SOLAR ENERGY IN NIGERIA
Engr. Mrs. Nnenna Nzeribe MNSE, MENG
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING
ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE
Brief history of solar energy
How to use solar
Factors affecting it
Brief History of Solar System
We have always used the energy of the sun as far back
as humans have existed on this planet. As far back as
5,000 years ago, people "worshipped" the sun.
Ra, the sun-god, was considered the first king of
In Mesopotamia, the sun-god Shamash was a major
deity and was equated with justice.
In Greece there were two sun deities, Apollo and
Helios. The influence of the sun also appears in other
religions - Zoroastrianism, Mithraism, Roman
religion, Hinduism, Buddhism e.t.c
USES OF SOLAR ENERGY
We use the sun's energy every day in many different ways.
When we hang laundry outside to dry in the sun, we are using the sun's
heat to do work -- drying our clothes.
Plants use the sun's light to make food. Animals eat plants for food.
Decaying plants hundreds of millions of years ago produced the coal,
oil and natural gas that we use today. So, fossil fuels is actually sunlight
stored millions and millions of years ago. Indirectly, the sun or other
stars are responsible for ALL our energy.
Even nuclear energy comes from a star because the uranium atoms
used in nuclear energy were created in the fury of a nova - a star
TYPES OF SOLAR ENERGY
Solar Hot Water
Solar Thermal Electricity
* Central Tower Power Plant
Solar Cells or Photovoltaic Energy
When sunlight strikes the solar cell, electrons
(red circles) are knocked loose. They move
toward the treated front surface (dark blue color).
An electron imbalance is created between the
front and back. When the two surfaces are joined
by a connector, like a wire, a current of electricity
occurs between the negative and positive sides.
Solar Cell arrangement
These individual solar cells are arranged together
in a PV module and the modules are grouped
together in an array. Some of the arrays are set
on special tracking devices to follow sunlight all
day long. The electrical energy from solar cells
can then be used directly. It can be used in a
home for lights and appliances. It can be used in
Solar energy can be stored in batteries to light a
roadside billboard at night. Or the energy can be
stored in a battery for an emergency roadside
cellular telephone when no telephone wires are
The Application of solar technology
Advantages of solar Energy
Solar energy is a renewable resource and its availability may
be generally relied upon day after day.Its’supply will last as
long as the sun.
Solar energy is non-polluting. The burning of oil releases
carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the air. In
addition to this, the process of obtaining it may result in
damaged ecosystems through dredging or spills
Solar cells are long-lasting and require very little
The problem with solar energy is that it works only when
the sun is shining. So, on cloudy days and at night, the
power plants can't create energy.
solar cells and panels are expensive.
Still, the advantages of solar energy far outweigh the
disadvantages. In addition to this, the disadvantages are
sure to be overcome as technology improves.
THE WAY FORWARD IN OUR COUNTRY
• 'The tropical climate makes solar energy the most viable alternative source of
renewable energy in Nigeria. Harnessing the sun's energy to produce power is
an imperative for rural areas where the hope of being connected to the national
grid is very remote and extremely expensive.
The Council for Renewable Energy in Nigeria (CREN) is a multi-stakeholder
association which promotes the appropriate use of renewable energy technology
in Nigeria. CREN aims to bring together the professional sector, government
and civil services, academics, associations, industry, financial institutions and
services, the non-profit sector and end users and to act as a forum were they
can work together for efficient, appropriate renewable energy implementation
and to develop a comprehensive sustainable energy strategy for Nigeria.