CHAPTER THREE REFORMS AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT WITHIN A COMMUNITY
Clarifying the concepts: Reform and Change
Reform attempts to bring changes or transformation It can be in the system, processes ,procedures, or environment in which a particular system functions. The objective of reform is to enhance organizational effectiveness Reform by bringing about changes intends to readjust the system and give a new form to it.
Reform is a planned ,systematized and well directed process. Reform measures have to be inter-disciplinary and multidimensional. Changes are to be ushered in on several fronts including skills,attitudes,policy making,implmentation,evaluati on and a host of structural and functional aspects.
Change in attitude is important, as it is necessary for them to accept the legal,structural,and political changes.
Dimensions of Government reforms
Factors that promote reforms(peters(2001)) reduction of costs and improving efficiency Enhancing the quality of services Greater role for employees in making decisions about the policies of organization Reorganizing the structure Improving transparency and
Hypothesis about reforms
Policy reforms emerges in response to crises Strong external support is an important condition for successful reforms Authoritarian regimes are best at carrying out reforms Policy reform is a right wing programme Social consensus is a powerful factor impelling reform. Visionary leadership is important Reforms should mask their intentions to the general puplic.
Change is the only unchanging law of nature (an old proverb) Almost equally universal is the resistance to change. Resistance is human beings’ natural response to change. (Newton’s first law) Changes can be slow, sudden ,as well as planned
Resistance to change can be lessened through: negotation, incentives, education, training, Participations, involvement,etc
Factors to check resistance
Change is a continuous dynamic philosophy which can not be circumscribed by a master blue print to be prepared by the top manager or the change agent. Change is for everyone Successful change efforts are related to both unilateral as well as delegated approaches.
Evolving a change management strategy
The nature of change must be understood. A change management strategy will depend up on many factors, some of which are : technology political environment target population skill level and age group of employees
Leadership Organizational flexibility and culture Stakes involved in the project Time frame for implementation Expertise Other factors There can not be a single change management strategy.
Change Management Models
3-STEP CHANGE PROCESS preparing for change build a foundation, examine theories,and perspectives managing change develop key management plan(communications,coaching,traini ng,resistance management,) reinforcing change Build,buy-in, celebrate success
A five stage model on change management
Development stage Initiation stage Testing stage Adoption and stabilisation Diffusion to other systems
Effective Organizational Performance Model
Rational/behavioural Systems Cultural Critical humanism
Structural Reforms :Resources ,Finance, Powers, and Functions
Structure of local bodies Powers and functions of local institutions Infrastructure for planning District planning committee Metropolitan area planning committee
Modalities for peoples’ participation
Citizenship linkage to development agenda Sustainable success achived Promoting social justice Redistributing resources Good governance More initiatives from citizens than from institutions.
Peoples’ participation should move from project level to policy level political empowerment of people the institutional channels could be accessed, controlled, or contested by the poor. The political discourses in which poverty and poverty reductions are specific issues. The political and social practices of the poor which may be a basis for influencing decision making agenda, policy and program implementation.
Resources of local bodies
Finance tax revenue non tax revenue grants in aid borrowings or loans
Capacity buildings of grassroots functionaries
Institutional capacity building Capacity building of elected functionaries Capacity building of local administration Community empowerment civil society is the hope of the new world order to fill the space left vacant by the state and the market for different reasons.
Chapter four Empowerment
Four core concepts Access to Information Inclusion and participation Accountability Local organized capacity
The centrality of the notion of empowerment is located in the dynamics of : sharing distrubution and Redistribution of power.
Dynamics of power relations Principles of change and transformation Empowerment as part of social movement
Paradigm shift in development strategy and emergence of the notion of empowerment