The Book of Exodus

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					THE BOOK OF EXODUS 2
COVENANT AND LAW (19.1-
31.18)




                          2
    PREPARATION FOR THE COVENANT (19:1-25)
 Israel camped in front of the mountain (2)
 God brought Israel to him on eagles' wings (4)
 Israel consecrated for 2 days and on the 3rd day the
  Lord to appear on Sinai.
 No one was to touch the mountain until the
       ram's horn blew.
 On the 3rd day there was thunder, lightning, thick
  cloud, smoke, fire, earthquake and trumpet blast.
 All trembled (19.16). The Lord descended to the
  mount,
 called Moses up, told Moses to go down and
       get Aaron (19.20).
     THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
     (20:1-17)
     The Legislative part begins here.
     This is the foundation and basis for the rest of
     the book of Exodus.

     Names of 10 Commandments:
     (a) decalogue (10 words),
     (b) Words 20.1, or
     (c) Commandments of God.

10 Commandments are repeated in Deut. 5
20:2 sets up the AUTHORITY for the revelation
“I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the
land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.
                                                        4
TEN COMMANDMENTS EXAMINED:


 Commandments 1 through 4:
 Man's relationship to God (THE VERTICAL
  RELATIONSHIP)

 Commandments 5 through 10:
 Man's responsibility to man (THE HORIZONTAL
  RELATIONSHIP)
 ANALYSIS OF THE 10 COMMANDMENTS


Sacredness   Bible   Content of the Commandment
    of:    Reference

  GOD        20:3    You shall have no other gods before
                                       me.
  GOD          20:4     You shall not make a carved image
                              (nor bow down to it.)

  GOD          20:7     You shall not take the Lord's name
                        in vain. Blasphemy-- "making light
                        of” Does not include court oaths --
                        Mt. 5.33-37.
SABBATH        20:8     Remember the Sabbath and keep it
                        holy. (Neh. 9:14) How to observe it
                        and why.
                                                              6
 HOME       20:12 Honor your father and mother


  LIFE      20:13         You shall not murder.

MARRIAGE    20:14 You shall not commit adultery.

OWNERSHIP   20:15 You shall not steal. (Sacred right
                                 to own)
            20:16    You shall not bear false witness.

            20:17       You shall not covet your
                    neighbor's house. Not a physical
                           act, but a motive.
                                                         7
Moses in the
presence of
 the Lord




               8
THE BOOK OF THE COVENANT

   (Exodus 20:22—23:33)
C. The Book of the Covenant Material in
   Exodus 20:22—23:33 termed “Book of
   the Covenant” or the “Covenant Code”
   based on Exodus 24:7

7Then he took the Book of the Covenant
and read in the hearing of the people.
And they said, "All that the LORD has said
we will do, and be obedient



                                             10
(20:18) The people were
     appropriately afraid

     (21:1) Laws enumerated




                              11
C. The Book of the Covenant

1.Hebrew servants 21.2-11

a. If Hebrew slave was bought, He can serve for 6 years but
   goes free on the 7th.

b. Servant doesn't have to go free– A pierce in the ear
represented permanent slavery.




                                                              12
2.    Personal Injuries (21.12-35)
       a. If a man strikes another man and he dies,
the first shall be put to death.
       b. If unintentional, he is to flee to a designated
place.
       c. Rules against attacking mother and father,
and kidnapping.
       d. Death for he who curses mother and father.
21:17
       Laws concerning restitution for excessive or
       unfair loss of property (22:5-17)
      Miscellaneous laws (22:18-20)

      e. Misc.--causing premature birth, injuring or stabbing a bull etc…

                                                                            13
3.   Protection of Property 22:1-15

4.   Social Responsibility 22:16-31

5.   Laws of Justice and Mercy 23:1-9

6.   Sabbath Laws 23:10-13




                                        14
THE BOOK OF THE COVENANT (EXODUS 20:22—23:33)


 Most of these laws should be considered
  illustrations on how the Ten Commandments
  should be applied to practical, daily reality of a
  primitive, patriarchal community 3000 years
  ago
 They are not like the Ten Commandments,
  principles intended for all times and all social
  contexts
THE BOOK OF THE COVENANT (EXODUS 20:22—23:33)


   Some Comments on Specific Laws
     We  do not accept slavery. However, in the context of
      the ancient near East, Israel’s laws were marked by
      compassion and bias towards freedom and fair
      treatment
     “An eye for a eye, tooth for a tooth” is not about
      revenge, but a sentencing guideline to limit
      punishments to a reasonable amount
7.   The Three Annual Festivals (23:14-19)

     a. The Feast of Unleavened Bread (Passover)

     b. The Feast of Harvest

     c. The Feast of Ingathering




                                                   17
INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE
TABERNACLE
(Exodus 25:1—31:18)
D.   The Covenant Ratified (24.1-18)

     1.       God asks for Moses, Aaron, Nadab,
              Abihu, and 70 elders. Only Moses can
              approach God.

     2.       Moses build an altar with 12 stones at
              the foot of the mountain. He reads
              book of the covenant to the people,
              sprinkled blood on the people.




                                                       19
3.(24:11) God appears as standing on
  pavement of sapphire clear as the sky.

4.Moses goes up Mt. Sinai, glory of God
  covers the mountain, on the 7th day
     God speaks, Moses was on the
  mountain 40 days and nights.




                                           20
INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE TABERNACLE (EXODUS 25:1—
31:18)


 Seven chapters, consisting of seven speeches
  of the LORD to Moses on Mount Sinai on how
  to build a suitable place for the LORD to dwell
  in the midst of Israel
 Tabernacle (Hebrew miskan) derives from
  sakan, “to dwell” or “to sojourn”
     Suggestsfull presence of God, but not necessarily
      permanent presence
   Tabernacle = “portable temple”
IV. REBELLION AND
    RENEWAL, The Golden Calf
 (Exodus 32-40)




                               22
THE GOLDEN CALF (EXODUS 32:1-35)

   Exodus 32:1-6. The Golden Calf
     Moses  is gone, still on the Mountain
     People cry to Aaron, “Make for us gods!”

     Aaron supervises casting of golden calf
             crude assault against the first and second
        Direct,
        commandments (20:1-6)
     Altarbuilt, festival proclaimed, offerings received to
      the “gods” … “who brought you up out of the land of
      Egypt” (v.4)
THE GOLDEN CALF (EXODUS 32:1-35)
      Comparison with the Tabernacle Building Story:

          Tabernacle                   Golden Calf
God’s Initiative               People’s Initiative
A willing offering requested   Aaron commands gold
Lots of preparations           No planning
Lengthy building process       Made quickly
Invisible God                  Visible god

Personal, active God           Impersonal Object
THE GOLDEN CALF (EXODUS 32:1-35)

   Exodus 32:1-6. The Golden Calf
     Sin   here is not merely disobedience, but disloyalty
              in a marriage relationship with the LORD
        Israel

        (Amos 3:2); faithfulness demanded

       “You only have I known of all the families of the
         earth; Therefore I will punish you for all your
         iniquities “
THE GOLDEN CALF (EXODUS 32:1-35)

    The LORD abruptly tells Moses on the Mountain of the
     violation of commandment by Israel, mimicking the words of
     the people
    No longer “my people,” but “your people” (v. 7)
    7And the LORD said to Moses, "Go, get down! For your
     people whom you brought out of the land of Egypt have
     corrupted themselves. 8They have turned aside quickly out
     of the way which I commanded them. They have made
     themselves a molded calf, and worshiped it and sacrificed
     to it, and said, "This is your god, O Israel, that brought you
     out of the land of Egypt!"
THE GOLDEN CALF (EXODUS 32:1-35)
  Moses   does not leave as requested, but speaks up
   for the people
THE GOLDEN CALF (EXODUS 32:1-35)

 Exodus 32:7-14.
 Moses’ argument to God:
     Appeals  to God’s reasonableness: people only just
      delivered
     Appeals to God’s reputation: what will the Egyptians say?

     Reminds God of God’s own promise that their
      descendants would be multiplied and inherit the
      promised land
THE GOLDEN CALF (EXODUS 32:1-35)

 Exodus 32:7-14.
 Moses changes God’s mind
    Moses  does not “win” a debate
    Rather, God takes seriously the relationship with
     Moses.
THE GOLDEN CALF (EXODUS 32:1-35)

   Exodus 32:15-29. The Leadership of Moses
     Moses comes down and sees for himself what has
      happened
     Moses’ anger also “burns hot”

     Moses moves quickly to end the apostasy
        1.Vv. 19-20: Calf reduced to powder; people forced drink
        the polluted water so calf ultimately suffers the
        dishonour of being dispersed in human waste
CONCLUSIONS
   The LORD is gracious and merciful (Exodus
    33:1—34:35)
EXODUS 34:1-10. A GOD GRACIOUS AND MERCIFUL


   "The Lord, the Lord, the compassionate and gracious
    God, slow to anger, abounding in love and
    faithfulness, 7 maintaining love to thousands, and
    forgiving wickedness, rebellion and sin. Yet he does
    not leave the guilty unpunished; he punishes the
    children and their children for the sin of the fathers to
    the third and fourth generation." 8 Moses bowed to
    the ground at once and worshiped. 9 "O Lord, if I have
    found favor in your eyes," he said, "then let the Lord
    go with us. Although this is a stiff-necked people,
    forgive our wickedness and our sin, and take us as
    your inheritance."
OVERVIEW EXODUS 33:1—34:35

 After the great sin of the Golden Calf (Exodus
  32), the covenant between God and Israel has
  been broken, and their relationship is fragile
  and precarious
 Exodus 33: A new crises of God’s Presence
  arises. Moses intercedes
 Exodus 34: The covenant between God and
  Israel is renewed

				
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posted:9/23/2011
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