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					          PGCE Action Research Project




Lower Ability Pupils and the challenge of Extended
                    Questions




                 Elizabeth Knight

                    June 2003
Introduction
Bishop‟s College is a mixed Independent school with approximately 800 pupils, two
thirds of whom board. The ethos of the school largely fits with the stereotype of „work
hard, play hard‟. The majority of the pupils are of high to very high academic ability
and manage to juggle many sporting commitments with the heavy workload of school
life and the pressures of very regular testing, both internal and external.

There are a small proportion of children recognised as dyslexic and monitored by a
Coordinator. Some of these children are severely lagging behind in terms of their
ability to read, understand and communicate and unfortunately do not have access to
assistance and help in a withdrawal setting. They are also not provided with classroom
assistants. These children tend to be grouped together with EFL students and those
without learning difficulties who fall below average attainment for the school or are
seen as disruptive. The result being, classes that are extremely challenging to teach.
This is due to the diversity of their difficulties and the extreme range of literacy
capabilities amongst the individuals; some of the EFL students have a very weak grasp
of English.



The Topic

~Educational Setting
Writing is a key part of the successful study of History. Many methods of assessment
require a reasonable quantity of written prose to consider when grading a pupil.
However, at the same time it is also an area that remains very unpopular with many
pupils. Haydn, in his book „Learning to teach History in the Secondary School‟,
comments that “writing is an issue of some concern”. The Ofsted review of common
practise for 1995 shares this opinion, feeling that in many cases pupils are not able to
replicate their oral responses in writing. Whist the problem is common in both boys and
girls it is largely felt that the issue is more common in males and contributes to their
shortcomings during written examinations.

The reluctance to write appears to stem from a number of factors; initially the dislike of
tasks that seem too taxing and secondly a fear of producing a lengthy piece of writing.
Counsell points out that many pupils find it difficult to organize information in an
appropriate manner and to support their arguments with detail. There appears therefore
a strong need to focus attention upon building confidence in extended writing.

Hypothesis and Research Question
I believe that many children who have difficulty reading and writing, either because
they speak English as a foreign language, or because they have learning difficulties,
general or specific, find the thought of extended writing extremely daunting and
troubling.

Whilst considering this I noticed how many pupils, as soon as they encounter anything
involving a string of sentences, ask: “how much do we have to write?” Initially, I had
attributed this to a teenage dislike of writing, however after some reflection I began to
think in particular about the number of lower ability pupils who ask this question
genuinely seeking guidance and reassurance.
It occurred to me that an entire sheet of endless lines must be very frightening for a
pupil who struggles to communicate in written prose. Such pupils tend to respond in
two ways; by writing very little and therefore not covering the question in enough
depth, or by waffling around the point in order to fill the page.

Whilst there are many aspects that contribute towards good, well structured, extended
writing, I feel at this stage that I will concentrate on building pupil‟s confidence when
faced with an extended question. I will do this by monitoring whether there is an
improvement in the quality and sometimes quantity of writing produced by pupils of
lower ability, if they are given a box within which to write.

I feel that having gained confidence by removing the „unknown word count‟ problem,
pupils will feel more able to concentrate on what they are writing and not how much
they are writing. Additionally, I feel that by having tackled the initial issue of getting
the pupils to write enough, practising structure and content would be an easier task.

My research question will therefore be:

 Do lower ability pupils produce work of a more substantial nature and better quality
                 if they are given spatial guidelines in which to work?




Research Methodology

~Background to Research Site
Research is to be carried out in a GCSE Year 10 group- 4B.
There are 16 pupils in the class, 12 boys and four girls. Five of the pupils speak English
as a foreign language and a further seven suffer from recognised learning difficulties
(poor literacy/ dyslexia/ behaviour). The group dynamic on the whole is very good.
There is some inevitable behaviour issues, although these are minor in comparison to
classes I have experienced in State schools. There is a degree of lack of tolerance
between the English students and the EFL students. This appears to link back to
different cultural backgrounds (the EFL students in the group are a mix of Chinese,
Japanese, German and political refugees from Kosovo.

To create the best learning environment pupils are seated in pairs facing the front.
Pupils do not generally swap pairs and tend to sit in friendship partners, the reason for
this being that the EFL children feel more at ease when given the option to confer with
someone in the same situation.

The pupils are currently studying the Foreign Policy of America after 1929. The lesson
in question is a double period of two 40 minute lessons, positioned either side of a half
hour break. I have found that the pupils work better if the second lesson covers a
different topic than the first. This tends to result in a willingness to participate more
fully.
For this reason the research lessons will focus upon: 1) The USA and World War Two
                                                        2) The Korean War
(The class has already covered Pearl Harbour and the American stance of Isolationism)
~Methods
The investigation will be conducted during a „normal‟ teaching lesson. The pupils will
be introduced to the topic and as a class we will look through the information and
sources. Although this is sometimes a drawn out process it does make the otherwise
challenging GCSE material accessible to the whole class and also encourages the pupils
to develop their vocabulary and reading skills.

The focus of the research is based upon two extended questions (see Lesson Plans and
Resources). These questions have been structured to encompass the whole lesson‟s
work and focus the pupils‟ minds onto selecting relevant information to answer the
question. It also aims to encourage a longer and more focused response. All the
knowledge needed to answer the questions will have been covered in the lesson.

The investigation will enable a comparison to be made about which question format
(box or endless page) produces the best results. These will be placed on a grid and
compared to the average performance grade of each student. From this information I
hope to see that the majority of pupils produce writing of better quality and clarity when
given a predetermined space in which to write.



Evaluation of Lessons
Recall
The lessons progressed very much to target; there was some initial disruption as pupils
have a habit of wandering via boarding houses on the way between classes! However, I
was slightly surprised and pleased at the amount of information the class could recall
from our last lesson before half term. All seemed able to remember the events of Pearl
Harbour and the reasons why it was a key event in US foreign policy.
Use of written text
In order to make to text accessible to the whole class I hand picked more able
individuals to read aloud. In order to tackle the difficulties some of the class have with
reading and digesting large bodies of information I picked out the most relevant areas of
information. These were interspersed with anecdotes about U-boats and James Bond
type war vehicles (used during the Korean War). The boys in particular enjoyed this.
When we tackled the women issue both boys and girls contributed to the discussion
about how men might react to women in the workplace- this aspect of the lesson could
have gone on for hours!
Using the Maps
There was a little confusion about the push-pull nature of the Korean War. Some of the
class would not accept that you could fight a war and end up back where you were at the
beginning. This diverted the rest of the class. However by keeping the activity a group
one, as a posed to leaving the task to individuals we managed to produce 16 near
identical maps.
Keeping focused
I felt that one of the most vital aspects of the lesson was to keep the pupils minds
focused on the two final questions. This was done during the first lesson by reinforcing
the idea of whether the USA was making a substantial effort or not. By using Q and A
and extending some of the responses the children all seemed to have an opinion on
whether they had done enough to help. At various points, Franz (a German boarder),
felt compelled to defend the actions of Hitler and proclaimed in strained tones that “the
Nazis should never have been defeated- Hitler was the best thing ever to happen to
Germany and the World”, this then led on the nationalistic wails from the Japanese and
Chinese students! Having got this under control we were able to begin the first of the
two questions.
Coping with the extended writing
As predicted as soon as the extended question A was placed in front of the children a
series of sighs and gasps prevailed. Ben shook his head and a look of desperation befell
him, whilst Franz- ever vocal- complained; “this is most unfair. We never expected this
of you. How much are we meant to write”. I replied by telling the class to write what
they felt was necessary to answer the question. They completed the task in deadly
resentful silence.
The second question, as predicted was met with slightly less resistance. Mark stated
that it was not fair game to have two questions to answer in a double period, even if it
was divided by a 30 minute break. However, on the whole the class seemed reassured
at the presence of the box and many students managed to fill it with a good detailed
answer.



Findings and Discussion
        Gender      EFL      Recogni-      Average Attainment        Grade from        Grade from
Pupil                           sed          before research         Question A        Question B
                             Learning
                             difficulty
1          M                      *                 C                    B                   A
2          M         *                             D                     D                   C
3          M                                        C                    D                   C
4          F                     *                 D                     D                   C
5          M                                        C                    C                   C
6          M                                        C                    B                   C
7          F                                       D                     C                   A
8          F                     *                 D+                    D                   B
9          M         *                              C                    E                   C
10         F         *                              C                    C                   C
11         M         *                             C+                    C                   B
12         M                     *                 D                     C                   B
13         M         *                              B                    C                   C
14         M                     *                  C                    D                   C
15         M                     *                  C                    D                   B
16         M                     *                 D+                    D                   D

Grades given are from the school mark scheme. This is based upon the level at which
the class is performing in relation to other low Yr 10 groups. It is not an indicator of a
final GCSE grade, as many of the children in this group are achieving below the
standard required for a GCSE paper.
    A- excellent
    B- good
    C- average
    D- not enough effort
    E- poor
Average marks are calculated from all prior assignments marked by myself over 6
weeks.
Questions A and B were as followed:-
             A- How significant was America‟s involvement in WW2?
             B- Who gained the most from the Korean War?
                                                                 On the whole the class
                            Whole Class Results                  responded as expected to
                                                                 the task. There was a
                                                                 definite sigh of relief as
                    A
                                                                 Question B (see Teaching
   Grade Achieved




                    B                                            Materials) was circulated.
                                                       Qb
                    C                                  Qa        The results are extremely
                                                       Average
                                                                 pleasing and reflect a
                    D                                            definite trend towards
                                                                 defined    spatial   tasks
                    E                                            producing more focused
                                                                 responses.
                        0     5          10       15
                              No. of Pupils                      The majority of pupils,
                                                                 prior to the lesson where
                                                                 they tackled the questions,
were achieving a C or D grade, based upon the mark scheme indicated above. No
pupils were gaining A‟s and only 1 was of an E standard.
Having marked Question A, this was done with names covered to avoid any
expectations of performance arising, it became clear that the pupils had responded as I
had imagined. Many pupils had written just two or three lines, scratching at the surface
of the answer, but had cut short their response. “They entered the war in 1941 but
before this they were supplying Britain with fuel. But in 1941 they sent troops over.”
This very generalized work was more common in boys, with girls producing the
opposite, a long rambling wordy page of unfocused writing. “The allies at this point
really needed the help of the US people and the USA women worked in factories and
they began to take over and the men were unhappy at this…”
When questioned about how the class had found this question the overwhelming
response was, “hard, there was too much writing”. The difficulties experienced are
reflected in the grades allotted for this question, a mix of largely C‟s and D‟s, with most
pupils remaining at their average grade.

The response to question B was very different. Many pupils muttered that they didn‟t
have to write much for this one, not exactly true- most responses were of 100-120
words. The quantity of writing vastly improved as a result of the box and on closer
examination appeared to be more focused. Much of the class were now occupied with
what to write rather than how much. Again the results showed this. Pupils moved up
the mark scale by 1-2 grades. Very few remained at the same level and no pupils did
worse on this question than the previous one. Some pupils were producing extremely
accurate and evidenced answers; “The UN only gained respect but at the cost of 17,000
casualties. The US had saved South Korea from the Communists but their defence
spending rose from 12 to 60 billion dollars as a result…”
                                                Males                                                                        Female

                   A                                                                                    A




                                                                                       Grade Achieved
  Grade Achieved

                   B                                                                                    B
                                                                             Qb                                                                 Qb
                   C                                                         Qa                         C                                       Qa
                                                                             Average                                                            Average
                   D                                                                                    D

                   E                                                                                    E


                         0        2        4          6        8       10                                   0       1         2         3   4
                                           No. of Pupils                                                                No. of Pupils




I was interested to see if any patterns emerged showing that a particular gender
benefited most from the box technique. The results were in fact very similar for both
groups, 40% of boys and 50% of girls gained an A or B grade from question B. The
class average for this question (B) seemed well supported by both groups.
                                 English as Foreign Language                                                    Reognised Learning Difficulties

                         A                                                                              A
                                                                                       Grade Achieved
        Grade Achieved




                         B                                                                              B
                                                                            Qb                                                                       Qb
                         C                                                  Qa                          C                                            Qa
                                                                            Average                                                                  Average
                         D                                                                              D

                         E                                                                              E

                             0         2                   4       6                                        0            2              4       6
                                       No. of Pupils                                                                      No. of Pupils




I then studied the results of the EFL and RLD pupils in order to note if any of these
pupils were falling into the low or high grade bands for Question B. Pupils studying
English as a foreign language are a particularly interesting focal point. Most of these
children are of an ability level above that of the rest of class, yet have difficulty in their
written answers. The results for this group were very pleasing. Question A produced
the same grades as the Average, whilst question B moved those at a D up to a C. What
the graphs do not show is the improvements within the grade boundaries, for example
from C- to C+, this was common in all students in this group. Therefore whilst their
improvement is less substantial, the technique was still benefiting these pupils.
Children with recognised learning difficulties produced a clearer set of results, pupils
left their previous standing of D/C to enter high grade areas such as A and B. The
varied ability of this group is reflected in the spread of results. This demonstrates that
whilst the technique worked for this group they would benefit from more practise.



Conclusion and Recommendations
This is certainly a technique I will continue to use with all groups. Whilst the idea
worked very well for a low ability group I believe it could also be beneficial for higher
sets. I believe that it would be best implemented from Year 7/8 onwards. This would
avoid the fear of extended questions that otherwise arises in Year 10, when pupils
encounter them more frequently. If used for 3 years prior to this time and further
reinforced in Year 10, pupils would then feel more able to cope with exam style writing.

Hopefully if used regularly the students would find that they no longer need the
guidelines in which to write but can produce concise writing themselves.

Obviously using spatial limitations is just one of many techniques needed to encourage
writing in low ability pupils. It would not be successful in the longer term unless used
in conjunction with extended thinking and class work on how to build up a well
evidenced answer.
                            Teaching Materials


These two lessons fit into a medium term plan concerning American Foreign Policy from
1929 to the start of the Cold War. The previous two lessons were spent focusing on the
term „Isolationism‟ and also returning to the concepts of Communism and Capitalism, in
order to ensure that all pupils were comfortable with the background to the Cold War
before we added details of events.
This double lesson (2x40 minutes) aims to cover America‟s involvement in WW2. Having
looked at Pearl Harbour at the end of the previous lesson, the task sheet that the pupils will
complete will require them to recall some knowledge of that event. By the end of the first
period we all pupils will have a completed worksheet- having used the information
provided. They will then use this to help them to formulate an answer to question A (see
resources).
Period 2 will allow pupils to see how the USA reacted to an external conflict such as the
Korean War. They will be able to recognise the change from Isolationist to involved
(linking to the Truman Doctrine). They will again answer a concluding question (B), using
the discussion we will have had as a class and the information they have been given.
LESSON PLAN                                               HISTORY                                                 LIZ KNIGHT
Year      10                     Date      4/06/03               Period       3                     Location          H4
Ability Range     Low            No. of pupils       16          Study Unit USA after 1941          SOW     US Foreign Policy 1929-
TOPIC               The USA and World War II
AIMS/ OBJECTIVES- students should learn
Pupils should have a firm base of knowledge on the USA‟s involvement in WW2. And be able to answer the Q- „How significant
was America‟s involvement in WW2?‟
OUTCOMES- students should know
What the USA did in WW2 prior to the attack on Pearl Harbour. Supplying and supporting Britain, women workers,
industrialists.
KEY Q/ WORDS
U-Boats, Industrialists, Battle of the Atlantic, immigrants, propaganda
PREVIOUS LESSON/S
Previously we looked at the Attack on Pearl Harbour and considered how the Americans would feel about this- anger, revenge…
Pupils are also aware of the American Isolationist stance prior to the attack and the reasons for this.
CROSS CURRICULAR LINKS                  Citizenship, with reference to the Japanese immigrants          TIME 40 mins

TIMING            ACTIVITIES                                                                           RESOURCE’           SKILLS
Introduction      Having settled the class, I started by reminding them of what we did last time-      xxx                 Recall from
                  What video did we see? (Pearl Harbour), how would the US feel towards the                                memory
5 min             Japanese? How important was the attack?- catalyst for US to enter WW2.
                  For this section we read together some of the sections of photocopied                       Copies      Knowledge
Reading,          information. I selected certain pupils to read and then allotted them a suitable             from Ben
understandin      paragraph (depending on their literacy capabilities).                                        Walsh‟s-    Understand
g and             We discussed various aspects of the information as a class. I used Q and A to                „GCSE       -ing
answering         keep the class on task. We paused for long enough each time for the class to                 Modern
questions         write up brief answers. Certain pupils at this point needed assistance in forming            History‟,   Literacy
                  a short to the point sentence- this was given on a one to one basis.                         pages
20 mins                                                                                                        284, 366-   Comprehen
                  Examples of the Questions we discussed together:                                             71          -sion
                  Looking at the US reaction towards Japanese living in America at the time                   USA and
                  (Containment). Was this fair? Were all Japanese citizens to blame? We                        WW2 Q       Note taking
                  compared this to modern day persecution (blacks, Asians in UK).                              sheets

                  Next we looked at the role that US industry played. Who were they helping?
                  Why did Knusden allow the industrialists so much freedom?- more willing to
                  work. How important was the US effort to Britain and the Allies?

                  We then considered the role played by women and blacks during the war and                                Extended
                  any opposition they might have faced.                                                                    writing

                  Sentence starters were written on the board at each point that we stopped.
                  ========================================================
Final             Having completed the initial Q sheet the pupils will be presented with the Final
Question          Q (see next page) and 2 sides of lined paper to write on.
10 min            Hints at the top of the sheet will remind class of areas they can cover.                    Final Q
                  They will have 10 minutes to think and write a response. Monitor and assist.                 sheet (A)

Conclusion        4 pupils read out their answers, the rest of the class were asked to comment on      xx                  Critical
                  good and weaker aspects of the answer, adding any areas they feel have been                              analysis
5 min             missed. Intervene where necessary to keep focus.

Differentiatio    Read sources aloud to help with language barrier. Use open but guided
n                 questions. Additional support where required.


Risk Assessment          - Low          Action- No specific action required
         USA & World War Two

Use the information on the sheets you have been given to answer these questions.   (p284-5, 366-7,

368-9, 370-1 Walsh   )



Pearl Harbour
When did the attack at Pearl Harbour occur?


What happened to Japanese people living in America as a result of it?




Battle of the Atlantic
Why was it so vital for the USA to cross the Atlantic?




How was the USA involved in the War Effort before 1941?




Why did the Germans want to destroy the USA with their submarines?




War Time Production
What did Knusden agree with the Industrialists?




Describe some of the reasons why the USA emerged strongly from the War.




Women in the War
What sort of jobs did women take on during the war?
What problems did women face?




Blacks in the War
How did the experience of Black people differ from that of Whites during WWII- explain your
answer using examples from the text.




A                                                                               Name:


    How significant was America’s involvement in World War
                                           Two?

    (you could mention what they did, when they entered the War, how much of a
    difference you feel they made to the final outcome of the War, what the long
                    term effect of being at War meant for the USA)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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            (this question sheet had guidelines on front and reverse also)




LESSON PLAN                                          HISTORY                                    LIZ KNIGHT
Year   10                       Date      4/06/03              Period    4            Location H4
Ability Range- Low              No. of pupils 16               Study Unit USA 1929-   SOW   US Foreign Policy 1929-
TOPIC              The Korean War
AIMS/ OBJECTIVES- students should learn
About the progression of the push-pull War. How to use information to create your own evidenced argument.

OUTCOMES- students should know
What happened during the Korean War. Why the war started? Why Chinese and US got involved. Who gained the most from the
War?
KEY Q/ WORDS
UN, Communist, Democratic, North Korea, South Korea
PREVIOUS LESSON/S
Completed the work on the USA and WW2. This session marks the beginning of the Cold War work.
CROSS CURRICULAR LINKS                    Geography                                                 TIME      40 mins

TIMING            ACTIVITIES                                                                        RESOURCES           SKILLS
Introduction      We began by recapping back to before break, that the US are leaving their         Map OHT             Knowledge
                  isolationist stance and getting more involved in world affairs- why? (We wrote    Reasons OHT
10 mins           these ideas on the board.) eg. Fear of communism

                  I now explained using OHTmap how Korea had been split after the war. We
                  then discussed reasons why the war might have begun, using an OHT of ideas.
                  These ideas were added to the board.
Map work          Using the source extracts on OHT and the map sheet. Pupils read each extract          Picture
10 mins           aloud and we then discussed how we could represent the War on the map. The             OHT            Use of
                  pupil with the best suggestion came to the front and coloured in the OHT map.         Results        sources
                  We this for all 4 stages until every pupil has a set of four correctly coloured        OHT
                  maps- I monitored this to check all were on track.                                    Info sheet,
                                                                                                         1 each
Discussion        We looked at the information on the results of the war grid and discussed as a        4 Maps
5 mins            class who seemed to have gained the most from the War, taking into account             each
                  the money and number of lives lost? Does this counteract the glory of taking
                  land? The discussion went on to cover- Were the US/ Chinese wrong to
                  intervene? Did the US win because they kept the Communists at bay?

Final Question    I now gave out the final question sheet and having read and explained the                             Viewpoint
10 mins           question where necessary I let the pupils work on the question individually. I        Final Q
                  monitored the whole class and discussed their ideas with the less able students        sheet (B)      Interpreting
                  and how they might write those down.                                                                  evidence

Conclusion        We had a brief class discussion about pupils‟ responses to the final question.    Final Q sheet       Viewpoint
                  Did we all think the same thing? Why not? This ended in a class vote. The
5 mins            US won. (The Chinese students vehemently disagreed with this!)

                  The aim of this was to get the class to realise that the same event can be
                  interpreted in different ways because of people‟s viewpoints.
Differentiation   Additional help given to pupils at all stages of the lesson. Particularly by
                  getting oral responses and working together to turn these into written
                  responses.

Risk Assessment           Low        Action-       Care taken with cables from OHP
Comments
Need to be careful to keep all pupils up together, otherwise this confusing topic will become very muddled.




                                   The Korean War of 1950 to
                                             1953
The Korean War lasted from 1950-1953. What happened in Korea pushed the boundaries of the
Cold War towards 'Warm War'. Though America and Russia did not officially clash, client states
did in that Communist China fought and was armed and encouraged by Russia.



                       RELATIONS AFTER WORLD WAR TWO
                 The peninsula was divided after World War Two into:

                Russian-backed north (The People’s Democratic Republic)

                       American-backed south (the Republic of Korea).
 Each claimed the right to the other half in an effort to unify both. The division was the result of
            the occupation of Korea by the communists after the end of the war.



WAR BEGINS
   1. In June 1950, the North Koreans launched a surprise attack against the south
      and the capital Seoul fell in just three days.
   2. The United Nations Security Council (which was being boycotted by Russia at
      this time) asked for UN states to send troops to the region under a UN flag. The
      huge bulk of the troops sent were American (15 nations sent troops) under Gen.
      Douglas MacArthur.
   3. By the end of August 1950 only Pusan in the South-East corner of South Korea
      had not fallen to the North.
   4. In September, MacArthur took the huge risk of launching an amphibious landing
      at Inchon 200 miles behind enemy lines and from here he launched an attack
      against the North Koreans at Pusan.
   5. The North Koreans had no choice but to retreat as they faced being cut in two.
   6. MacArthur chose to ignore his orders and advanced north towards the Chinese
      border at the Yalu River. This provoked the Chinese to launch a massive attack
      against the UN forces and South Korea. A Chinese army of 180,000 men
      supported by 100,000 reserves forced the UN troops to retreat and Seoul fell
      once again in January 1951 and the Chinese forces were halted only 60 miles
      from the 38th Parallel. Between January 1951 and June 1951 a stalemate took
      place though the UN forces managed to stabilise themselves near the 38th
      Parallel.
   7. The war became one of static warfare as both sides entrenched their positions.
      Peace talks started at Panmunjom and lasted for 2 years. Two occurrences
      helped to move the peace talks - the death of Stalin in 1953 and the replacement
      of Truman with Eisenhower as US president
   8. An armistice was signed in 1953.
                  Gains                            Losses




                                   Casualties : dead and wounded : 1.3
                                   million South Korean military;

                                   520,000 North Korean military;
Korea             None
                                   Over 3 million civilian casualties.
                                   Much industry destroyed, agriculture
                                   ruined, millions of refugees


         Gained respect by
         taking prompt and
         direct action. Used       17,000 casualties; conduct of war
 UN      combined force to stop    almost entirely by USA and UN could
         aggression. Achieved      have been seen as a USA puppet.
         joint action by
         members.


         Saved South Korea
                                   142,000 casualties. Defence
         from communism.
                                   spending went up from 12 to 60
 USA     Containment policy
                                   billion dollars and failed to liberate
         seen to work against
                                   North Korea.
         Asian communism


         Achieved closer
         friendship with China.
                                   Forced into an expensive arms race
Russia   Conflict between China
                                   with America.
         and USA was to
         Russia’s advantage.


         Gained the respect of     900,000 casualties.
         Asian communism.
         Saved North Korea         Cost of the war was immense for a
         from America. Kept a      poor country. Failed to win South
China    crucial buffer state on   Korea for communism. Increased
         the eastern frontier.     American protection for Taiwan
         Achieved closer           (Formosa). Isolated by America in
         friendship with Russia    trade and politics.
      B                                                                    Name:



                  Who gained the most from the Korean War?

          (you could mention who gained the most land/ moral victory/ reputation. You
          could also talk about who lost what, lives, money, time. Was there really a
                                           winner?)


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                                         Bibliography
Bage, Thinking History, (London, 2000)

Haydn, Arthur and Hunt, Learning to Teach History in the Secondary School, (London, 2001)

Fines and Nichol, The Teachers Craft, (St Luke‟s Library, Exeter)

				
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posted:9/23/2011
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