Never give in, never,
• Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill grew
up as the son of a British noble. He
attended private school from age of seven,
and entered Harrow in 1888. He was not
impressed with his education. Later he
entered Sandhurst Royal Military College
in 1893 after three attempts to pass the
entrance test. He joined the army in 1895.
• He was elected to the House of Commons
（下议院）as a Conservative in 1900. Then
he joined the Liberal Party and became the
President of the Board of Trade （贸易大
臣）in 1904.He served as Under Secretary
of State for the Colonies（殖民部次官）
from 1906 to 1908.He served in the
military in France during World War I. He
was Secretary of State for War（陆军大
臣） from 1918 to 1921 and Chancellor of
the Exchequer（财政大臣） from 1924 to
1929.When World War II broke out, he
was nominated as First Lord Of Admiralty
• He was Prime Minister from 1940 to 1945
and from 1951 to 1955, and his widely
regarded as Britain’s greatest 20th-
century statesman. Besides this, he is also
a prolific historical writer, and his most
famous works are The World Crisis, My
early Life, Marlborough, The Second
World War, and A History of the English-
speaking People. He was knighted for his
great contribution to Britain and was
awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in
1953 for his The Second World War.
The Art of Public
• Types of speeches: Speaking to
inform/persuade/ on special occasions/in
• Elements of public speaking: Speaker /
Message/ Channel/ Listener / Feedback/
• Methods: Reading from manuscript/
Reciting from memory/ Speaking
impromptu/ Speaking extemporaneously
• Part 1 (para 1) opening remarks in
which Churchill summarized the great
events that had happened in the
world with Great Britain in particular
and then talked about the purpose of
his visit---to encourage the whole
nation to fight against the Nazis.
• Part II (para2-5) it is the body of
the speech in which he analyzed the
world situation and how other
countries looked at Britain and then
called on the Britain people not to
• Part III( para6-8) It is the closing
remarks in which, by changing a word
in the additional verse of the school
song, he expressed his conviction
that this nation was determined to
fight for the victory of this great
• What was Churchill’s intention of singing
some of their song?
• Forty years on
• Not less we praise in darker days/ The
leader of our nation/ And Churchill’s name
shall win acclaim / From each new
generation/ For you have power in danger’s
hour/ Our freedom to defend, Sir!/Though
long the fight we know that right/ Will
triumph in the end, Sir!
• At the initial stage of the Second
World War, Great Britain was
fighting in isolation against Nazi
Fascist. Some British people doubted
whether their nation could win the
war with their own efforts. Churchill
wanted to convey the conviction of
the government to the British people
through these songs and encourage
them not to give in.
• catastrophic hypothesis
• A potentially catastrophic situation
• A catastrophic illness.
• A decisive or catastrophic conflict.
• Be certain that you are not underinsured
against catastrophic illness.
• Menace: threat(en)
Two men menaced him with weapons
and forced him to give up his money.
menace with one's fist clenched.
He spoke with menace in his voice.
A careless driver is a menace to all
lull :break calm hush intermission lapse
letup pause quiet recess respite rest
• vt., vi.(into)
The monotonous voice of the
movement of the train lulled me to
The wind lulled.
Appearances are deceptive.不可貌相。
address :abode greeting home speech
• n. home address
• an address of welcome
• a man of pleasing address
• pay one's addresses to a lady
• address a meeting
• address the ball
• How shall I address you?
• If your friend did something wrong, you
should always address a warning to him.
• I have the honor of introducing to you Mr.
Smith, who will address you on his recent
• The letter was addressed to the wrong
• He addressed himself to the task of doing
• He addressed her with high compliment.
Liquidate: put an end to; abolish or kill
• The government made every effort
to stabilize the economy by -ting the
• Hitler tried to liquidate the Jews in
• sponge the mud spots off the car
• sponge drink
• sponge on one's friends
Flinch:cringe draw back recoil shrink
• flinch from danger
Compliment:commend congratulate flatter
• Your presence is a great compliment.
• A sincere compliment boosts one's morale.
• A free sample is enclosed with the
compliments of the manufacturer.
Stern: austere exacting firm hard
harsh severe strict stringent
• a stern teacher
• a stern taskmaster
1.Ups and downs :
A mixture of good things and bad things
Eg: Sitting beside the window, he recalled
the ~ of his parenthood.
The organization has experienced ~since
it was founded in 1999.
2.the very great improvement:
the better armament of the British forces
and assistance from the United States
3.position: situation at a particular time
Eg: It is time those companies relvealed
more about their financial ~.
The soccer team is going to be in a very
difficult ~if nothing particular shows up.
4.the unmeasured menace of the enemy:
the immense or incalculable threat or
danger of the enemy attack
5….there has been this long lull…:
There has been no progress of the war
in such a long quiet period
1. What is short and sharp and what is
long and tough:
difficulties and hardships of any
kind, imminent or distant,
temporary or long-lasting
2. Noble chance of war:
impressive opportunities of war
3.throw our minds back to our meeting
here ten months ago:
recollecting our meeting at Harrow
School ten months ago
4.Apperances are often very deceptive:
Eg: Attempts to find civilian volunteers
have met with embarrassing failure.
Efforts to put the Russian space
programme into market have met
with little success.
6…imagination makes things out far
What one imagines leads to be worse
make out: see or understand
7.Pray to be given that extra courage
to carry this far-reaching imagination:
wish to be equipped with excessive
courage to accomplish or realize this
effective and influential blueprint
8.convictions of honour and good sense:
strong beliefs in honour and good
judgement of duty and justice
9.Never yield to the apparently
overwhelming might of the enemy:
never give in or surrender to the
seemingly strong enemy
10.our account was closed…:
we were completely defeated by the
11. Very different is the mood today.
How other nations view Britain and how
the British people think and feel about the
war is quite different today from ten
12.Britain…had drawn a sponge across her
Britain … was completely wiped out.
13….our country stood in the gap.
our country shouldered the responsibility
14….we have only to persevere to conquer.
We have no choice but to hold on until
1.The extra verse written in my honour:
Not less we praise in darker days
The leader of our nation
And Churchill’s name shall win acclaim
From each new generation
For you have power in danger’s hour
Our freedom to defeat, Sir!
Though long the fight we know that right
Will triumph in the end, Sir!
2.Each of us according to our stations:
Each of us according to our social