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					SOLAR ENERGY IN NIGERIA
           By
           Engr. Mrs. Nnenna Nzeribe           MNSE, MENG
          DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING
          ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE
          AND TECHNOLOGY
OUTLINE

   Definition
   Brief history of solar energy
   Types
   Its Importance
   How to use solar
   Factors affecting it
Brief History of Solar System

   We have always used the energy of the sun as far back
    as humans have existed on this planet. As far back as
    5,000 years ago, people "worshipped" the sun.
   Ra, the sun-god, was considered the first king of
    Egypt.
   In Mesopotamia, the sun-god Shamash was a major
    deity and was equated with justice.
   In Greece there were two sun deities, Apollo and
    Helios. The influence of the sun also appears in other
    religions - Zoroastrianism, Mithraism, Roman
    religion, Hinduism, Buddhism e.t.c
  USES OF SOLAR ENERGY


We use the sun's energy every day in many different ways.
 When we hang laundry outside to dry in the sun, we are using the sun's
  heat to do work -- drying our clothes.
  Plants use the sun's light to make food. Animals eat plants for food.
  Decaying plants hundreds of millions of years ago produced the coal,
  oil and natural gas that we use today. So, fossil fuels is actually sunlight
  stored millions and millions of years ago. Indirectly, the sun or other
  stars are responsible for ALL our energy.
 Even nuclear energy comes from a star because the uranium atoms
  used in nuclear energy were created in the fury of a nova - a star
  exploding.
TYPES OF SOLAR ENERGY

   Solar Hot Water




   Solar Thermal Electricity




                                * Central Tower Power Plant
Solar Cells or Photovoltaic Energy



   When sunlight strikes the solar cell, electrons
    (red circles) are knocked loose. They move
    toward the treated front surface (dark blue color).
    An electron imbalance is created between the
    front and back. When the two surfaces are joined
    by a connector, like a wire, a current of electricity
    occurs between the negative and positive sides.
    Solar Cell arrangement


   These individual solar cells are arranged together
    in a PV module and the modules are grouped
    together in an array. Some of the arrays are set
    on special tracking devices to follow sunlight all
    day long. The electrical energy from solar cells
    can then be used directly. It can be used in a
    home for lights and appliances. It can be used in
    a business.
   Solar energy can be stored in batteries to light a
    roadside billboard at night. Or the energy can be
    stored in a battery for an emergency roadside
    cellular telephone when no telephone wires are
    around.
The Application of solar technology
Advantages of solar Energy


   Solar energy is a renewable resource and its availability may
    be generally relied upon day after day.Its’supply will last as
    long as the sun.
   Solar energy is non-polluting. The burning of oil releases
    carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the air. In
    addition to this, the process of obtaining it may result in
    damaged ecosystems through dredging or spills
   Solar cells are long-lasting and require very little
    maintenance
MAJOR DISAVANTAGE

   The problem with solar energy is that it works only when
    the sun is shining. So, on cloudy days and at night, the
    power plants can't create energy.
    solar cells and panels are expensive.

Still, the advantages of solar energy far outweigh the
   disadvantages. In addition to this, the disadvantages are
   sure to be overcome as technology improves.
THE WAY FORWARD IN OUR COUNTRY



•   'The tropical climate makes solar energy the most viable alternative source of
    renewable energy in Nigeria. Harnessing the sun's energy to produce power is
    an imperative for rural areas where the hope of being connected to the national
    grid is very remote and extremely expensive.
   The Council for Renewable Energy in Nigeria (CREN) is a multi-stakeholder
    association which promotes the appropriate use of renewable energy technology
    in Nigeria. CREN aims to bring together the professional sector, government
    and civil services, academics, associations, industry, financial institutions and
    services, the non-profit sector and end users and to act as a forum were they
    can work together for efficient, appropriate renewable energy implementation
    and to develop a comprehensive sustainable energy strategy for Nigeria.

				
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posted:9/22/2011
language:English
pages:12