RFP FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RAILROAD EMISSIONS INVENTORY
The United States Bureau of Transportation Statistics 1999 Annual Report
indicates that rail shipments account for 27 % of the ton-miles by domestic freight
shipments.1 According to the Intermodal Association of North America, rail intermodal
traffic continues to increase at a rate of approximately 5-6 % per year. Several major
shipping ports in the United States are expanding their intermodal container handling
capabilities to accommodate expected increases in demand for overseas shipments.2 Port
expansions traditionally include the addition of rail facilities to ship containers to interior
portions of the country. To meet the increasing demand at port facilities, railroads are
opening and improving rail terminals in several major cities across the nation.
This rail growth has been spurred over the last 20 years in part by efficiency
improvements as well as increased federal and private funding. Prior to 1980, rail
transportation suffered from an aging infrastructure and increasing competition from
highway transportation. The advent of double-stacked container capabilities on
important rail routes in 1980 however, has given new life to railroads. With double-
stacked container capability came increased demand for rail shipments. Bolstered by this
demand, rail transporters have used private capital as well as federal funding from the
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 and other federal programs to
upgrade the rail infrastructure. These upgrades have created an increase in capacity and
demand for rail services.
A study conducted by ICF International for the North American Commission for
Environmental Co-operation looking at the impact of the North American Free Trade
Agreement (NAFTA) on rail activity and air pollution found significant increases in both.
In areas with high trade growth, both NOx and PM-10 emissions could increase as much
as 50-100% by 2020. The shift from truck traffic to rail traffic, standards that are not as
strict for locomotive emissions, and low equipment turnover are major factors in this
increase in rail emissions.
A survey of the 1999 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) revealed that just four
states, one county and one city in the United States submitted emissions estimates for
railroads. Failure to account for this growing source of emissions in state and local
inventories appears to be a result of a lack of usable guidance and available data. The
Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) NONROAD Model does not account for
For comparison, truck freight shipments account for another 28 % of the ton-miles, while water
shipments, and pipelines contribute approximately 20 % and 18 % respectively. This data is based on the
United States Bureau of Transportation Statistics 1997 Commodity Flow Survey.
Ports that have added or improved intermodal container capacity and access in the last decade includes
but are not limited to the Port of Los Angeles/Long Beach, Port of Oakland, Port of New Orleans, Port of
Portland, Philadelphia Tioga Marine Terminal and others. Additionally, the Port of Houston Authority is
planning to expand its intermodal freight capacity during a twenty-year expansion plan.
railroad emissions and the only existing EPA guidance for generating railroad emissions
inventories is out-of-date. While updated EPA guidance has been issued for highway
sources, no updated guidance has been issued for nonroad sources such as locomotives.
State and local governments and others need data sources and methodologies to
successfully generate a railroad emissions inventory for State Implementation Plans
(SIPs), photochemical modeling and other efforts that require accurate estimates of rail
The Southeastern States Air Resource Managers, Inc. (SESARM ) is requesting
proposals from prospective contractors to develop and demonstrate emissions inventory
methodologies for freight, commuter, and private industrial railroads. The desired
outcome of this project will be a guidance document with a hierarchy of emission
estimation methods that can be used by state and local governments-, and others who
need to generate a railroad emissions inventory. The guidance document shall include an
actual inventory for a small portion of the Southeast that was developed using the
primary methodology. The methodologies must address the differences between line
haul and switchyard locomotive emissions. The primary emphasis of this project is to
provide and demonstrate ways to collect and utilize local activity data sources, which
should be the preferred method. National data sources that can be allocated to the state-
level and then to the county-level-, and that yield good results-, should be an alternative
method. Making use of GIS databases should also be considered as part of these
There is a great need for methods of collecting detailed local rail activity data,
engine parameters, fuel composition, etc. In many cases those who prepare inventories
have state- and sometimes county-level track miles data, but they have no good way of
determining the quality or quantity of rail traffic on those tracks. Railroad companies
have much of this information and it is hard to obtain it from them. A contractor should
have had prior contacts with railroad companies and successfully obtained information
such as engine type, engine age, fuel composition and consumption, number of cars, and
whether they are full or empty. The methodology should determine the best way to
represent emissions (grams per gallon of fuel consumed vs. grams per brake horsepower-
hour vs. grams per gross-ton-mile). The previous methodology for calculating emissions
involved calculating the localized fuel use from the formula: gallons of fuel per gross-
ton-mile of freight travel. Because regulations and emission factors represent emissions
by grams per brake horsepower-hour, the gross-ton-mile calculations may no longer be
SCOPE OF WORK:
Tasks To Be Completed:
The following tasks are to be completed as part of this project.
1. Work Plan: The contractor shall prepare and distribute a work plan describing
their approach to the project before the first conference call, which will occur
within one month of the signing of the contract. The Emission Inventory
Improvement Program Mobile Sources Committee (EIIP MSC) will provide
comments to the contractor before the first conference call, to be incorporated into
a final work plan, due by the first monthly conference call.
Due date: Draft within two weeks after signed contract, final due at one-month
2. Literature Review: The contractor shall conduct a thorough literature review with
a focus on sources of local activity data. As part of the literature review, the
contractor shall review the 1992 EPA Locomotive Guidance. The contractor shall
also review documents referenced here in this RFP and any provided by the EIIP
MSC before the first conference call. The contractor shall review literature from
others sources such as the EPA, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), the
Surface Transportation Board (STB), the Bureau of Transportation Statistics
(BTS), the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the railroad industry,
research organizations, and state and local agencies. (It is highly desired that the
contractor work with railroad companies throughout this project and create
resources with the rail industry for inventory preparation.) The contractor shall be
responsible for compiling the results of this search into a written document and
distributing it to the EIIP MSC before the second conference call, detailing the
data sources that will be used to compute rail emissions.
Due date: Draft within six weeks after signed contract, final due at two-month
3. Data Collection Methodologies: The contractor shall develop and compile
preferred and alternate methods for collecting the data pertinent to generating rail
emissions inventories including but not limited to engine types (e.g., diesel,
diesel-electric), number of engines, criteria for multiple use of engines, population
by age of engines, growth factor surrogates, idle time, line haul, switchyard and
port activity, fuel composition (sulfur content) and fuel use. There will likely be
three different categories of methodologies to correspond with commercial,
commuter and private industry railroads along with methods for line haul and
switchyard emissions. All data that the contractor obtains for this project shall be
provided to the EIIP MSC. Discussions of the data, examples of actual data
sources and data collection methodologies will occur during the third and fourth
monthly conference calls.
4. Emissions Methodologies: The contractor shall develop and compile preferred
and alternate methods for calculating emissions at the local, county, and state
level to be included in the guidance document. There will likely be three different
categories of methodologies to correspond with commercial, commuter and
private industry railroads. Discussions of these methodologies will occur during
the third, fourth and fifth monthly conference calls.
5. Emission Factors: The contractor shall determine and utilize the most accurate
emission factors. The Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of
Transportation and Air Quality (EPA OTAQ) frequently revises their locomotive
emission factors with the most recent data and the contractor must stay current.
Discussions of emissions factors will occur at least during the fourth and fifth
monthly conference calls and as often as needed.
6. Guidance Document: The contractor shall prepare a guidance document to be
used by those who prepare emissions inventories at the federal, state, local or
private level. A draft document shall be distributed to the EIIP MSC for review
and comment during the sixth-monthly conference call. After committee
evaluation, the contractor shall incorporate comments and prepare a final
guidance document in a format that is consistent with other EIIP guidance
documents. This final guidance document will be available on the EIIP website.
The document should include at a minimum the following sections: background
on rail emissions, regulations and emission factors, data collection needs,
preferred methodology, alternate methodology, data encoding, DARS, an example
of a rail inventory in a small portion of the Southeast and a bibliography.
Due date: Draft due before sixth-monthly conference call. Final due two weeks
after comments are received.
7. Internet Resource Page: The contractor shall prepare an Internet resource page
linked to the EIIP website. This page shall include the literature review, the
guidance document, links to data resources for preparing a railroad emissions
inventory and any other relevant information related to railroad emissions.
Due date: two months after signed contract and updated on a regular basis.
Monthly (biweekly as needed) meetings with representatives of the Emission
Inventory Improvement Program Mobile Sources Committee (EIIP MSC) via
teleconference will be required. The contractor will be required to provide monthly
progress reports to the EIIP MSC. These progress reports shall include tasks completed,
important findings, new data sources, and any issues of concern that have arisen.
The contractor may subcontract portions of this project. If the use of a
subcontractor is anticipated, the name of the subcontractor shall be included in the
The contractor shall invoice SESARM as each task listed above is completed to
SESARM’s satisfaction. SESARM. will hold fifteen percent of each invoice, until all
tasks are completed to their satisfaction.
FINAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT
The contractor shall provide the EIIP MSC with a draft guidance document for
comment. After committee evaluation, the contractor shall provide a finalized railroad
emissions inventory guidance document. This guidance document shall follow the
format of the other EIIP guidance documents and shall be posted on the EIIP website.
Due Date: Six months after a signed contract.
Applicants must be EPA qualified contractors. Applicants must demonstrate the
ability to accomplish the tasks set forth herein in the time frames required and have
expertise in emission inventory development.
The maximum budget allocated for this project is $54,000. This amount includes
any and all expenses related to the scope of services and any applicable taxes.
Contract Period: The duration of this project should be six months from the
signing of the contract. The final guidance should be completed within six months of a
Applicants are encouraged to prepare their response package using the following
Introduction: This section is at the discretion of the applicant.
Experience of the applicant: The applicant shall list all key personnel to be
assigned to the project. The applicant shall describe education, training and experience
of the listed individuals.
Project Approach: The applicant shall describe the proposed approach to this
Timeline: The applicant shall provide a schedule for completing the project.
Project Cost: The applicant shall provide a detailed budget for the tasks to be
completed. The budget shall include hourly rates and estimated hours of personnel to be
utilized for each task. The applicant shall itemize any other expenses anticipated. If the
applicant intends to utilize a subcontractor, the applicant shall provide those costs.
Past Performance: The applicant shall describe three separate and verifiable
projects of a similar nature to the project specified in this solicitation that the applicant
A subset of members of the EIIP Mobile Sources Committee will review each
response. The following criteria herein will be used for evaluation of the proposals:
Project Approach and Timeline
Qualifications and Experience
Project Cost and Spending Plan
The deadline for submitting proposals (original and six copies) is September 23, 2002.
Proposals may be sent via email, but must be followed by hard copy originals. Proposals
should be sent to:
Mr. John E. Hornback
526 FOREST PKWY STE F
FOREST PARK GA 30297-6140
USEPA, 2001. Documentation for the Draft 1999 Base Year Aircraft, Commercial
Marine Vessel, and Locomotive National Emission Inventory For Criteria and Hazardous
Air Pollutants Emission Factor and Inventory Group, Research Triangle Park, NC.
USEPA, 1992. Chapter 6, Locomotives, IN: Procedures for Emission Inventory
Preparation: Volume IV, Mobile Sources. Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Mobile
Sources, Emission Planning and Strategies Division, Ann Arbor, MI; and Office of Air
Quality Planning and Standards, Technical Support Division, Research Triangle Park,
NC EPA-450/4-81-026d (Revised).
USEPA. 1998. Locomotive Emission Standards, Regulatory Support Document
(Revised). Office of Mobile Sources, Engine Programs and Compliance Division, Ann
Booz-Allen & Hamilton, Inc. Locomotive Emission Study: California Air Resources
Board. (Report and Appendices).
Fritz SG. Emission Measurements: Locomotive, Final Report. Southwest Research
Institute, SwRI 5374-024, August, 1995 (Prepared for USEPA Office of Mobile
Fritz SG, Markworth VO, Mason RL. Locomotive Exhaust Emission Field Tests: Phase I
– EMD SD40-2 and GE C40-8 Locomotive: Final Report. Southwest Research Institute,
Project No.09-4171. Prepared for Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC.
AAR R-877. October 1994.