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Case JSU Chemistry and Biochemistry

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Case JSU Chemistry and Biochemistry Powered By Docstoc
					Chapter 1

Introduction
     Detection of Curare in the
     Jascalevich Murder Trial
• Dr. Jascalevich is accused of murdering patients
  in 1966
• November 1966 - Bergen County Prosecutor’s
  Office launched an investigation
• Items from Dr. Jascalevich’s locker sent to the
  New York City Medical Examiner’s Office for
  analysis
• 1967 - the New York City Medical Examiner’s
  office terminated murder investigation
     Detection of Curare in the
     Jascalevich Murder Trial
• January 1976 - “Doctor X” newspaper articles
• Dr. Baden – statement to exhume patients’
  remains
• Recent Technological advances
   – RIA and HPLC
• Expert Witness Testimony
   – Defense: could not detect curare in human tissue
   – Physicans misdiagnosed patients’s conditions and
     inferior post-operative care
     Detection of Curare in the
     Jascalevich Murder Trial
• Detection of Curare
   – Sensitivity
   – Specificity
• Results
   – RIA: 77 counts – 700 counts; aqueous solution for
     standard curve
   – MS: no solvent blanks; not absolute test
• Curare Stability
   – Embalming fluids and tissue juices had destructive
     effects on curare; used TLC – non detected after a few
     days
    Detection of Curare in the
    Jascalevich Murder Trial
• Trial
  – Seven and a half months
• Jury
  – Two hours
  – Not Guilty
         Organization of Crime
              Laboratory
• Federal System of Government
  –   FBI: Largest crime lab in the world
  –   DEA: Analysis of seized drugs
  –   Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
  –   U.S. Postal Inspection Service
• State Laboratory
• Local Laboratory
  – Provide service to county and municipal agencies
  – Operate independently of state crime labs
         Services of the Crime
              Laboratory
•   Physical Science Unit
•   Biology Unit
•   Firearms Unit
•   Document Examination Unit
•   Photography Unit
        Physical Science Unit
• Principles and Theory
  – Chemistry, Physics, Geology
• Technical Training
  – Chemical tests, modern analytical
    instrumentation
• Analysis
  – Drugs, glass, paint, explosives, soil, etc
               Biology Unit
• Principles and Theory
  – Biologists and Biochemists
• Technical Training
  – DNA profiling, serology, assays
• Analysis
  – Blood, other body fluids, hairs, fibers,
    botanical materials
             Firearms Unit
• Principles and Theory
  – Specialized Area
• Technical Training
  – Chemical and physical methods
• Analysis
  – Discharged ammunition, discharge residue,
    tool marks, angle and distance from target
  Document Examination Unit
• Principles and Theory
  – Questioned documents
• Technical Training
  – Specialized Training
• Analysis
  – Paper and ink, indented writings, obliterations,
    erasures, burned or charred documents
          Photography Unit
• Principles and Theory
  – Photography
• Technical Training
  – Photographic techniques
• Analysis
  – Examine and record physical evidence
           Optional Services
•   Toxicology Unit
•   Latent Fingerprint Unit
•   Polygraph Unit
•   Voiceprint Analysis Unit
•   Evidence-Collection Unit
             Toxicology Unit
• Principles and Theory
  – Toxicology
• Technical Training
  – Drug analysis, instrumentation
• Analysis
  – Body fluids and organs for drugs and poisons
      Latent Fingerprint Unit
• Principles and Theory
  – Specialized training
• Technical Training
  – Chemical and physical methods for
    visualization of prints
• Analysis
  – Fingerprints on various materials
     Voiceprint Analysis Unit
• Principles and Theory
  – Specialized
• Technical Training
  – Sound spectrograph
• Analysis
  – Analysis of voiceprint from sound patterns
     Evidence-Collection Unit
• Principles and Theory
  – Specially trained personnel
• Technical Training
  – Collect and preserve physical evidence
• Analysis
  – None
          Forensic Scientist
• Proper Recognition and Collection of
  Physical Evidence
• Preservation of Physical Evidence
• Analysis of Physical Evidence
• Expert Testimony
            Forensic Scientist
•   Be Resourceful
•   Integrate different disciplines
•   Be creative
•   Build a repertoire of analysis tools
•   Know limitations of test methods
•   Be Flexible
•   Be Persistent
        Forensic Scientist
   Analysis of Physical Evidence
• Fiber Analysis
  – Identification
  – Classification
• Drug Analysis
  – Analytical Instrumentation for Identification
• Biological Analysis
       Admission of Evidence
• The Frye Rule: General Acceptance
  – Accepted in scientific community
• The Daubert Decision: Federal Rule 702
  – Federal Cases
  – Judges as gatekeepers of expert scientific testimony
• Kumho Decision: Extended Daubert
  – Judges as gatekeepers of ALL expert testimony
        Frye v. United States
• 1923, District of Columbia Circuit Court
• Standard guideline for determining the
  judicial admissibility of scientific
  examination
  – Well-recognized scientific principle or
    discovery
  – Method has gained general acceptance in its
    field
         Daubert v. Merrell Dow
          Pharmaceutical, Inc.,
• 1993, U. S. Supreme Court
• Frye standard is not an absolute prerequisite to
  the admissibility of scientific evidence
• Based on the Federal Rules of Evidence – 1975:
  Rule 702, assign trial judge the task of ensuring
  that expert’s testimony is:
   – Scientifically sound
   – Relevant
       Kumho Tire Co., Ltd. V.
           Carmichael
• 1999
• Extended the judge’s gatekeeping role to
  all expert testimony
• Standards that would determine
  admissibility would be different depending
  on the discipline in question
            Types of Evidence
• Inclusive
   – The evidence is included in the population of items
     that came from the crime scene
• Exclusive
   – The evidence is excluded from the items in the crime
     scene
• Direct
   – Known by personal knowledge
• Circumstantial
   – Knowledge by inference
         Forensic Pathology
• Medical Examiners or Coroners
• Investigation of sudden, unnatural,
  unexplained, or violent deaths
• Autopsy
  – Time of Death
  – Cause of Death
               Time of Death
• Physical Changes
  – Rigor mortis – first 24 h; disappear with 36 h
  – Livor mortis – immediately and up to 12 h
• Chemical Changes
  – Algor mortis – cooling of the body temperature to
    ambient temperature; about an hour after death, the
    body will lose heat at 1-1.5 oF/h until ambient
  – Potassium level in ocular fluid – cells within inner
    surface of eyeball release potassium
        Forensic Entomology
• Study of insects and their relation to
  criminal investigation
• Knowledge of insects, their life cycles,
  their habits
• Estimate time of death
  – Blow flies
      Forensic Anthropology
• Identification and examination of human
  skeletal remains
• Skeletal remains decompose slowly
• Determine origin, sex, ~age, race, skeletal
  injury
• Facial reconstruction
        Forensic Psychiatry
• Relationship between human behavior and
  legal proceedings
• Competency
• Behavioral Profile
• Child Custody
• Juvenile Justice
        Forensic Odontology
• Identification of victims when body is left
  in unrecognizable state
• Teeth
  – Hard enamel
  – X rays and dental records
  – Age estimation
• Bite Mark Analysis
  – comparative
          Dental Profiling
• Comparison of bite marks
        Forensic Engineering
• Failure analysis, accident reconstruction,
  causes and origins of fires or explosions.
        Computer Forensic
• Cyber crime
• Security
• Evidence

				
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