dangling modifiers by liwenting

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									        Correcting Dangling Modifiers

What is a dangling modifier?
How to fix dangling modifiers
     Participial phrases
     Infinitive phrases
Review A
Review B
         What is a dangling modifier?

A modifier should clearly and sensibly modify
another word or word group.

But look at this sentence:

                                ?
While wrapping the gifts, our cat
kept trying to play with the bows.

Who or what was wrapping the gifts?

                                        The cat?
         What is a dangling modifier?

A dangling modifier is a modifier that doesn’t
clearly and sensibly modify another word or word
group.

                 ?    ?        ?
 To find at hotel, help would be looked unfamiliar.
 Lost, the guide map, the streets needed.
 Peeringthe the book was consulted.



                          Was help have topeering
                          Were the streets find the
                          Doesthe guide book lost?at
                          hotel?
                          the map?
          What is a dangling modifier?

Dangling modifiers often occur at the
beginning of a sentence. When a
sentence begins with a participial
phrase or infinitive phrase, use these
steps to tell if the phrase is dangling.

Step 1: Look at the word or word group right after
the comma.

   Participial phrase
                            makeup looked good.
Checking in the mirror, the makeuplooked good.
             What is a dangling modifier?

Step 2: Ask yourself, “Does it make sense for the
phrase to modify the word or word group after the
comma?”
     Dangling modifier
     Participial phrase                      ?
Checking in the mirror, the makeup
looked good.
Was the makeup checking in the mirror?
No, it doesn’t make sense for the participial phrase
to modify makeup.
If the phrase doesn’t sensibly modify the word after the
comma, you probably have a dangling modifier.
         What is a dangling modifier?

Try it out with this sentence:
     Dangling modifier             ?
Having selected a college, a trip to the campus
was planned.

Which word or word group follows
the comma? trip

Does it make sense that the trip has
selected a college?
NO. The phrase is a dangling modifier.
          What is a dangling modifier?

On Your Own
Circle the word or word group that appears to be modified
by the boldfaced word or phrase. Then, determine whether
the boldfaced word or phrase is a dangling modifier. Write D
for a dangling modifier or C if the modifier is correct.

___ 1. Thirsty and weary, the stream was a welcome
sight.

___ 2. Convinced of the prisoner’s innocence, the
judge ruled that he should be set free.

___ 3. Riding in the glass-bottomed boat, hundreds of
beautiful fish could be seen.

                                                [End of Section]
          How to fix dangling modifiers

To fix a dangling modifier, you will need to make
the meaning logical and clear.
Strategy 1: Revise the word group that follows
the dangling modifier.

      sitting modifier              ?
WhileDangling on the porch, we heard the rain
begin to fall. on the porch, the rain began to fall.
While sitting
Now the modifier while sitting on
Was the rain sitting on the porch?the porch logically and
clearly modifies the subject we.
No. A logical subject—such as we—needs to follow the
comma.
          How to fix dangling modifiers

Strategy 2: Revise the dangling modifier itself.

       Dangling modifier                ?
         we were the porch, the rain began to began
While sitting onsitting on the porch, the rainfall.
to fall.

Adding we were to the dangling
modifier makes the meaning clear.
Now the modifier clearly and sensibly
modifies the verb began.
         How to fix dangling modifiers
                   Participial phrases

Strategy 1: Revise the word group after the
participial phrase. Add a noun or pronoun that
the phrase can modify.

   Participial phrase             ?
 Adding some frosting, the cake was finished.

   Participial phrase
 Adding some frosting, I finished the cake.

 Now the participial phrase clearly and sensibly modifies
 the pronoun I.
         How to fix dangling modifiers
                  Participial phrases

Strategy 2: Change the participial phrase into
a clause.

   Participial phrase           ?
 Adding some frosting, the cake was finished.

         Adverb clause
 After I added some frosting, the cake was finished.
 Now the adverb clause modifies the verb was finished,
 telling when the cake was finished.
         How to fix dangling modifiers
                   Participial phrases

Participial phrases that seem to modify possessive
nouns or pronouns are dangling modifiers. Reword
the sentence to avoid using the possessive form.

      Participial phrase                 ?
 Washing them repeatedly, Lady Macbeth’s hands
 still appear bloody.

         Participial phrase
 Washing her hands repeatedly, Lady Macbeth
 still sees blood on them.
 Now the phrase sensibly modifies the noun Lady Macbeth.
         How to fix dangling modifiers
                    Infinitive phrases

Strategy 1: Revise the word group after the
infinitive phrase. Add a noun or pronoun as the
subject.

   Infinitive phrase             ?
 To win this election, your support
 will be needed.

   Infinitive phrase
 To win this election, I will need your support.

 Now the infinitive phrase clearly and sensibly modifies
 will need, telling why I will need your support.
         How to fix dangling modifiers
                   Infinitive phrases

Strategy 2: Change the infinitive phrase into a
clause.
   Infinitive phrase            ?
  To win this election, your support will be needed.

         Adverb clause
  If I am to win this election, your support will be
  needed.

 Now the adverb clause modifies the verb will be needed,
 telling why your support will be needed.
         How to fix dangling modifiers

On Your Own
Revise each sentence to correct the dangling modifier.
1. Alone in the house, every little noise made her
   jump.
2. To win this game, hard work will be necessary.
3. After cleaning the bathroom, Matt’s next chore was
   to sweep the floors.
4. Opening my umbrella, the rain stopped.



                                            [End of Section]
                        Review A

Identify each dangling modifier. If a sentence does not have
a dangling modifier, label it C.

1. To make a good grade, homework must be done on time.

2. Foggy and rainy, the driver could barely see the road.

3. While touring the ruins, good walking shoes are essential.

4. Carrying the camping gear, we found the hike up the
   mountain tiring.
5. The front door was a welcome sight, exhausted after a
   long day.


                                                [End of Section]
                         Review B

Revise each sentence to correct the dangling modifier.

1. To hang the picture on the wall, a nail will be needed.
2. Disappointed, it was time to start the project all over.

3. The kite soared into the air while running across the
   field.
4. Finishing the chores early, there was time to read before
   bed.
5. Considering the evidence carefully, the defendant was
   found guilty.


                                                  [End of Section]
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