Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities By: Kayla Payne and Lael Wadopian What is an Emotional/Behavioral Disability? · Defined under I.D.E.A as a condition that shows one or more of the following characteristics: · A). An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. · B). An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers · C). Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal characteristics · D). A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression · E). A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. Causes · Biological Factors · Environmental Factors · Family · School · Society Biological Factors · There is growing evidence that behavior and emotional health appears to be influenced by: · 1). Genetic · 2). Neurological · 3). biochemical factors, singly or in combination. · Even when a clear biological impairment exists, no one has been able to say with certainty whether the physiological abnormality actually causes the behavior problem · There is a clear link between biological factors and the child’s environment in which they are raised. Environmental Factors · Environmental factors are considered important in the development of emotional and behavioral disorders · Professionals and researchers have identified three primary causal factors · (a) an adverse early rearing environment · (b) an aggressive pattern of behavior displayed on entering school · (c) social rejection by peers · The family or home, school, and society environments have major influence on the behavior of individuals. Family · Early relationships with parents and family greatly impact the way the child develops, and interacts with other’s · Parents and guardians also impact children's opinions, behaviors, and emotions. · One major factor associated with emotional problems is child abuse. · Child abuse may result in poor impulse control and poor self- concepts. Aggression and anger are often noticed in children who have been abused. · School and Society Factors · Societal problems can impact on a student’s emotional and behavioral status. · An impoverished environment, including poor nutrition, a disrupted family, and a sense of frustration and hopelessness may lead to aggressive, acting-out behaviors. · School is where children spend the largest portion of their time outside the home. Teacher expectations and actions greatly affect a student’s life and behavior. · Peers are also a influential factor on students behaviors/misbehaviors. Skit · Watch while we act out how peers and environment can contribute to behavioral outbursts for a child who may have this disorder. How to Identify a Student with this Disability Characteristics according to Pierangelo and Giuliani: · Acting out · Aggressive, cruel, malicious, or assaultive behavior; fighting with peers · Anti-social behavior (lying, stealing, vandalizing) · Excessive anxiety · Appearance of laziness, preoccupation, and lack of interest · Attempted self injury or to injure others · Attentional problems Characteristics Cont. · Appearance of deriving little enjoyment from school · Inability to carry on normal routines · Learning problems · Low self-esteem · Depression · Overdependence on adults · Defiance · Poor social skills · Impulsivity · Making threats to try to get his/or her own way *These characteristics alone do not diagnose a emotional/behavioral disability. It is based on a variety of factors and behaviors Statistics and Research · The following academic outcomes for students with emotional and behavioral disorders have been reported in the research literature (Chesapeake Institute, 1994; Valdes, Williamson, & Wagnor, 1990). · Its important to note that no reliable definition or screening instrument exists · Studies have indicated that 6-10% of school-age children exhibit serious and persistent emotional/behavioral difficulties. · U.S department of education only identifies 1% of school children as seriously emotionally disturbed (Even though it is only 1% this estimate suggests at least 400,000 children). · Two thirds could not pass competency exams for their grade level · These children have the lowest grade point average of any group of students with disabilities. Statistics and Research Cont. · Forty-four percent failed one or more courses in their most recent school year. · They have a higher absenteeism rate than any other disability category (missing an average of 18 days of school per year). · Forty-eight percent drop out of high school, compared with 30% of all students with disabilities and 24% of all high school students. · Over 50% are not employed within 2 years of exiting school. · LETS TALK ABOUT WHY YOU THINK THIS IS? WHAT FACTORS THAT WE PREVIOUSLY DISCUSSED DO YOU THINK INFLUENCE THESE NUMBERS? What to do when you have this type of disability in YOUR classroom? · First of all the student will need to have an IEP in place for them. · There are several considerations to take in when planning for this student. · Break into groups of 3 or 4 and discuss some ways in which you think you could modify your classroom to accommodate a student with this disability. (3 minutes) Helpful Tips · General Considerations · Many breaks throughout the day · Avoid speaking in harsh tones · Have set schedules · Have a clean, neat, and well organized classroom Helpful Tips · Student-Teacher Interactions · “Mini-conferences” (private conversations) · Use praise in appropriate situations · Ask former teacher’s, parents, and consultants for helpful suggestions Helpful Tips · Academic Considerations · Make a contract · Plan work according to the child’s abilities · Break down assignments · Encourage them to participate Helpful Tips · Behavior Management Considerations · Be consistent with classroom rules (quiz individually) · Proximity control · Avoid power struggles · Use external controls (such as a timer) · Encourage extra curricular activities · Have a “chill out” area *Pages 43-49 in Pierangelo for more information* Citations Mitchell, C. (2009) Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Retrieved June 24, 2009, from http://www.slc.sevier.org/emoclass.htm Pierangelo, R. Giuliani, G. (2001). What Every Teacher Should Know About Students With Special Needs. Champaign, Illinois : Research Press.
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