , a n d i n s o m c ( F . s c sl o c r l c o r n i n i i t e e r n e m L e l s . c u n r d c l
     t'flectir-eness irn exiribit. Frequently a theatr.ical electrician can
      i,e secureclrvho is especially slrilled in work of this t3'pe.
           rhe slieclooclleplug is an inerpensi'r-e attachmcnt (about 50 cents,
     ,,r',lrletl tlirough any eiectrical supply house) irhich can be attached
      t,, r* clcctric-lig'ht socket a,nd adjustecl so that the light wilr go on
     ::rr'l r i} rrt fairly legtillr intervals. The nses of this plug are rriany.
     It rri:iv lie tiileii for a 10-secondinterval, and hidden behincl a glass
     ' r' [r::ue paper star, bearing the inscription: ,, Eyery time this star

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
      40                   CTIILD.WELFARiI   EXT]IBITS.

       fades, somewherein Europe or the Uniied States a baby under 1
      year dies; 1 every 1-0seconds, everv minute, BGO
                                      6                      evcry hour. Half
       of these deaths are pret entable.t' The figures in the inscription ar.e
      quite necessary correct the occasionalrnomentswhen the star .will
      be out of order. A skedoodleplug may also be used instead of a
      stationary light behind a transparency. It may be used behind a
      combination of ground glass and paper arrangeclin such a .uray      that
      part of an inscription will be visible at a1l tirnes and part only when
      the light comeson. Questionsand ans.wers.        maps acrossthe face of
      n'hich some comment is rvritten concerning lan's or conditiorrs, are
      types of this use. Careful testing is necessaryto secure materials
      n'hich n ill be opaque to light and yet will n"ot shorq through the
      ground glass when the light is o{I. trVhite letters of heavy opaqlr-e
      paper pasted upon a background of translucent .white paper may be
      used. A skeedoodle    plug rnay also be used inside an opaque(. sootlr.-
      ing-simp " bot'cie,bearing on a thin, translucent iabel the inscrip-
      tion: '( Dr. Killem's Soothing Sirup Quiets Babies." \{'hen the lighi
      insicle the bottle comeson it makes visible the word ((Poison I il cnt
      frour black opaque paper. To get the best results the first inscrip-
      tion should be painted in light transparent coiors. so that it fades
      out completely.
         Flashers are devicesby which one circuit of electlic lights can be
      cxchangedfor another. The larger type ri.ith a sequence
      circuits is operated by motor and is rather expensir.e,     but a single
      arlternationof lights can be made bv simple flashers (about $1 at an
     clectrical supply house) operated by heat contact. i\ftuy uses carl
      be rnadeof a flasher of this kind in illuminating first one inscr,iptioa,
     then another. The most efrective use is perhaps the rvell-known
      " illusion " in which one picture or model is n3rgfslisusly repiacerl
     by another. This can be used to changea bad roorn into a good one,
     or to show a dirty beggar at a drinking fountain follorved by a
     mother and child. In a library exhibit an ilhision was used to illus-
     trate the statement," The child sees-right thr.ough the pages of the
     book-the rrorld of rvhich he reads." In this crse the bock page
     faded out and discloseda sceneor a globe. rilustration r{o. 15 shorrs
     the constructionof an ((illusion.t'
         Simple motols with appropriate gears attechei'l. Jreuseclto r.un
     revolving or oscillating signs and turntairles bearing morlels. A
     mor-ing panorana maclefor the exhibit of tlie Chiiclren's Bureau at
     the Panama-Pacific Exposition l'as entitled " Our Thirty Milion
     Children," and consistedof a chart sirorving for successir-e    agesthe
     plopoi'tion of children dying, going to school,or at wolli. A ni1r.r.orr.,
     continticus ribbcn bearing a niotto sometimes made to r.un iri.orurd
     the top of a booth. A motor may be rnadeto opet,ate turntabie, not

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                CITILD-IVELFARE             E.iiHIBITS.                                     4L

              contiiiuously but by definitely tirned rnor-erlerlts, so that an inscrip-
              t.i,-riroi' a picture appears for a given length of tirne ancl then p,l..u.
              riui,:liil o't of sig'ht, to be succeededb;. another. This is donc by
              ('rri:iiig a wheel to revolr,-eon ri'l-iich a projection str.iiies another: pro-
              jtr-ri.n on the revolving sign. The e{Iect is particuiarlr. goocl ilthe
              trirritrble bealing the four or' five sidecl flame contriining sigirs or
              lrittiit'es is hidden iu a case of which only one side js open, so tirai
              (,iil'one sign can be seen at a tine.                                   rn all experirnenting with
              r,,,)tors the very best electrical skiil is needed: it is not cirenli .rl,oi.k,
             r'r,'tpt for organizations which har-e an eiectrician aL their command.
                              or three other specific uses of elecirical cler-icesmay l.;e men-
             t i,,rre . d
                  " 'l Day in Babv's Life
                                                           " may be iilustrated by a large ciocli (first
             ri-.cclat tlie Pittsbulgh Ra'uv 'llreek) around l-irich the irands travel
             rrrl-riclly. As they pass ciifferent liours the5z for:ru contacts tr.hich
       -     illurninate dillerent insclipiiols or pictules illusti.ating the activities
             r,t' the baby at presciibed honls, srich as nursing at reguiar interr.als,
             l.,eing clresseclanrl batirecl. and sleeping.
                  " F'rhat to Do " is the title of a la'ge electric n'rlr chaft .secl irr
             tire philanthropv                   section of several chilcl-*-elfrir.e exhibits. Tire
            slrcctator is instructed to " press the button to flncl out ,) rvher.e to
            go " if yo' rvant to adopt a baby," ('if you knorv a case of cr:uelt.vto
            chilil-ren,t'" if a poor family applies to y.u for aid," etc. opposite
            eiicir question is a push button whicir is connected rvith an eleci'ic
            ligirt behincl a transparency, on rqhich is inscribecl the name of the
            rrrgrirrization to be consulted.
                 -ilrgic mirrors. often used for commercial adr-er.tising. can l:e
            ail:r1,ted for use in ed.cational exliibits. A clear-cu.t picture, de-
            sig.. or inscription, made on transiucent or transpnrent rnater.ial
            sui'lr as paper, celluloid, or ground glass, is placed directly behind
            ru " ,iorible milror " made of trvo pieces of glass rvith thin 6(
            rrrg " bet'ween them. The mirror. with the inscription beliind it, is
            ti,trr fustened into the frout of a shallcw box containing lights.
            \\-lrt'ir the light is off the clarkness of the box. reenfor.cins thc thirr
            . : - , , i i r , g . n r i t k c sn g o o d n r i r , r ' u r :n s s o o n n s t h e l i g h t i s t - u r n e do n ,
           r:-, :,i,klcn inscription or clesigl apr)errs upon the mirro.ts face.
           f-!.-- ,I.'ictl can Jreused ri.ith a, sliedooclle plugif onlv a single ciesign
           L: t , l'r ;-horrn. Irore complicated mirrors shorv cliffeletrt signs, ole
           rii.'r the other, on different portions of theil face ald inr-oir.e the
           u-'e ' i rt ll.sher and opaque partitions befween the r.nlious lights.
                (lt',:rrsi,,nally exhibits occ'r in which
                                                                                        a mor-ing rncdel can be
           elTtr iirel' .nd simply made n-ithout the use of electricity or any
           cnlr:l,iir"rtr:rl mechanism. A good example of this is a rnoclel usecl
           t-r tirt t-lrittc', States Foi'est Selvice to iliustrate the ralue of foiests

I     Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        42                   CITILD.WEL]IARE   EXI{IBITS.

        in preventing erosion of soil. At the tx'o rear corners of a model
        about 6 feet square light showers of water fall from faucets. On
        one side the water is receivedby a fir forest; it trickles through the
        branchesand emergesas a clear stream fiowing through a clear lake
        into a drainpipe at the front of the moilel. On the other side the
        water strikes a birre hillside and is speedily conver,tedinto a muddy
        stream which \searsaway the hill, converts a lake into an overflow-
        ing marsh, and spoils the surrounding landscape. On both sides
        of the model the n'ater actually completesthese operations without
        interference,and thus gives an effectil.eobject lesson.
                                 LIVING   EXHIBITS,

          A short investigating tour talien on fir'e separrte occasionsthrough
       four of the exhibit palacesof the Pnnama-PacificExposition showed
       that of 25 exhibits attracting the attention of more than 10 persons
       all but one dependedfor their interest upon ihe constant activity of
       human beings. A flour exhibit, in n'hich lr-ornenclressed nationai
       costnmesmade the breads of various nationsI a cigar exhibit, in
       rrhich girls manufactured cigarsl exhibits in wliich gnve arvay
       food samples: a telephoneexhibit, with a man talking to New York;
       a fir-e-scene illusion. showing the progressof typewriting; & \roman
       rvho rer-ol'led,apparently in mid-air, with her feet executing dance
       steps abor-e her hend; thesewere the features on which the successf   irl
       commercial exhibitors relied to draw crowds. Among the ecluca-
       tionrl erhibits the Children's Burean grouped its exhibits arouncl
       a children's health conference,  n'ith an examination of chiidren, and
       also carlied on dcmonstrations home pla.v anclthe prepara,tion
                                         of                                  of
       food; the Bureau of l\{ines conducteda mimic rnine erplosion claily,
       and adrninisteredfirst aid; the Race-Betterment        Erhibit supplied
       free vibrating chairs, in which the tired public, comfortably reclining,
       uneonsciouslv    becamer-olunteerdemonstrators.
          Other things being equal,the interest taken by any city in a child-
       'welfareexhibit is probabl5z direct ratio to the nnmber of volnnteer
       attendantsand perfolmers. The human elernentin an exhibit mav
       be of three kinds:
         Explainers and guides.
         Ilxpert denonstrators and lecturers.
         Performers in entertainmentsand living exhibits.
          Explainers.-The organization of explainers has been mentioned
       under the head of committeeorganization. That an exhibit (.ex-
       plains itself " to the exhibitor is no reason for dispensing .n'ith ex-
       plainers. As hostesses    and demonstratorsthey draw the public into
       the exhibit and help to drive home important points. A spectator
       reniernbersthe things rrhich he discusses. Realization of this fact
       Ied. in the -qpringfield exhibit, to the reserving of a spacenear the

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                             EXHIBITS.                                                                     43
     31i1. *lrc'e cliscussionconce'ning both tire exhibit as a rrhole rrnclir'v
     (F:t-trrll-{ r'trisecll-ry it rvas constrrntly carriecl on unctrerexpelt griitl-
          Ti,t,.c cxplainels are in some \rnJ,s more impcrtant than the ex_
      Sbit-,. tliernselvesl & poor exhibit rvith a goocl explainer rqill clrarv
      trorc rrttention and make a more lasting impression than a goocl
     crhil,ir ri-ith a poor explainer. But r.ivacity and an ability to talli
     t". J1,rtthe only qualifications necessary. Much ha'm can be done
     br intccurate explaining, ancl this shoulcl be carefullv sunrcled
                              to insure                          e . r p l * i n e r s ,e r c h c - r l r i l , i t l n g . o l r . , n i , t * u
     6[, riltl rs far as possible , p . t * n t its on'n, and wrren this is impossible
     s l , , : , 1 , 1r r l r p l y t o t h e c . n r r n i t t e e o n e x i l l a i n e r s f o r r . o l r r n t e e r s ,f o l
     rl1,'51' t.aining the exhibiting committee then becomes responsibie.
     \\-rcklr meetings of explainels to receir-e instmction hare sometimes
     I'r'n hcld to meet this situation. rn acldition to these trained ex.
     lrl, there is alnavs loom for general guides and hostessesin
     rttcnal&nce at the information desk and free to be assignecl rrherer-er
     ntrdecl. All erplainers and dernonstrators of ererl, kincl shoulcl
     n'1rri't to the irrforrnntion desk on entering trre builcling, so tirat
     tlel may be easily reached ancl so that tlie chairrn:rn of explainers
     nrirl be sure fhat the entire floor is l-ell prolicleil with them.
         Dernonstrations.-These                         range frorn the simple demonstration.
    s iri.'h is hardly more than an explanation of tiie exhibit. to changi'g
    pl'r )qrilms held on special sttrges clistributed throughout the exhibit-.
    Tiier- are clirectly under the control of the ser-enl exhibiting cr_im-
    n.irrccs, rvliich should keep in close totr-chrvith the proglam cominit-
    tet- t' al-oid conflict rvith programs irear by. some clemonstrations
    er..' practicallv continuousl others ale reserved for special hours or
    sl'r,,irl days. The committee on health, for instance, may wish to
    irrrrt'a nurse gir-ing a continuous demonstrntion (on tr cloll) of the
    l.rrtiriug ancl chessing .f the baby. Demonstrations on the proper
    I'r't'lr11's1fi6n foocl for young chilclren are more apt to be a part of
    a -,.t l)rogram, 'rarying florn hour to hcur rnd chy to clay as clifier-
   q'11f ,,.{5 are shon'n. A dental examination room, an iufant-weifare
   :{;iii, ir. or a cornplete children's health confet'ence may be living
   erl'ii'its in tlie health section. (see illustration No. 11.) rn tirc
    R., irt.=rcLChild-\lrelfare Exhibit a small booth was set asicle for the
   inarigrrrirtion of the spring fly carnpaign, for which chilcir.eneniistecl
   en,l :tieir-ecl sour-enir pleclge cards ancl meclalslthe crorvcl attractecl
   [sJ* rlrrs r-elv lalge. (See iliustrrttion No. 12.)
        -\ ,.,,1111iii[fse schools freq'e'tly finds it
                                     on                                                                               to ca'.y on
   s:all ,1,.'nronstlation                  classesto illustrate some of the subjects taught
   in ti,r .'' such as'rnanual training, domestic science. dran'ing,
   Gf 1,3       1r11'   crrtting. A recleation counittee often centers its clispl:rv

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                              CITILD_WELFARE    EXIIIBITS.

       around a small plavground, rvhich cares fol the chilclreri who rvish to
       come. The library rnay offer a -.irnilar attraction to chilcir.en by
       maintaining a small children's loom in nctr.trrl    opelntion. (See ilius-
       tlation l{o. 13.) The philanthropy comrnittee (or the health coni-
       mittee) mal rnanage a smali da1' nnrsery for the ]tenefi.t of rnothels
       n'ho x'ish to see tirc ei;hibit. In ail these cases tlie childlen tirern-
       selves. merely by availing themseh,es of oppoi.iunities olTered, rnalie
       a liring ciernonstratiou to the public of the r-orth of tliese oppol-
          In sorne pllts of the exliibition. notalili' thosc cler-oted to seitle-
       rnents, clubs, and associations, it may seem llise to erect a specirl
       stage or set asicle a special flool space for the joint risc of ser-elrl
       organizrtions. no one of u-iricli can fr.rrnish enorigir rnatelial to fiII
       it. Bov Scouts shorving their " first aid to the injured," Camp Fire
       Gills' activities, classes in n'eaving or pottery fi'om a settlement,
       demonstrations of folk dnncing not suited to a lalger sLlace,a clrr,ss
       in butter making from an industlial school, or a class in spenking
       fiom an iirstitution for the deaf are ail among the possibilitie. iu a
       space of this hincl.
          trnder this head of living dernonstratioirs l'orild come aiso s1;el:ial
       conferences for mothers, held under tlie health comurittee ancl con-
       ducted by local doctors, and specially conductetl tours thrcugh
       valiotr-s sections, for which some well lrnorvn local person is an-
       nounced as guide. These demonstrations crn 'rvell be calried on
       under tlie exhibiting committees, but if they prornise to attain mrich
       size and importunce the program committee shoulcl lre consriltecl
       about them.
          Program committtee.-Be{ore        selecting a program comrnittee the
       executive   committee shoulcl first of all decide on the general tvpe of
       plogram desired. Large conferences with out-of-torvn speai<elsharre
       almost invariably pror-ed disappointing nhen held in connection
       rvith an exhibit, unless the exhibit is a ver5' small one. chosen simply
       to illustrate tire conference. Custom probablv demands an exceptiorr
       to this mle in the case of a formai opening, rvhere tlie speeches
       should be short, pointed, ancl interspersed n'ith mnsic or other forris
       of entertainment. One or two smali conferences ol lound trbies of
       workers may be valuable if the audience is circ'senns clr-efullr ns tho
       spealier ancl the subjects restlicted to matter:s of immediate impor.-
       tance cn rvhich action is pressing. But inost of tho social workels
       of the cornmunity should be engaged at this time in explaining the
       exhil-rit or planning the follorv-up N'ork to corne a{tel the exiribit.
       Anv r:onference n'hich'clilerts them from these duties is likelv to cio
       hli'rn. If sulficient monev is ar-aiiabie for good speakers,it is a inuch
       l.retter'plrrtrto bring them at intcrr.als aftel'the erbibit is, l'herr
       each adJress ciil L;e sepal'ate1;' ndr ei'tised ancl n'hen the exiiibit

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                   CIIILD_WELI.'ARE      EXI{IBITS.                           45
           rrirrr'r'irri reenforcing the acld.ess ca' bc assembled again
                                                                                        a'cl set
           rl.r)und the lectru'e hall. such aclch.esses, ri'ell .s the round
                                                               as                         tables
           rriror-e mentionecl, nray be refelred to the progrliin committee, or
           rrir' be decicicd tirat 'rhey can be handlecl better throrrgh the
           :..itreesinterestctl in the sub-jects be reDresentecl.
              -\{ter clispr,siag of the q'estiun of co-nferences and referring
          ruinor clemonstrations in the secticns to the cxhibiting
          rriiitees the main question rernaining concerrls tire kin.l of p'ogi.a'r
          ( rrtel'tainlnents to be planncd for tiie
                                                                   court or. mJi' stage of
          the,exliibit' opinions are dii'ided concei''ing the i.rriue of 1arge,
          t.lil entertainrnents occul.irrg tr-,-icedailv ancl clrarring grent
         ,,f people orrl'v pa.tiallv o. not at all i'ter.estecl-in thc"sritject
         L'{ the erhibit. As a rrrle. rrorve'r-er.       clem'nstrati.ns on a big sc,,re
         ,,f activities of tire cornrrrunity's crrilch.e', sncir as ch.rrises
         'r'oices frorn the schools,                                                  oi i.coo
                                           folk danei'g, a'd g\-'rnastics from ihe
         .cliools an,dplaygrounds, and similar tJisplar-s.         i*.-" n ver.y irnnorrrnt
         frurction. Thel- selr-e as exliibits of cor-rr,initr, actii,ities;
                                                                                    they gire .'r'be.s of ciiilclrc^ a'cl their 1ra.e'ts a ieeri'g
                                                                             trrai tliey har-e
         a sha.e in the exliibit I n'd tirey d'ari' out 'c,t 're.el i-
                                                                            a c.on.d, but a
        tlro'oughly de*oc.atic c.orvcl, a crorrtl cor'i'g to se,e         its cliiicL.en per_
         f.r'n. not yet i'terested pe.hrps i. nll the rrlatters clispla5.eri
                                                                                        in the
        crhibit, but the cro*'d. none the ress. npon ''hich the
                                                                                            ancl'ci'g       of all re'redial legislation r-iil ciepend. rf trie per-
        I',r'rnirncesin the central co'r't or. on the nrain stage a'e restrictecl
        three-quarters of an ho.r in rength. ancr if tri.. e-xprai'i.g
                                                                                      for.ce is
        *'ell organized ancl reacly to rrandle the c'o'-cls
                                                                        tlat arJ .eleased
        i'iniediatelv after the enterttrinrnents. no ha'n b*t rather
       ri'oulcl result fiom a t}-pe of demonst.ation whicrr
                                                                         b'ings out tlicu-
       s:i'ds of pecolc. To safegriard the cirilch'en tarii'g p""-t
                                                                                  tr-ru enter-
       tili'ments sho.ld be in the natu.e of an exhibit of rircr-rractria]ly
       rieci.on in scliools. plavgro'nds. oi' u.crer r-oiunteer age'cies,
                                                                                       rvitir a
       'iinirnum of reiiearsal ancl conseq'entlv with the po..ibilito
                                                                                    of using
       tliflerent child.en fo' ahnost
                                                     1r"r:for.rrlance. This ar.rangement
       i-. also ad'r.isable order to' prre.ts fro'r as ma.y
                                                                               Par:ts of tire
      citv as possible.
            If a prograrrr of this t;'pe is agleeil ripon Lr1,
                                                                  the cxecutir.e cornrnit_
      tre. the. thc pi'og.arn conrmittee srrourrl be iracre up of the persons
 I'e fittecl to talie cira'ge of sepa.ate
                                                           Ploglanls. such ns thc s*per._

 I    ri-',rs of mnsic uncl gr.'r^astics iir the schoois. tlie ph.vsical
      t,l the )*oung }Ien's Christian Association. jeo.ier,-" tir"     o?
                                                                                Boy Scouts
I     rr' I carnp Fire Gi'ls, etc., uncler the crrai''airship of .oml

      nrrrtirrlly acceptabie. This co'rrnittee'eecl 'reet oniy trrice-once
      s,' the times of the perfo.'rances ancl cecitlc ,qror. tlr"
      ri iri.h is neeclccl    joi'ttJ-, such as pia'o ancl tlressiiry rooins,
                                                                                  and latcr.

f     1,, r'it'ic'rninerlc'tliis of floor.'.rn.gc're't.      Thc inst"allationcomnittee


Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        46                      CI{ILD.WELFARE     EXITIBITS.

        rnust be conslllted on many of these matters, and careful considera-
        tion nust be giren to questions of special equipment, such as chairs
        neeclerl for some performances but not for others. The frequent
        uror-ernent of largc numbers of chails, fcr instance, rray proye a
        serious itern of expens€ and should be carefully guarded against.
           Special pagcants and rlramas rvritten for p-erformance by children
        at cliild-rrelf are erhibits are frequently l.ell worth giving.           A
        pagcant on a large scale. lasting for an entire evening, is perhaps
        t n the rvhole inad'r'isable. as it interfeles seriously rrith the conduct
        of the rest of tire exhibit and can not be given v'ith the best efiect
        rncler exhibition conditicns. Two short pinys, prepared on subjects
        concelnecl* n-itir the of children, rrele uscd to great advantage
        in the Pittsburgh Rabv I\'eek. One of these. entitled " The Theft'of
        Tliistledoirn," rvill selre as an exarnple. It depicts a fairy court, to
        l-hich. amicl dances ancl fairy rerels, Thistleclon-n brings an earth
        balrv stolen from concliticns n'hich she grapliically describes. In
        piini-.lunent for her theft she is conrlemnecl. greatly to her dismay,
        to become herself that rnucli lor-ecl ancl much abused tliing, an ealth
        baby. rrntil such time as inothers learn to treat their babies properly.
        The pla3z closes l'ith a picturesque appeirl to the audience to help
        free pool Thistledown.

                               AFTER      THE    EXHIBIT.

           Some pcssible resriits to r.,'hicir erhil-rits mav lead hirve been men-
        tione,:l in c,rnneciiorr rrith the infant-welfarc exhibits ancl health con-
        fclcnce.s designecl to encourage flie establisiiment of infant-rrelfare
        s:t,ationsor child-velfare centers. The rcsnlts oi a community child-
        l'clfri.le eshibit are more r-ai'iecl. clepentlilg irpon i.hc particulrrr needs
        crnphasizecl b1, the exhibit and the particular organizations thtt were
        especiaily actir-e in l'or-king for                 ,\n exhibit is a form of
        ctlrrcation througir publicity.       If con-.iclerecl an encl in itself, the
        clc;sing night l'ili incleed bc "the enil"t if usecl as u tocl, it may be
        rnricle the means of real accornplishment. A new factory inspector
        in l(ansas Cit"n" a hoiising inspector in Louisr-ille. a $25,000 scliool
        Lrriltling in a congested clistrict of Northampton, increased sower con-
        nections in Etr-*thnnipton rrhelr. the icc s--rpptrvof the torrn was
        rircnaced are types o{ results rvhich have'oeen secnred in practically
        g:ery communit;r fl36 has clevoted sullicient tirne and thought to the
        1-,luuiing of a child-n'elfare exhibit" In cities where no o::ganizecl
        c<,'mbination of social agencics exists to interpret and carry out the
        iegislative plogram snggestecl by an exhibit, the exhibit organiza-
        ticn it-.elf is often a first step to such a combination ancl leaves
        bchinrl it conmittees which are naturai n orliing divisicns of the
        sccilll fr.,rce's the commnirity, together witir lists of manv nc-*' worl<-

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                               CITILD-WELFANE EXITIBITS.                       47

          ers discoveredby the committee on explainers. trVhereno distinct
          neeclexists for a new grouping of the city's forces the child-welfare
          exhibit shouid practically disband after the exhibit instead of adcling
          tri the numerous agenciesalready existing and should turn its vork
          ancl its possessions   over to the agency best qualified to carry on tlie
          rvork not yet finished.
             Local exliibits prepared for a large exhibition may lte used again
          and again in neighborhood exhibits. They may be depositedin the
          public library, if it is a strong and conveniently situated institution,
          and drawn out by application; while the demand for their use can be
          stimulated by a ccrnmittee of volunteers drawn from the original
          cliild-rvelfare exhibit or from the organization now in charge of its
          afrairs. Even if exhibits are taken back by the organization which
          prepared them they should be cataloguedat somecentral place.
             The immediate consciouspurpose of the chiid-welfare exhibit is,
          after all, not tc legislate, nor to combine, nor te convert, but to
         exhibit, and by exhibiting to educate. ft is the answer to a great
         popular demand for easierand quicker ways of learning.
            "'!'[re do t]ris for the baby since we went to the coliseum,ttwas a
         constantly repeated phrase in the round of nursest visits after the
         Chicago Child-\trrelfareExhibit. " Since the exhibit social workers
         knor,v each other by their first nflmes,,tsaid a I(entuclry woman.
         " Since the exhibit peopleunderstand what our boerd is trying to ac-
         complish," said a prominent city o{ficial. (cAfter the exhibit the sup-
         port given to our society was doubled almost immediately,,t said a
         New England worker. ttSince the exhibit social work has a new
         standing in the community," said a prominent citizen of a western
            Through these subtle changesof attitude and conviction, of indi-
         vidual and community relations, the child-welfare exhibit works out
         its true purpose of popular education.

I   Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                        This pageis blank in the
                          original document.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                 APPEI{DIX r.

                                           JANUARY r, r9r5.

      t'tlifornia, State Board of Health,              Gencral heiritll car.
      Coiorado, State Roard of Health,                 Lantern     slides.
      Floricla, State Board. of I{ealth,          1'n'o general herltli           exhillit-q, incjur..lins G0
         Jacksonville.                                square feet of rrali clisplays tt_r
                                                 trfoticu pictures and lantern slides on sc'iterrl
                                                 Literature and lectures supplied.
       (ieot'gia, State Board of Elealth, G e n e l a l l i e a i r h e x h i b i t a n d i t l n s t r a t e d l e c -
           Atlanta.                                   trii'es.
       Illiuois, State Bo:rrd of Health,        Exteusire generel health exhibit of mechrini-
           Springfielcl.                              cal and still moclels, electrical devices, ancL
                                                      hand-colored. cartoons,             requir,ing           three
                                                     booths 10 by 10 by 8 feet for the part
                                                      relating g,specially to cbildren.             l{any mod-
                                                      els on ilfant     uiortaiity,       flies, sanitation,
                                                 l\Iotion pictures on neecl of birth registra-
                                                      tion, ete. Slides, literature, and lectulers
      Indiaua, Purclue Tjniversi[y, La- Ifodels of iufrrnt clotbing aucl pictures deal-
          firl'ette.                                 ing with infant feeding used in lectures
                                                     on the hygiene of infancy trefore women's
                                                     elubs, mothers' club meetings, farmers'
                                                     iustitutes, etc.
      Intliana, State Boarrl of Healtb,         Extensive         geueral health           exhibit          of 600
          Inclianapolis.                             square feet wall space. about one-fifilr of
                                                     which is devotetl to child hygiene.
                                                Ilodels on sanitation.
                                                Six niotion-picture fiIms, 80O slicles.
                                                Literature       ancl lecturers furnishecl.
      I ndiana L'l'uiversity, Bloomington.      Trar-eling exhibit of eight screens suggesting
                                                    w-hat auy cotnltunity can do for itself antl
                                                    for its cliiidren.
      I, '1.,';1.
                State Department of llealth     Extensire general health exhibit, incluclins
          rrnd lfedical      Examiners.    Des      100 quale feot of r-all spncc for exhihjti
          ^\[oines.                                 relating to chilclren.
                                                Iloriel,s on I)atent medicines, baby saving,
                                                    sirnitation, ete.
                St:tte Uni'r'ersity, fowa City. One hundrecl wall eharts, 3 by b feet each.
                                                A physician supplied for organizing and ecn-
                                                    clucting baby health coutests and. confer-
                           Boerd of Heaith.     General health exhibit, including 500 square
                                                    feet of n'aII charts on care of babies.
                                                nlotion pictnres ancl slides.
                                                Literature       ancl lecturers.

provided by the Maternal and child Health Library, Georgetown university
      50                        C}IILD-WIJLFARE        EXE[IBITS.

      liftnsas, State   University, Law-     Exhibits showing surveys of Lawrerrce and
          rcnce,                               Relllille, 200 square feet of wall space.
                                             Seven motion-picture fllms, 2,000 slides.
                                             Literature and lecturers.
      I(entueky, State Board of flealth,     General hefllth traveting exhibit,
      Louisiana, State Board of llealth,     Drlucntion hygiene exhibit cars aril small
         i\ew Orleans,                          parish-fair exhibit. one-fourth
                                                on children.
                                             Eleven electrical devices, 20 models.
                                             Fourteen motion-picture fl1ms, 5O0slides.
                                             Literature and four lecturers continuously
                                                 (one for negroes).
      luaine, State Board     of llealth,    Exhibits on child welfare, school hygiene,
        Arl$uStfl,                              rurnl hygiene, tuberculosis (about G00
                                                square feet.wall space).
                                             n'ramed cards and eards on burlap strips.
                                             Table exhibits, slides.
                                             Large variety of literature, lecturers.
      l[ichigan, State Board of Elealth,     General heaith exhlbit, including charts and
         Lilnsing.                              models on child bygiene and sanitation.
                                             Slicles and lecturers.
      New Jersey, State        Board    of   General health exhibit ancl motion-picture
        Health, 'I'renton.                      machine.
                                             'l'hree exhibits on rural sanitation and three
      New York, State DePartment of
       Henlth. AlbanY.                          on child welfare. Each cltild-welftrre ex-
                                                hibit requires 70 lineal feet of v'all space
                                                ancl 15 by 21 foot booth for infant-welfare
                                             Models, motion pictures, slides.
                                             Pamphlets and lecturers.
                                             Dxhibit manager, nurse, and mechanic s'ith
                                                 each exhibit.
      North Carolina, State Board. of        Dxliibit on general health, inclutting chiltl
        Health, Raleigh.                         hygiene.
                                              Slides and lecturers.
                                             Parcel-post exhibits for small communities.
      Ohio, State Board of Ilealth' Co-      Public-health exhibit on infant mortality,
       lumbus.                                  blindness, school hygiene, clertal lrygiene,
                                                communicable tliseases, occupatioDal dis-
                                                 eascs, tuberculosis. Requires room 30 by
                                                 30 by 14 feet.
                                             I\fodels and electrical devices.
                                             Ten fllms. 1,500 slitles.
                                             Leaflets and lecturer.
      Pennsylvrrnia, State DePartment        Exhibit on infant welfare, 1,200 square feet
        of Heattb, Harrisburg.                   of wall space.
                                              Slrecill help for communities pre-paring
                                                 their own exhibits, blue prints, etc.'
      South Carolinn, Fi'inthrop Normal       Extension worh inclutles formation of home-
       aDil Industrial College' Rock-            keepers' clubs for girls and of mothcrs'
       hill.                                     eircles for the study of the cbild.
                                              Baby contests and conferencesarranged.
                                              Demonstrations of sleeping quarters for the
                                              Equipment for milk modification.
                                              n'eeding charts.
                                              Literature distributed,
      Tennessee, State   Boarcl of            Charts, motion pictures, literature, and lec-
        Health. Lebanon.                         tures on typhoitl, tuberculosis, hoohworm.
      Texas, State Board of Health,           Car on general health and infant hygiene.
        r This departmcnt has a large exbibit   in the Panama-Pacific   Expositlon,   which   slrould
      be aYailabl6 aftcr Jan. 1, 1916.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                 C}IILD-WELT'ARE       EXTTIBITS.                      51
       Ti:srr-q.State lJ-niversity, Austin.   fforty panels on better trabies, 10 on child
                                              l\'Ioclels and electrical devlces.
                                              l\Iotion-picture nrachlne, 500 slides,
                                              Thirty bulletins.
       I. t;rh. State Roard of }Iealth,       Slides, literature, anrl lectures,
           Sult Lake City.
       Ieruront, State Board of I{ealth,  Ilotion pictures or rnilk, water, vital sta-
           IJnrlington.                       tistics, tuberculosis. Slitles and lectures.
                                          A motion-picture machine rvith electrical
                                             rnotor generator for use in rural districts
                                             '$here electricity is not available.
       r-irginir, Stlte lloard of Health, Charts on tuberculosis, hookworm, typhoid,
           Iiicl)mond.                       300 square feet wall space. Abor:t one-
                                              half refers to children.
                                          Iiiletoscope, n'ith filnis on fly, mosquito,
                                             care of baby, etc. 250 sliates.
                                          Literature and lecturers.
       \\'irshingtotr, State Roard of A few wall charts and pamphlpJs on the
          IIealth, Seattle.                  care of the baby.
       \\'isconsin, State University, One hundred antl twenty-five charts on
          ]Iarlisol.                         health. Section rlevoterl to children re-
                                             quires 75 square feet wnll space.
                                          I\Iodels flnd electricnl devices.
                                          X'ive films anal 1,000 slides.
                                          Literature and lecturers.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                            APPENDIX z.

                      RECORDS OF CHILDREN'S HEALTH                 CONFERENCE.
          The reccrd blank ugerl by the Children's Flealth Conference con6qetetl by tire
       chiltirerr's Bureau in the- panarira-paci8c Exposition is not a score-cara,"rvittr
       gi'iliies ou
                    ,a percentage basig but a much simpler statement, being inteDtlecl
       rot to grade chilclren for purposes of courparison tiut to be of serrice to the
       inclii'idual child. Measulerlents are placed where indicaterl; r check is placed
       to-irlclicate a defect. opposjte strin, boles, uutrition, or any of ilre items jn ilris
       colunrn. -1lhe-sxmnary is u-<edfor suggestions to the pa-r.entfor tlie iruprove-
       ment of the child.
         Thc recortl below is checked to indicate a tJ'pical case of aderroirls:

                   1. trIale; Fesafe                    X    12. Gencral nutrition:    Poor.
                   2. Age: 6 yenrs.

                   3. lVeightatbirth:   s{ pou,nds.
                   4. I{ow long breast-fed exclu-                Bones: r\ro, trlellJormed.

                        eively: 6 weelcs.               X   15. Muscles: Bqft.
                   5. Age vrhen rveaned: 3 montlu.          16. Skin.
                   6.      rveaned: Nomilk.                 17. Ilair.
                   7.       foocls:                         18. Eyes
                        lIod. cotos'milk.                   19. Ears
                   8. Previous illnesses(with age):     X   20. Nosc: Poorly deuelopcd.
                       \Yhooping cough..                    21. Mouth.
                       Measles                              22   Tor'+h

                                                            23. Tonsils..-

                                                            24. Adenoids: Present.
                       Digestivediseases. -. . - -.
                                       -..                  25. Glands. -
                                                            26. Heart-
                       Other diseases                       27. Lungs.
                  9. trVeight: 39 pouncls10 ounc6 - -       28. Liver.
                 10. Ileight: 46.5.                         2C. Spieen.
                 11. Dimensionsof head: 20.6.               30. Ext. genitals

         The     second sheet of the record is left biank for a summary n'hich forms a
      $'ritten    r6sum6 of the more detailed ad.r'ice givcl by n'orcl of mouttr. The fol-
      lowing     selected summaries will give a suggestion of the type of children cotrl-
      ing to      the colference, and the simple language il wnicn advice is giren.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                            CIIILD-\',/ELFARE             EX IIIBITS.                                       ro

         .'rll tn:hnical terne are nrci4erl in ot'der tc bring tlie sriggestio:rsriititrl I'rrnge
         ,,i rire tutlerst:LrrcLing a motiler of a.r.eiaE;e
                                           of                                   ittelligence.
              1. 1lqunmary ol'abole record.) This child has ilrin, pincherl nosilils rrril
         ( , 'lrl|ilcterl chest, t1ue, problL'rily,to llresence of acletolils, rvhicli lrllic it iur-
         l",s';ible for hiI]I to bleathe properly. He is over Leight but llcieL r-reighi, lLgtl
          i: rl{}i rs_vell tlelelopecl as l chilcl of his age orght to be, because he cril Dot
         g..r jlrto l"rishiltgs eirough oxtgen to malie gooil blooil.
               rliis lr}ay retard his.urelltal tleYeioirnellt, nrakirig it hartl for him to kcep
         r:;, s'ith his school rvorli.
              IIis adenoids ought to be reruor.edand he be kept out of tloors atay anci night
         iri_lrrrssible.      _Give 'qin!le, lourishi'g footl as per.accompanyi.g dietary.          - "
              I)()l]'t sellrl hinr to scirool il)is Jlear. Build [irD up
              ll. Tiris chiltl is a ct'etiit to arl intelligent mothei' altl shon's the aclvaltages
         (,f b1'erst feediug. She is well developed,in good propoltions, atrd
                                                                                                               seems in fine
              Iiecp her so b5: 3-11         out-of-door life, regurnr habits. simpie, rvholesome foocl.
         \o crifing betrveen nle:ils, rlo late hours ubr moving-piciur6 shorvs,1o crorvr.,ing
        il school work.
              Her teeth need her constant care aird the or.ersight of a dentist: Deca;ing
        tt,etll meal deconposing food ald inrlieestion.
           . 3' ll'qis b.rby is thin and lroo'ly nouiishetr. He shor.rsthrt he is Dor getti'g
        the r'ight lrind of footl.                      rvaste youl tiue anrl tils strength-eiper*irnenting.
        'l':Ji.                               _Dor.r't
                      hi'r to a gco{l chirdre'n's specialist rntl follorv his clirecticns. '
              Fre is aiso ovelclothed.              'rhe baml is uo ronger
                                                                                              necessary; it is fulr of
        rrl'iniiles, and 'rery uncou'ifortirble. pin bis shirt to diaper; at"soiris stockings,
        nhich.should be long eltough to cover eltire leg. He *oy need ilre short
        s:r.k ni_ghtaud rnorning, brit_don't let his body gct wet witn
                                                                                                       irersplration, as it
        nrrkes him susceptil)le colds.      to
           . ciia'ge all clothiug at'igiit                      air tiroroughly. r{e oughi to sleep ontJ, in
        sLirt. di:rper, and gown (fl:rnnelette iu winter ancl muslin io so.-e").                                        If he
        can slce_p a protected_
                            in_                corner of the porch he will becornetess suscdptille to
        c,rlls. In that case make, sleeping bags by accompanying plrttem, ouly ,
                                                                                                               ' - '
        ing jn sleeres with tlrarr- string in v'inter to keep his hinAi iva.rl,u.
             4.. 'llhis is a_tiny bahy ancl neetls breast nrilii. Try to get
        in lbetter C o n d i t i O n S o t h a t T o u r m i l k r v i l l n o i give n r r i
                ) e t t e r condition so
                                                                                                         ),our own health
                                                 your Drilk will not s i r : o oui.              Drinh n r i l r z and - ^ ^ ^ -
                                                                                                 rlrinl:   ruilk o n ^ eocoa
        i'stoird of tea a'd coffee, ea_tonry simple, uouiishrng rooa, rrave a nup oo tt
        r',,rcb elery lay while the-baby is asleep, ancr marie up your -jlto-io nu"re
                                                                          -wiit.                                                 "
        binr six rnonths al:vvay. You can lf you
             Irrur-hour'i.tervais wili be better both for yor-ir baby and yourself.
             r,ul cloctor $'ilt herp you ri'heu he sees ihat neiitrer: of yun *1e in good
             5. James is a big, wer-built boy, has goorl col.or.,                       antl seems in fine condition,
       erirept for his knees, s'hich. are too prontilent, antl his arikles, wttich are nig
       entl bulging on the inn-cr sitlo. He nraS' hrir-e s'alked before his atilles wei,6
       s:r,'irg enough to bear his weight oi his fu,od nray not have contained.enough
       t.,rif'-l,r'oducing        elerxents,
             IIe needs careful feedirrg ancl special care to ]lre\.ent a permanent malforma_
       ci,rr ,f the ankte anrl l flattonetl arch of tlie fbot, wouid suggest ilre adr-ice
       of ri good orthopedist in selection of his shoes and to gire hiil any posslbte
       f,f{.rolltiYe care.
             c. -\brilm is suffering frorn faulty feeding. His bow legs and rcughened, flar-
       lr: rilrs shorv thrt liis borres rLe not deleloping rvell, and his tee"thare siow
       l: c,'r1liilg,because he needs a food wiilr more llone-producing material. oows'
       r:.1-: ir nrore liiie mother's inilli tiran flre nanufactured foocl
       lI,- :..'t:,isa little or:rDgejuice ever,'tlay. 'l.ake him to a rnilk .*atiJn, anA tfrey            "vou ar-e usirrg..
      J:.. l,,.ip J'ou secr.lre          the best possibigfcod for your baby.
            i. IlrliY Blark seems to lre a happy, well-nourishetl brrby. she $-eighs more
      tL     '', rlt: ryerage chiltl of irer age, but has lai.her more
                                                                                                fCt than t,rusile. rrel
      :l.l :r,inrtl rneasureme]lt greater in proportioD to her chcst nnd berd than is
      o-:--:,i"l'ed norm:rl. This is prob:rbly due to clistenfionof fiie intestincs,
            ('r. r,ur of wheat, bread, and pctatoes are more starch thnn she reetls.
      tlrr ;-'t;lro under 14 to 16 months_. Try, strainetl oatme,1l, cooked slowly for
      tr,. !. ';r.i. instearl of cream of wheat, for hel constipaticn. Give also-pulp
      af :'.-'.,.r1 :rpples, peache.s,-or            prrines every day in nddii.ion to the orange jilce.
      .l t : "sl),)()rlfu1 beef juice squeezedfron a bit of iightly broiled rouncl ste:rli
      b t-        -'..r'f,ri'ir ciriltl
                                        of her agc tharl so much starchy food.'
            Tr:, L ht'r"habits of i'egularity in order to overcome hcr coustiptrtiou.

Provided bv the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                             APPENDIX 3.

                          TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

        I-Ised as a standartl of compnrison for the Children's I{ealth Conference in
     the exhibit of the Children's Bureau in the Plnama-Pacific Exposition. Irigures
     for children of 3 years and under are obtained from the more-detailed anthro-
     pometric table published by the Council on IIeaIth antl Public Instruction of the
     American Medical Association and are based on measurements of 4,480 babies
     in 23 States. As this table does not go above 42 months, the figures for the
     oltlei' children are taken from llolt's measurements.

                                            Ileight.                                                Abdonen,

                  Male.             ;;l"*"1             I
                                                            IIale.   Iemale.   uare. remale.Male.
                                                                                   I       _l_

                    /. DO   7. 16     .6        n.5         13.9               13.4     13.0     16.875      to. J /D
                  17.875 1 6 . 0    26.50         .8t'5     t7.5                        t6.75    t7.1        16.625
                  2t.      20.875   m.375       28.75       18.5               18.375   18.125   17.875      17.875
                  27.5     26.625   33.6        33.5        r9.375             19.624   19.5     18.75       19.0
                                                                                                 ti ili      19.75

                  45.I     43.8     44.1        43.6                                    22.8
                  49.5     48.0     46.2        45.9                                    %.3
                  54.5     52.9     48.2        48.0                                       8
                                                                                        2.3.     '.:::::
                  60.0     al.o     50. 1       49.6                           25.1     24.5
                  66.6     &.1                  51.8                           25.8     24.7     .--..-'l
                  i2.4     70.3     54.0        53.8                           26.4     25.8     "--""1
                                    Dr- d
                                                5?.1                           27.0
                                                                                        28.0     .:.:::::l
                                                60. 3
                                                                                        30.3     .:.:::..1
                                                                                        30.8 " . ' . " ' l

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                              APPENDIX 4.


                             " Character is cleterminerl by flre use of leisure time."

                                                  CHILD-WELF'ARtr                     EXHIBIT.
                                                            IIay 22 to 30, 1914.

                                                            JuNroe Exrosrrrol,
                                            Saturday, l{ay 28, 10 a. m. to l0 n. m.

                                                  CENTBAL COURT CF TIIE ARMORY.

         ,\n exposition of the work of_the bors and girls of seattle, to show something
       uf their shill, perseverance,and ingenuity, and how they use tnei"-ieisuie ti-e


         Opelto.all boys ancl girls of Seatfle uncler 16 years of age,
      (itl. Exhibitors n'ilt be classifiedaccording to age: Entry A, residents of the
                                                               ge: Entry'A under 13 years
      r.f age; Entry B, unrler 16 years of age.
                 exposition, for one day, will inclntle anything made by a boy or girl out-
      s.,lc'of school hours.

        -\ll entries must have been made by the exhibitor outsirle of school hours. rn
      rhe department of pets the entries must be the property of the exhibitor.


         -\11 entlies will be judged by competent jutlges, n'ho will award-first prize,
      t,lue ribbon; second prize, red ribbon-to all ilrose deemetl worthy.
         Io eDtries receiyed after May 18.
         Rring or send your article to the armot'y at 0 a. m. Satnrtlay, 1\{ay 23, 1914.
         Labels or cards of identification n'ill be supptiecl to secure uniformity.


                                            (All work made by the exhibitors.)
        r;'rrlaning.-ldxhibits of fruit, flowers, and vegetablesraised by the exhibitor.
         ll-t,r11.111;syfu.-Furniture,                  tlbles, chairs, boxes, cabinets, sheh€s, etc. \Vood
      rurning, bowls, vases, cup frames, ete. Patterns for castinEs.
         ) ' , , y . . . - ' f o y so f a l l l i i n d s . o f a n y m a t e r i a l ; b o a t s , w i n d m i l l s , r u t o m o b i l e s ,e n -
     Fir.r's. aeroplanes, games, etc.
        r:lcctrical, and' 'mechanicol.-.{ll kinds of electrical or mechanical apparatus.
     (\ri'ent cau be supplied if necessary.
        I'rinting.-Samples of amateur work. Billheads. cards. etc.
                    qn{7 crolts.-Ilntries m.ust show design and hand skill. Bashets, books,
     - -4rts
     b'sk't,.. block prirting, stencilirg, leather work, weaving, etc.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
        OO                            CITILD.WELFARE            E,Y.I{IBiT S.

         Donrc-<tic scierrcc.-Blead, cruuerl liurl prescn-erl fluit ancl regetables; llenus,
       etc. ; householcl altpliauces.
         Dontestic ort.-Coats;        u'oolen, silk, aud cotton n'aists or sliirts; ole-piece
       dresseB, gon-ns, rplons, bags, collars, cuslliols, scrrrfs, slippers, caps, etc.: hlnd-
       wolet     nrats and rugs; I to 12 iuch cloll, clressecl iu halcl-nade           galments;
       patching, darling, etc.
         llillinerA.-Hautlnrritle     buckram or wire frrmes, infants' ancl chiltlretr's borr-
       nets, gir'ls' hats, 12 to 16 yeals; llows, florvels, etc.
         Pcis.-All     kinds of pets ori'nc.d by the exhibitor.     Dogs, cats, poultry, rabbits,
       squili'els, birds, fish, tulties. etc.
          Ezrch exhibitor must prolide for the care of his exhibit.
         Jurriol llxpositiol      Courmittee of the Child-\Yelfat'e Exltibit:   Ren W. Johuson
       (ciraiulun),I{rrlry       L. Deits (director), Anttt I.l. Grady, Lo$'S. }IcI{eaD, Susan
       E. Oarupbell, Lila 1\I, Delano, \Villiaru Lr. Oasey, Ilarry ts. Cunninghatl, Laurance
       H. Leurnel, Saruuel C. Olsou, Ed J. Tuluer,

                                                 ITNTRY   tiORrvIS.

          T1-reattached forrr blrruli should be filled orit as tlirectetl by ei'er'J' boy or git'l
       n'ho exlrects to i)ilrticipate in this exhibit.

                                                   (Cut here.)

                                                  n\1R\: r'olilI.
       Napre _,______                                                                          Age -,--_-

       Adrlt'ess: ,\-,'.    ----.     Stl'eet

        Scbool, club, or wLere enplo5-ed --------

       Ar'l.iclp                                                                      n
                                                                            llelrr r'1 letlt

              B.-IIakc   but one entry on this form.     As soon as fi1le<l out rctlrrn it to thc p r i l -
        cipal ot ]'ou" *ahoot or send it to llr. Johnson, Room 338, Central lSuilding.     Phone lldn

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                               APPENIDIX 5.

         TiiE     EXHIBIT           OF THE CHILDREN'S  BUREAU                    AT    T}IE     PANAMA-
                                         PACIFiC EXPOSITION.

         Il prepariDg its exhibit for the Plnam:r-Pecific           E\position    the Chiirlren's
     Bii'eiru decitled to celter its attertion on r- ,,chilrlrcu'i        Health conference";
     t. :lr'orip arountl this charts, rnorlels, and lir-ing demoustr:itious on infant wel-
     f:iir'. home play, and chitd lnbor; and to maintain             aL flre s..rrle time an iu-
     f"riltrltion bureau to dile.:t inquirers to other e,-rhibits cn the fair grounds de:t'l-
     i:rs n'ith pha-ses of child welf:rre.    To the clrurrts antl uo<lels prepai'e6 in \l.ash-
     I,.-i,rn, and illustrating     the rvork of ilre bureau. u.ere addeil cirrefully clioserr
     r'ririlrits loaned by local orgeDizltions.        Lccal organiz:rtions also flrnished
     l:r'ing exhibits alld demonstratious       and ccol]erated rviflr the buleau iu con-
     r|:, tiug' both the confereuce artl the exhibil.           Diffrrfent irouritals    assiene.d
     L ,: ips fol I'cg'JI[ir ]rours ercb dnr to assist jtl tire errrrrriu:rlion Diffel'c,rt
     n-,lrlelt's clul-rs acted as hostesses aDd expl:ri[crs iD the exhiltit for Deriotls of
            '11'gglis  g'11..[.
     trr r,
         -\ list of the exhibits will serre to indicrrte the ertent of this coo.periitiorr
     elrri 111y prol'e suggcstir.e lo cuumunities plfllnriltg to hold clrilrl-well:rro cr-
     bitrit's. All permanent exhibits lot others'ise designnted are flre property of
     the bureau, and will be lonnecl for use ou rpplicirtion Lry local exhi6itors lrftel
     lx'''erlber 4, 1915. Dulllicates of tlre lnntern slides arlrl lihotogrirpiric colties of
     rlir,ltrnels (size 20 by 40 inches) are available iinniediarei5,.

                                     CATALOGUE OF TIIE I'XI{II]IT.

                                          LIYING   DEIIONSTBATIOIiS.

        ('lrild,rem'shealth confererrce.-Free medical examination of chililren
     l.-, )-eirrs, 10 to 12, 2 to 5, e\cel,t S:iturd:i1.'s,SuDd:rys, al]d l\rednestl:ry after-
       I)oblt cl'inic.-$'edlesdays 2 to 5, demonsiratiol clinic shorving baby hygiene
    s"rli as carried on in snu I'rirncisco under the certified r{i}k and Eao_r'rry-
    girrrc committee of the Association of collegiate Alumne, and the Associ:rtetl
       I-rt,)rlfor chil.dren.-Mongays, WeJnesdays. and Fridays, 2 to 5 p. ur.; Ilntry
    fe'lirrg rnd preprrrtion,of nilk, in charge certified l{ilk anct naty rrygienb
    (i.ri)li\ittee, Association of Collesiate Alunnre.
       1'rresdays,ThursdaJ's, and Saturdays: preparing food for           childreu, irr
    (*irrge e D e p a r t m e n t
        nrg                 of Nutrition, Unilersity  of California.
        ll/'iiLe plau.-Demonstratious    of horne toy rnaking, painting,                   baslret trralii.1g,
    tnil rtse of back-yard apparatus, in cbarge recrertion authorities of Srrn Irrrrri-
    clr.,r ilud Ollilarrcl aricl Coiunbia Park Boys, Club.

                                            PER]I.A.NENT    EXIIIBIT.

        (ru r tllit tlt tltillion chi,Ldren.-Latge                      moring panorama showing the number
    o f . ' l , i i r i r e n d y i l g b e f o r e t i r e a g s 6 1 5 )'eals anci the nuinber in school or :rt
    3r'rk at Yalious ases.
        Ir,i,ti,'t rrrrro,"e.-X'ifteen                   wrll frames. B by 6, dealing wiilr birth regis-
    ti.'i.,ili            prenatal care; the reiritioir of infant mortality to poverty, ignornnr:e,
    tr. i i,rtil surlcunriirigs; tlre iiitpo;:trrnce of brelst feecliug arrtl rriles fci nur...irg
    tl.'l','1,-r'l artilicill feeding rrrd prlr.c nrilk; the u'orliing uother; and rrrothels'
    3i?:.::')rrs. (siliiiiler re|roductions <tf 72 0f ilrese panels, 20 b"v 40 inclles. ftre
    ers::r;l,rlo foi. loan to local exhibits.)

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
         58                        CITILD_WELFARE      EXHIBITS.

             Village of 100 liomes, a ucdel loaned by the North Carolina Board of Health,
         illustrating by flashing and fadiirg lights the nulrber of babies dying before the
          erld of the first da], the first week, tlie first uonth, the flrst year, ancl the
          second year.
             l'ifty-two slides (shown by an automntic stereopticon) on infant ctre, in-
         cluding prenatal care, breast feeding, artificiai feetling, the baby in the home,
         sullmer and winter care.
            Red star, fading every 10 seconcls,      and bearing the inscription, " Erery timc
         this strlr fades, somewLere in lturope or the Uuited States a btby dies; one
          every 10 seconds, 6 er.ely minute, 360 erely hour; half these deaths are pre-
             Gitrss c:rse, containing soothing sirups ancl pateDt meclicines obttrineti from
         the Dtpartment of Agriculture. Bureau of Chemistry, rvarrring parents against
         the use of such remedies and showing tlre contellts of eftch -specimen.
             Snull booth on Ure beby in the honre, sirorving clothing for the b.rl:y, a baby's
         betl properly made and protected frorn clrafts, a btsket substitute for a crib,
         proper uterlsils for a brby's brith, and a play pen with suuittry toys. Occr-
         sional demonstrations :rre gir-en in tliis space by the nurse.
            A glass case contaiDing a foorl exhibit preparecl by the department of nntri-
         tion, Unilersity of Crlifornia, sliorving the right kinds of food for a young
         child, the method of preprrring those foods for different ages, and the relati.r'e
         value of r-arious footls for builtlilg bone, muscle, and flesh, for suppl1'ing heat
         and energy, or for euriching the blood with iron.
            A metal sphere -sltorvirg the proportion of brlby dcaths iu the lliitecl States
         due to various ciluses.
            A mettl cone showing how cities in the United States spencltlleit ruoney.
            I{odel of a babJ's stomflch rrt birth,
            Models of a typicnl case of adenoids.
            l\Iodels of nortnirl stcols of small brby antl stools shotving tliarrhen. (Used
         only in the conference room with mothers. )
            l\{odels nrade by the Pasadena Ilig}r-School girls' cltss in sanitation, illus-
         tratirrg irn effectile s-rry of giling a class a Iinorvledgeof Lygiene. Orre of these
         models traces tlre course of a typhoicl epidenic, showing that it is carried try
         water pollution; tlie other shorvs a good and a bad dairy.
            IIome pluy.-'Ihree lvall frtrrnes dealing r,ith the requilements of a com-
         prehettsir-eplan of yrublic recreation, the need of home pl:ry for small chitdren,
         and the proper equipment in house and yirrd.
            llorne 1rlay yald, lorn exhibit from the San Fr:rucisco public schools, showing
         la(lder-s,  slide, sand box, and balance beam. (See illustration No. 2.)
            Ilone playroon, coltainiug toys rurtde by chlldren frorn simple materials.
         Used as demonstratiorl room.
            Children's interests. A collection of articles matle by children anal secured
         through the Sln tr'rancisco schools. tlie recrerrtion trutholities of San l'rancisco
         an<l Oakland, and the Columbia Parl< Boys' Club.
            A revolling wing frame, showing the playgrountls of Oaklancl.
            A scralrbook showing some recent ideas in lecreirtiou. including the municipal
         camp in Los Atrgeles, the Arnenia fiell rlay, the play school of the Lruir-ersity
         of California, tlre Public Sclrools t\thletic Lergue of New York City, and the
         playgrountl eqnipment aucl ftrcilities of Chicago.
            Ch'ild,Iabor.-Irive rvtrll franres containing stzrtistics from the United States
         census ori the number of children grrinfully enrlrlol'c'd llrt1 their distribution
         by age, sex, tnd geographir:zrl    dir-i.sion.industry, aud occupation.
            A map motlel shon'ing by rge nnrl sex groups the proportion of working
         children in different sectious of tire country.
            'I'welve transpnrencies containiug photographs of the typical occupations of
         children il tbe Iinitetl States.
            Informution btLt'ccu.-A set of the publicrrtions of the Chiltlrens' Bulean.
            A small collection of recent pamphlets publisLerl by national societies doing
         work for children.
            Scrapbooks on Stlte chikl-welfnre exhibits, locll chilcl-rveifare exhibits,
         traveling chiltl-s'elfare exhibits.
            Infolnliltion conceruingexhibits in the expositiol cleirlingrvith children.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University












Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University








I     Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                4 . _ W A L L P A N E L F R O M T H E E X H I B I T O F T H E C H I L D R E N ' SB U R E A U ,
                                    SHOWING THE USE OF CARTOONS.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                  j        : PANELFROM THE EXHIBITOF THE CHTLDREN'S UREAU,                   B
                      . ' , 'A N A R R A N G E M E N TO F P H O T O G R A P H SA N D S T A T E M E N T S

                          : i ! A L A R G E R B A C K G R O U N D W H I C H F O R N 1 ST H E U N I T O F

I   Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
              6 , - W A L L P A N E L F R O M T H E E X H i B T O F T H E C H I L D R E N ' SB U R E A U ,
               S H O W I I ' ] GA C J i I B I N A T I O N O F P H O T O G R A P H S A N D C A R T O O N S .

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown Universify

      Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                   I{URSII{E BAEY

                  NURSI TIII BABY POSSMLI 9 }dONTIIS
                                 Ir           rON
                   EVn{ SoffARTFICIALts lttcts$Any A00r$i.
                                    F000         |||l

                         AVOID                  MON1TS
                            ORIN SI'MMEI

                            THE BABYNIGULANLY

                    .. ----a--*          3

                             {;en   ,r tr.   sroo{   or nr   xro"r}

                           00iloTt{unst 6U[S$
                                      BY    ;0n|{.
                            li0ntvISY ||g0ntr$.
                       6tvg TgnEA$Y SXXI{K
                                   A      &r

                       NO.8.-WALL PANEL ON INFANT CARE.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                  BIR?}I IS I{OT THE EEGI}I}IIHG OF LIFE
                              EABIES ARE ALIVE
                     AXD CAN EE SERIOUsLY I}IJUREO
                               BEFORE BIRTH.

              A HEALTHY                                    A HSALTHY
                HAPPY ITgTfiER                                HAPPV BASY.

                                ,    GOOOFOg[
                                               I         PLETiITY OF REST
                                                         FRESH AIR

                                               t         LICHT EXERCIS€
                                                         A COHTEI{TEOMINO

                                                 AREA I
                                           rt{ rgtz

                   OF ALL BABIES                                      BABIES
                li-    DYr{C     /                                   It{o
                               rvaa/                                   1-9-!'"*

                          IITFANT UELFARE I{ORX
                    HAS gaVEO TI{OUSAI{SS Or BABlgS.
              ouR nuTY Ys TH€ 6AgY ggslxs sgr$Rg gleTti

                     N O , 9 . - W A L L P A N E L O N P R E N A T A LC A R E

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University

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Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
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Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
Provided by the Maternal and Chitd Health Library, Georgetown University

                         NO, ]4-DIAGRAM OF WALL PANEL
                               COMPOSEDOF CARDS.

Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                                                                                                     ll'                                  a&


            N O , 1 5 , C R O S SS E C T I O NO F A N ]LLUSION                                IS DE V EW WITH DOOR

                a . P o s t i o n o f s c e c t a i o rk e r t a t C : t a r c e b y r a l r g o . s c f e e nv / i N p e e p h o i e .
                b , D e s c rp t v e s g n c r f r o n 1 .
                c. Oter ngthrougf vr'h h noael : seen,c
                d. G ass.
                e . l f s ; C ew a i l s ,f n s h e d i n d u l l b l a c kp a p e r .
                x a n d y . L i g h t s a t t a c h e dt o f a s h e r .
                 I a n d I l . F i r s i a n d s e c o n dv e w o f m o d e .
                  W h e n l i g h t x l s o n , m o d e l I i s i l l u m i n a t e d n d s s e e nt h r o u g hg l a s sd ; w f e n
              l l g h t y i s o n a n d I g h t x s o f f , g l a s s d b e c o m e sa m i r r o r b e c a u s eo f t h e d a r k
              b o x b e h i n di t , a n d r e f e c t s m o d e l I I .


    Provided by the Maternal and Child Health Library, Georgetown University
                             ADDITIONAL          COPIES

                   CF TEIS PUBLIC.{TION   llAY   BE PROCI'EED I'ROi4
                       TEE SUPERINTENDENT        OF DOCUMENTS
                           GOYNRN}IENT    PRINTING OFFICD
                                 WASIIINGTON, D. C.

                             20 CENTS      PER     COPY

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