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					                                                          ANNEXES

                                           Table 1: List of selected States parties to the
                        Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

                            Initial and periodic reports considered since 17th CEDAW session/1997



                                                    States party Convention:
                                                        Date of Signature
                              or receipt of the instrument of ratification, accession or succession
                             (as of June 2002)      Initial or periodic CEDAW reports considered
CEDAW session/year           Documents available

AFRICA
Algeria                      22 May 1996 a, b           20th /1999             CEDAW/C/DZA/1 of 1 September 1998
Burkina Faso                 14 October 1987            22nd /2000             CEDAW/C/BFA/2-3 of 15 February 1998
Burundi                      8 January 1992             24th /2001             CEDAW/C/BDI/1 of 3 July 2000
Cameroon                     23 August 1994             23rd /2000             CEDAW/C/CMR/1 of 9 May 1999
Congo                        26 July 1982               28th /2003             CEDAW/C/COG/1-5 of 8 April 2002
Democratic Republic of the Congo      17 October 1986    22nd /2000   CEDAW/C/COD/1 of 18 June 1999

Egypt
       18 September 1981 24th /2000     CEDAW/C/EGY/3 of 25 July 1996
CEDAW/C/EGY/4-5 of 30 March 2000
Equatorial Guinea           23 October 1984      Not yet considered                 CEDAW/C/GNQ/2-3 of 25 September 1995
Guinea                      9 August 1982        28th /2003                         CEDAW/C/GINB/1-3 of 6 March 01
Kenya                       9 March 1984         28th /2003                         CEDAW/C/KEN/3-4 of 14 February 2000
Morocco
         21 June 1993    16th /1997



                                                               35
             29th /2003         CEDAW/C/MOR/1 of 3 November 1994
             CEDAW/C/MOR/2 of 29 February 2002
             Namibia                         23 Nov 1992 a      17th /1997            CEDAW/C/NAM/1 of 10 February 1997
             Nigeria                         13 June 1985       19th /1998            CEDAW/C/NGA/2-3 of 26 February1997
             South Africa                    15 Dec 1995 a      19th /1998            CEDAW/C/ZAF/1 of 25 February 1998
             Tunisia
                     20 Sep 1985 b 14th / 1995
             27th /2002            CEDAW/C/TUN/1-2 of17 September 1993
             CEDAW/C/TUN/3-4 of 2 August 200
             Uganda
                     22 Jul 1985 14th / 1995
             Exceptional/2002      CEDAW/C/UGA/1-2 of 1 June 1992
             CEDAW/C/UGA/3 of 3 July 2000
             United Republic of Tanzania 20 August 1985         19th /1998            CEDAW/C/TZA/2-3 of 30 September 1996
                                                          a
             Zimbabwe                        13 May 1991        18th /1998            CEDAW/C/ZWE/1 of 20 July 1996
             Zambia                          21 June 1985       27th /2002            CEDAW/C/ZAM/3-4 of 12 August 1999

             ASIA AND PACIFIC
             Armenia
                          13 September 1993 17th /1997
             EXC/2002         CEDAW/C/ARM/1 of 26 September 1995
             CEDAW/C/ARM/2 of 9 September 1999
Azerbaijan   10 July 1995                   18th /1998        CEDAW/C/AZE/1 of 16 September 1996
             Bangladesh                     6 November 1984   17th /1997               CEDAW/C/BGD/3-4 of 1 April 1997
                                                                th
             China                          4 November 1980   20 /1999                 CEDAW/C/CHN/3-4 of 10 June 1997
             Georgia                        26 October 1994   21st /1999               CEDAW/C/GEO/1 of10 March 1998
India        9 July 1993                    22nd /2000        CEDAW/C/IND/1 of 10 March 1999
Indonesia    13 September 1984              18th /1998        CEDAW/C/IDN/2-3 of 12 February 1997
             Iraq
                    13 Aug 1986 a 12th / 1993
             23rd /2000   CEDAW/C/5/Add.66/Rev.1 of 16 May 1990



                                                                       36
           CEDAW/C/IRQ/2-3 of 19 October 1998
           Jordan
                   1 Jul 1992 b 22nd /2000
             nd
           22 /2000        CEDAW/C/JOR/1 of 27 October 1997
           CEDAW/C/JOR/2 of 26 October 1999
           Kazakhstan                     26 Aug 1998 a       24th /2001             CEDAW/C/KAZ/1 of 12 October 2000
                                              th
Kyrgyzstan 10 February 1997               20 /1999            CEDAW/C/KGZ/1 of 28 August 1998
           Maldives                       1 July 1993         24th /2001             CEDAW/C/MDV/1 of 28 January 1999
                                                                th
           Mongolia                       20 July 1981        24 /2001               CEDAW/C/MNG/3-4 of 15 March 1999
           Nepal                          22 April 1991       21st /1999             CEDAW/C/NPL/1of 23 November 1998
                                                                th
           Philippines                    5 August 1981       16 /1997               CEDAW/C/PHI/4 of 25 July 1996
           Sri Lanka                      5 October 1981      26th /2002             CEDAW/C/LKA/3-4 of 18 October 1999
                                                                th
           Uzbekistan                     19 July 1995        24 /2001               CEDAW/C/UZB/1 of 2 February 2000
           Viet Nam        17 Feb 1982 b 5th/ 1986
           25th /2001
           25th /2001      CEDAW/C/5/Add.25 of 2 October 1984
           CEDAW/C/VNM/2 of 15 March 1999
           CEDAW/C/VNM/3-4 of 20 October 2000
           Yemen
                   30 May 1984 EXC /2002 CEDAW/C/YEM/4 of 15 March 2000
           CEDAW/C/YEM/5 of 15 February 2002
LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN
           Brazil                         1 Feb 1984 b,c      Not yet considered     CEDAW/C/BRA/1-5 of 7 November 2002
           Chile

                  7 Dec 1989 b 14th / 1995
             st
           21 / 1999     CEDAW/C/CHI/1 of 3 September 1991
           CEDAW/C/CHI/2 of 9 March 1995
           CEDAW/C/CHI/3 of 27 January 1999
Cuba       17 July 1980                  23rd /2000          CEDAW/C/CUB/4 of 25 September 1999




                                                                   37
Ecuador   9 November 1981            29th /2003               CEDAW/C/ECU/4-5 of 25 January 2002
          Guatemala
                  12 August 1982    EXC /2002 CEDAW/C/GUA/2-4 of 20 March 2001
          CEDAW/C/GUA/5 of 17 January 2002
          Nicaragua
                  27 October 1981   25th /2001    CEDAW/C/NIC/4 of 28 August 1998
          CEDAW/C/NIC/5 of 9 September 1999
          Peru 5 Aug 1981 9th / 1990
          14th / 1995
          19th /1998
          Exceptional/2002      CEDAW/C/5/Add.60 of 14 September 1988
          CEDAW/C/13/Add.29 of 13 February 1990
          CEDAW/C/PER/3-4 of 25 November 1994
          CEDAW/C/PER/5 of 6 March 2001
          Suriname                   1 Mar 1993 a             27th /2002               CEDAW/C/SUR/1-2 of 5 March 2002
EUROPE
Albania   11 May 1994               28th /2003             CEDAW/C/ALB/1-2 of 23 May 2002




                                                                  38
                                     Table 2: Reference to rural women in concluding observations by the
                                       Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women

                           Customary     Access to   Inheritance   Access to     Participation   Education    Health   Lack of   Other areas addressed
                               law,        land,                   resources      in policies/   illiteracy             data     with regards to rural
                           de jure and   property                     and        programmes                                             women
                            de facto                                 credit
                            equality

AFRICA
Algeria                        yes         yes           yes                         yes            yes                  yes     emergence of
                                                                                                                                 fundamentalism and
A/54/38, paras.41-94.                                                                                                            terrorist violence
Burkina Faso                   yes         yes           yes          yes                           yes        yes               agrarian and land reform
A/55/38, paras.239-286
Burundi                        yes                                                                  yes        yes
A/56/38, paras.32-67
Cameroon                       yes                       yes                         yes            yes        yes               decision-making;
A/55/38, paras.30-66                                                                                                             access to drinking water
Congo                          yes         yes           yes          yes                           yes        yes               ownership, co-sharing of
28th session 2003                                                                                                                land
Democratic                     yes         yes           yes                                        yes        yes       yes
Republic of the
Congo
A/55/38
Egypt                          yes                                                   yes                                         violence against women
A/56/38, paras.312-358
Guinea                         yes         yes           yes          yes            yes            yes        yes
A/56/38, paras.97-144
Kenya                          yes         yes           yes          yes                           yes        yes               decision-making, full
28th session 2003                                                                                                                access to credit and
                                                                                                                                 marketing facilities.
Morocco                                                                                             yes        yes               violence against women
A/52/38/Rev.1, paras.45-
80




                                                                            39
                          Customary     Access to   Inheritance   Access to     Participation   Education     Health   Lack of   Other areas addressed
                              law,        land,                   resources      in policies/   illiteracy              data     with regards to rural
                          de jure and   property                     and        programmes                                              women
                           de facto                                 credit
                           equality
Namibia                        yes        yes                                                      yes
A/52/38/Rev.1, Part II,
paras.69-131.
Nigeria                       yes                                    yes                           yes         yes
A/53/38/Rev.1,
paras.138-174.
South Africa                  yes         Yes                                                      yes         yes               national machinery for
                                         (land                                                                                   women to work actively
                                        reform)                                                                                  on matters of land
A/53/38/Rev.1,                                                                                                                   reform policy and
paras.100-137                                                                                                                    problems of rural women
Tanzania                      yes         yes           yes                                                    yes               traditional practices,
A/53/38/Rev.1,                                                                                                                   including food taboos
paras.206-242
Tunisia                                   yes           yes                                        yes         yes

A/50/38, paras.218-277
Uganda                                    yes           yes          yes                        Yes (sexual    yes               HIV/AIDS; genital
                                                                                                 abuse in                        mutilations
A/50/38, paras.278-344                                                                           schools)
Zambia
A/57/38, paras. 211-261
Zimbabwe                      yes                                                                  yes         yes               HIV/AIDS; women in
                                                                                                                                 rural areas often work
                                                                                                                                 longer hours than any
A/53/38, paras.120-166                                                                                                           other group




                                                                           40
                         Customary     Access to   Inheritance   Access to     Participation   Education    Health   Lack of   Other areas addressed
                             law,        land,                   resources      in policies/   illiteracy             data     with regards to rural
                         de jure and   property                     and        programmes                                             women
                          de facto                                 credit
                          equality

ASIA AND PACIFIC
Armenia                                                                                                      yes               income-generating
A/57/38, paras 25 – 59                                                                                                         activities
Azerbaijan                                                                                        yes        yes               social protection
A/53/38, paras.37-79
Bangladesh                               yes                        yes                                                        training in new
A/52/38/Rev.1,                                                                                                                 agricultural technologies,
paras.409-464
                                                                                                                               strengthening of
                                                                                                                               productive and
                                                                                                                               employment capacity
China                                    yes           yes          yes                                                        women agricultural
A/54/38, paras.251-336                                                                                                         workers; high rates of
                                                                                                                               suicide among rural
                                                                                                                               women; small enterprise
                                                                                                                               development and other
                                                                                                                               income-generating
                                                                                                                               projects
Georgia                                  yes                                                                                   land reform, special
A/54/38, paras.70-116                                                                                                          programmes for the
                                                                                                                               mountainous regions
India                                    yes           yes          yes                                                        practice of debt bondage
A/55/38, paras.30-90
Indonesia                                yes           yes          yes                           yes        yes
A/53/38, paras.262-311
Iraq                         yes                                    yes                           yes        yes               women and children
                                                                                                                               affected by military
A/48/38, paras.33-86                                                                                                           action and the blockade
A/55/38, paras.166-210                                                             yes            yes        yes       yes     honour killings




                                                                          41
                         Customary     Access to   Inheritance   Access to     Participation   Education    Health   Lack of   Other areas addressed
                             law,        land,                   resources      in policies/   illiteracy             data     with regards to rural
                         de jure and   property                     and        programmes                                             women
                          de facto                                 credit
                          equality
Jordan                        yes                                                  yes            yes        yes               Rural women are
                                                                                                                               marginalized in
                                                                                                                               agriculture, special
A/55/38, paras.139-193                                                                                                         measures are needed
                             yes                                    yes                           yes        yes
Kazakhstan                                                                                                                     Poverty among
                                                                                                                               households headed by
                                                                                                                               females and older rural
A/56/38, paras.68-113                                                                                                          women.
Kyrgyzstan                                                                                                                     violence against women
A/54/38, paras.95-142
Maldives                                                                                          yes        yes
A/56/38, paras.114-146
Mongolia                                                                                                     yes       yes     situation of households
A/56/38, paras.234-278                                                                                                         headed by women
Nepal                                                                                                        yes       yes     minority women, access
A/54/38, paras.117-160                                                                                                         to public services
Philippines                                                                        yes                                         migration
A/52/38/Rev.1,
paras.275-305.
Sri Lanka                                                                          yes                                 yes     Land Development
A/57/38 (Part I),                                                                                                              Ordinance; minority
paras.256-302                                                                                                                  rural women
Uzbekistan                               yes                                       yes            yes        yes       yes     income-generating
A/56/38, paras.147-194                                                                                                         activities
                                         yes                        yes            yes            yes        yes       yes
Viet Nam                                                                                                                       Retirement age is
                                                                                                                               negatively affecting the
                                                                                                                               access of rural women to
A/56/38, paras.232-276                                                                                                         land
Yemen                                    yes                                       yes            yes        yes
A/48/38, paras.199-246




                                                                          42
                          Customary     Access to   Inheritance   Access to     Participation   Education    Health   Lack of   Other areas addressed
                              law,        land,                   resources      in policies/   illiteracy             data     with regards to rural
                          de jure and   property                     and        programmes                                             women
                           de facto                                 credit
                           equality


LATIN AMERICA
Brazil                                                                                                                          Not yet considered
Chile                                                                                              yes        yes       yes

A/50/38, paras.105-159
                                          yes                                                      yes        yes       yes     More data on situation of
                                                                                                                                rural and indigenous
                                                                                                                                women, especially
                                                                                                                                health, employment and
A/54/38, paras.202-235                                                                                                          educational status
Cuba
A/51/38, paras.197-228.
Ecuador                                                                             yes
A/49/38, paras.499-545
Guatemala                                                                                          yes        yes
A/57/38, paras.163-208.
Nicaragua                                 yes                                       yes                                         women heads of
A/56/38, paras.277-318                                                                                                          household
Peru                          yes                                    yes                           yes        yes       yes     migration of women
                                                                                                                                abroad; sexual violence
                                                                                                                                against rural and
                                                                                                                                indigenous women and
                                                                                                                                sexual abuse of teenagers
A/53/38/Rev.1,                                                                                                                  and girls in emergency
paras.292-346.                                                                                                                  zones
Suriname                      yes                                                                  yes        yes
27th /2002




                                                                           43
                    Customary     Access to   Inheritance   Access to     Participation   Education    Health   Lack of   Other areas addressed
                        law,        land,                   resources      in policies/   illiteracy             data     with regards to rural
                    de jure and   property                     and        programmes                                             women
                     de facto                                 credit
                     equality

EUROPE
Albania                Yes          yes           yes          yes                           yes        yes               social insurance and
28th session 2003                                                                                                         decision-making.
                                                                                                                          trafficking in women and
                                                                                                                          girls




                                                                     44
                     Table 3: Legislation pertaining to access to land, property, inheritance and legal capacity

                  Equality enshrined in         Equal access to     Right to property          Inheritance/    Legal capacity          Obstacles
                    the Constitution                land                                        Succession
AFRICA
Algeria          The Constitution                                                                             Women have full
                                                                  Article 38 of the Family                                          The legal status
                 guarantees the equality of                                                                   legal capacity to
                                                                  Code provides that "the                                           of women in
                 all citizens.                                    wife has the right to full                  acquire,              Algeria presents
                 As stated in its preamble,                       freedom in the                              administer, use       a dichotomy.
                 the Constitution occupies                                                                    and dispose of
                                                                  disposition of her                                                Thus, the
                 a position of paramountcy                                                                    any property and
                                                                  property". The                                                    constitutional
                 and is the fundamental                                                                       the right to sign
                                                                  Commercial Code                                                   principle of the
                 law that guarantees                                                                          contracts and
                                                                  establishes no                                                    equality of the
                 individual and collective                        discrimination between                      engage in             sexes is
                 rights and freedoms.                             male and female                             business              scrupulously
                 Algeria's international                                                                      transactions.
                                                                  merchants. These two                                              respected when it
                 commitments prevail over                                                                     They retain these
                                                                  codes provide that the                                            comes to civil
                 domestic law.                                                                                rights when they
                                                                  woman enjoys full use                                             and political
                 Accordingly, the                                                                             marry, and their
                                                                  of her property, and that                                         rights: women
                 Constitutional Council, in                       she may dispose of it                       personal              have the status of
                 a decision of 20 August                                                                      belongings and
                                                                  freely without the                                                full citizens.
                 1989, confirmed the                                                                          the fruits of their
                                                                  consent of her husband                                            With respect to
                 constitutional principle                                                                     labour continue
                                                                                                                                    their personal
                 whereby international                                                                        to be entirely at
                                                                                                                                    status, they are
                 treaties ratified by Algeria                                                                 their disposal.       governed by the
                 prevail over domestic law.                                                                   (Article 40 of the    Family Code,
                                                                                                              Civil Code).
                                                                                                                                    which is based in
                                                                                                                                    part on the
CEDAW/C/DZA/1
                                                                                                                                    Shariah.
of 1 September
1998




                                                                           45
                   Equality enshrined in        Equal access to        Right to property           Inheritance/     Legal capacity        Obstacles
                      the Constitution               land                                           Succession
Burkina Faso     Constitution guarantees      Equal access to        Assets acquired jointly                       Each spouse         In civil matters,
                 equal rights;                land and to farm       or separately by the                          enjoys full legal   an anachronistic
                 Basic Law sets out the       holdings is ensured    spouses during the                            capacity,           duality has
                 principle of equality and    by Order No. 84-       marriage form part of                         although rights     survived in the
                 non-discrimination           050/CNR/PRES of        the conjugal estate, as                       and powers may      legislation and
                                              4 August 1984 on       do any wages or fees                          be limited by the   the courts
                                              agrarian and land      the spouses receive as a                      matrimonial         because of the
                                              reorganization.        couple or individually,                       regime (Art. 298,   coexistence of
                                                                     any income deriving                           Individual and      (a) a code of
                                              Tenure system is                                                     family code)        modern law
                                                                     from assets covered by
                                              still primarily                                                                          based on French-
                                                                     the regime of
                                              communal and                                                                             inspired written
                                                                     community of property
                                              women, owing to                                                                          law as applicable
                                              their status, do not   or immovable and                                                  on the date of
                                              own land.              movable property                                                  independence;
                                                                     brought to the marriage                                           and (b) a code of
                                                                     or acquired during it.                                            traditional law
CEDAW/C/BFA/2-                                                                                                                         based on custom
3 of 15/02/98
                                                                                                                                       and religion.
Burundi          Article 17 of the                                   1993 amendment of the       A peasant         Men and women       Matrimonial
                 Constitutional Act of                               Code of the Person and      woman cannot      have the same       arrangements,
                 Transition establishes the                          the Family includes the     inherit either    legal status in     succession, and
                 equality of men and                                 Right of joint              from her father   civil matters, in   legacies and gifts
                 women before the law.                               management of family        or from her       the conclusion of   are still governed
                                                                     property granted to         husband.          contracts, and in   by customary
                                                                     women and to the wife                         administration of   law
                                                                     if the husband is absent.                     their property.
CEDAW/C/BDI/1
of 3 July 2000




                                                                             46
                      Equality enshrined in          Equal access to      Right to property          Inheritance/        Legal capacity         Obstacles
                         the Constitution                  land                                        Succession
Cameroon            Cameroon‘s constitutions       Socio-cultural       Women‘s right of           Court has always     Husband              Cameroon‘s dual
                    have always enshrined the      practices restrict   ownership is not fully     affirmed the         administers          legal system
                    principle of gender            women‘s access to    recognized in Civil        principle of         community            (Napoleonic
                    equality.                      land.                Code and the               gender equality      property on his      code plus
                    The main result of giving                           Commercial Code            with respect to      own and all the      common law) is
                    the Convention the status                           (administration of         the right to         personal             part of its
                    of a set of constitutional                          statutory community        inherit on           property of his      colonial legacy
                    norms is its primacy over                           property and               intestacy.           wife does not        from the British
                    the infra-constitutional                            bankruptcy). Before        Customary            need consent of      and French
                                                                                                   practices such as    his wife. (Civil     mandates and
                    instruments, namely laws,                           the customary courts,
                                                                                                   levirate infringe    Code, Article        trusteeships.
                    ordinances and                                      the wives are
                                                                                                   a woman‘s right      1421, 1428).         This dualism is
                    regulations.                                        sometimes at a
                                                                                                   to inherit.                               further
                                                                        disadvantage since they                                              complicated by
                                                                        must provide evidence                                                the coexistence
                                                                        of their contribution to                                             of customary and
CEDAW/C/CMR/1                                                           the conjugal assets.                                                 written law.
of 9 May 1999

Congo               Title II of the Basic Act is                        Family Code of 17          Discriminatory       The law              Dual legal
                    dealing with fundamental                            October 1984 officially    provisions in the    enshrines the full   system; a
                    rights (Article 14).                                terminated the             laws governing       legal capacity of    French-inspired
                                                                        implementation of the      inheritance,         women whatever       form of modern
                                                                        provisions of the          marriage and         their matrimonial    law was
                                                                        French Civil Code and      responsibility for   status.              superimposed on
                                                                        of various customs in      children, and                             the customary
                                                                        the sphere of marriage,    also in criminal                          law.
                                                                        filiation and              law.
CEDAW/C/COG/1-                                                          inheritance.
5 of 8 April 2002




                                                                                47
                       Equality enshrined in       Equal access to       Right to property          Inheritance/        Legal capacity         Obstacles
                          the Constitution              land                                         Succession
Democratic           Equality between men        Lack of access to     Property is                                     The married          No significant
Republic of          and women is enshrined      land ownership,       administered by the                             woman has no         change has
Congo                in the Constitution;        which is still the    husband; the wife does                          legal capacity to    occurred as
                     certain provisions of       prerogative of men.   not have the power to                           sign certain acts    regards measures
                     Congolese law remain                              administer her own                              and contracts,       and practices
                     discriminatory towards                            property (Family Code                           (Family Code         concerning the
                     women.                                            Article 490); she is                            Article 215); she    conclusion of
                                                                       entitled to seek a court                        cannot execute       contracts, the
                                                                       order in the event of                           certain legal acts   administration of
                                                                       mismanagement or                                without her          property, et al.
                                                                       property.                                       husband‘s
                                                                                                                       consent (Family
                                                                                                                       Code Article
CEDAW/C/COD/1                                                                                                          448).
of 18 June 1999

Egypt                The Egyptian Constitution                                                    Upon reaching        No restrictions      The Supreme
                     pays particular attention                                                    majority, women      are placed on        Constitutional
                     to the situation of rural                                                    retain to            women‘s legal        Court has issued
                     women (art. 16).                                                             undertake legal      capacity by          a number of
                                                                                                  transactions with    virtue of            judgements
                                                                                                  respect to all       marriage or ties     relating to
                                                                                                  their property       of kinship.          human rights in
                                                                                                  and work                                  general and to
                                                                                                  entitlements, and                         the principle of
                                                                                                  to purchase,                              equality between
                                                                                                  inherit and                               men and women
                                                                                                  manage their                              in particular
                                                                                                  property without
CEDAW/C/EGY/3                                                                                     restriction or
of 25 July 1996
                                                                                                  limitation or loss
CEDAW/C/EGY/4-
5 of 30 March 2000                                                                                of legal capacity.




                                                                               48
                     Equality enshrined in      Equal access to        Right to property           Inheritance/       Legal capacity         Obstacles
                        the Constitution              land                                          Succession
Guinea             Equality between men       Women have no          The right to own           A widow              The Code of          The husband is
                   and women is a             traditional right to   property is guaranteed     receives an          Economic             the head of
                   fundamental principle of   full ownership of      to all (both men and       eighth of the        Activities           household with
                   the Constitution           land, although no      women) under article       total inheritance    guarantees           all the legal
                   (Article 8).               distinction is made    13 of the Constitution.    in the presence      women in             effects arising
                                              between men and                                   of children and      general and          therefrom.
                                              women in the Code      One of the innovations     ascendants of the    married women
                                              of Real Estate and     in family legislation is   first degree.        in particular the    Women find it
                                              Property Law.          the provision of the       (Civil Code          same right and       very difficult to
                                              Women do have a        right to spouses to        Article 483)         responsibilities     obtain material
                                              right of usufruct,     conclude a marriage        This is              as men to engage     and agricultural
                                              which allows them      contract in which they     discriminatory to    in economic          resources, inputs
                                              to work the            may mutually agree to      women, in so far     activity. (Article   (seed, fertilizer)
                                              family‘s land and      specify the mode of        as it places them    6) A married         and services
                                              to earn an income      property ownership as      on the same          woman‘s              (information and
                                              therefrom.             joint or separate or       footing as           freedom to           technical
                                                                     shared in proportions.     children and         dispose of           training).
                                                                                                ascendants of the    property may be
                                                                                                first degree.        subject to certain   In the cities, the
                                                                                                Inheritance by a     restrictions by      rights enshrined
                                                                                                childless widow      virtue of her        in the Code are
                                                                                                in the presence      statutory or         guaranteed
                                                                                                of a child heir or   contractual          without
                                                                                                of other widows      marriage             discrimination.
                                                                                                with children of     settlement.          The same cannot
                                                                                                the deceased                              be said for rural
                                                                                                calculated on the                         areas.
                                                                                                basis of every
                                                                                                five years of a
                                                                                                marriage based
                                                                                                on dignity and
                                                                                                devotion.
CEDAW/C/GINB/1                                                                                  (Articles 484 and
-3 of 6 March 01
                                                                                                485).




                                                                             49
                        Equality enshrined in        Equal access to         Right to property           Inheritance/       Legal capacity         Obstacles
                           the Constitution              land                                             Succession
Kenya                 Constitution was amended                             Women may acquire or       Law of               Law of contract      Customary
                      in 1997 to include                                   dispose of her property    Succession Act       gives women          practices, lack of
                      discrimination on the                                freely, however in some    (1981) provides      capacity             awareness on
                      basis of sex (section 82                             instances especially       a uniform code       identical to that    legal rights, lack
                      (3)); reserves the right to                          when the property is       for devolution of    of men in            of capacity-
                      discriminate in matter of                            owned jointly with the     property on          entering and         building
                      adoption, marriage,                                  husband, the consent of    death and gives      concluding           opportunities,
                      divorce burial, devolution                           the husband may be         both men and         contracts.           stereotyped roles
                      of property of death,                                required.                  women equal                               and poverty
                      personal and customary                                                          rights to inherit,                        remain a major
CEDAW/C/KEN/3-        law;(section 83(4) b&c).                                                        own and dispose                           obstacle to
4 of 14 February
                                                                                                      of property.                              gender equality.
2000
Morocco               Since 1992, the preamble      In rural areas,        Women have a right         A woman's share      Women have the       Obstacles to
                      of the Moroccan               women‘s potential      equal to that of men to    of inheritance       right to hire out    women‘s access
                      Constitution reaffirms its    enjoyment of the       dispose of their           should be half       their services and   to financial
                      determination to abide by     right of ownership     property. They may         that of a man        engage in            resources have
                      the universally recognized    and the right to       administer, manage and     (Code of             commerce             no legal basis,
                      human rights.                 benefit from bank      protect their assets in    Personal Status).    without their        but are the result
                                                    loans is restricted    complete freedom and       Most inheritance     husbands'            of the
                                                    by social attitudes    are not subject to any     laws are based       agreement.           discrimination
                                                    and cultural values.   gender-related             on the text of the   (Article 17 new      from which
                                                                           restrictions and without   Holy Qur'an,         Commercial           women suffer on
                                                                           their husbands'            which precisely      Code) Husband's      a daily basis.
                                                                           supervision.               defines the          approval and
                                                                                                      portion to which     right to cancel
                                                                                                      all heirs are        any labour
                                                                                                      entitled.            contract
                                                                                                                           concluded by his
                                                                                                                           wife without his
                                                                                                                           agreement, has
CEDAW/C/MOR/2                                                                                                              been abolished.
of 29 February 2002




                                                                                   50
                        Equality enshrined in        Equal access to        Right to property           Inheritance/     Legal capacity         Obstacles
                           the Constitution                land                                          Succession
Namibia               The Constitution forbids     Women are              Women in customary         The system of       The common law      Discriminatory
                      discrimination on the        severely               marriages are generally    inheritance under   marital power of    laws relating to
                      basis of sex (Article 10).   disadvantaged in       dependent on their         civil law does      the husband over    marriage and
                      Article 23 on affirmative    terms of access to     husband‘s authority to     not involve any     the property and    inheritance still
                      action places a special      land, labour,          sell property or enter     sex                 person of his       exist.
                      emphasis on women.           agricultural           into contracts. In some    discrimination.     wife denies         Action is still
                      Article 14 refers to         services and assets,   areas the system of        Inheritance in      married women       required to
                      equality between men and     natural resources      lobola (bride price) is    customary           equal rights with   address the
                      women in all matters         and employment.        still popular.             marriages is        their husbands      empowerment of
                      relating to marriage and     Rural women are        Marital power gives the    governed by the     during marriage     rural women and
                      the family.                  also absent from       husband control of the     customary laws      and limits their    the grave
                                                   decision-making        wife‘s property: if the    of the relevant     capacity to         problem of
                      The concept of marital       and leadership         marriage is in             community,          participate in      violence against
                      power is clearly             structures.            community of property,     unless there is a   civil society. A    women.
                      unconstitutional and calls                          he has control over the    will. Widows        wife cannot
                      for change in the laws of                           joint estate of the        may find that the   bring a civil
                      marriage have come from                             couple; if the marriage    husband‘s family    action or enter
                      many women‘s. A                                     is out of community of     lays claim to the   into a contract
                      Married Persons Equality                            property, marital power    house and           without the
                      Bill that would eliminate                           gives him the control      household assets.   ―assistance‖ of
                      marital power completely                            over the wife‘s separate   Parliament          her husband.
                      is before Parliament.                               property.                  passed a            Women married
                                                                                                     resolution          under civil law
                                                                                                     requesting          still need their
                                                                                                     traditional         husband‘s
                                                                                                     leaders to allow    consent to enter
                                                                                                     widows to           into credit
                                                                                                     remain on their     agreements,
                                                                                                     land, but           although this
                                                                                                     discriminatory      legal disability
                                                                                                     practices           will soon be
                                                                                                     continue in some    removed.
CEDAW/C/NAM/1                                                                                        areas.
of 10 February 1997




                                                                                  51
                   Equality enshrined in      Equal access to       Right to property           Inheritance/     Legal capacity       Obstacles
                      the Constitution              land                                         Succession
Nigeria          Constitution guarantees    Under the             Under Islamic law the      In all customary    Three marriage    Any person who
                 rights on the basis of     customary law         spouses have equal         law systems, the    types are         alleges that any
                 equality between men and   marriage, the         rights to a large extend   wife has no right   recognized:       of his
                 women and removes          parties do not have   in matters of property     to her husband‘s    marriage in       fundamental
                 discrimination on the      equal rights in       ownership, and marital     estate when the     accordance with   rights has been is
                 basis of sex.              matters of            obligations. The wife      marriage is         Marriage Act,     being or is likely
                                            marriage,             has a right to all her     terminated by       marriage under    to be
                                            dissolution and       property without any       divorce.            customary law,    contravened, is
                                            right of property,    condition.                                     marriage under    free to apply to
                                            because the                                                          Islamic law;      the High Court,
                                            marriage is a union                                                  customary,        but both women
                                            between two                                                          religious and     and men in
                                            families.                                                            civil law         Nigeria are
CEDAW/C/NGA/2-                                                                                                   marriages.        generally tardy
3 of 26
                                                                                                                                   about litigation.
February1997




                                                                          52
                        Equality enshrined in         Equal access to         Right to property           Inheritance/     Legal capacity         Obstacles
                           the Constitution                 land                                           Succession
South Africa          The interim and the 1996      Efforts are being       The Black                  Under civil law,    The General Law     Many rural
                      Constitution specifically     made to ensure that     Administration Act         a wife has a        Fourth              African women
                      outlaw discrimination         gender is taken into    (1927) regards women       claim to            Amendment Act       face the legal
                      based on sex. The present     account in all new      as minors who cannot       maintenance and     (1993) and the      difficulty that
                      Constitution provides the     legislation, such as    own property or            support against     Matrimonial         they cannot hold
                      right to security of the      that relating to land   conclude contracts on      her deceased        Property Act        title to land,
                      person and socio-             tenure.                 their own right. A male    husband‘s estate    (1984) abolished    although they are
                      economic rights which         In drafting its land    relative has to do so on   even if his will    the marital         given the right to
                      both have special             reform policy, the      their behalf.              has bequeathed      power of the        tilt the land and
                      significance for women.       Department has          The Common African         all of the          husband which       erect a home on
                      The Constitution              attempted to give       Law and Customary          property of         said that a wife    a piece of land
                      acknowledges the right to     women security          Law do not accord          others. Under       needed her          allocated to the
                      property and states that      and equal rights        women the rights and       customary law,      husband‘s           household head.
                      ―no provision may             with men regarding      powers to own              women have no       permission          In most rural
                      impede the state from         ownership, control      property. The              rights of           before entering     areas the
                      taking legislative and        and use of land.        homestead head,            inheritance from    into a contract.    majority of
                      other measures to achieve     The Communal            husband or male            her husbands. A     African             households use
                      land reform or equitable      Property                relative has to act on     relative of the     Customary Law       communal land
                      access to natural             Associations Act        her behalf. Territorial    husband, usually    still               which belongs to
                      resources in order to         (1996) provides for     legislation and            a brother,          discriminates       the people of that
                      redress the results of past   communal tenure         numerous regulations       becomes the         against women       area. The
                      racial discrimination‖, a     in accordance with      continue to prevent        guardian of both    with regard to      Department of
                      clause that is crucial for    the principles of       women from owning          the wife and the    legal capacity.     Land Affair
                      the most disadvantaged        democracy,              land on the basis of       children.           The Black           recognizes that
                      rural African women           accountability and      gender and race. The       Widows and          Administration      gender-neutral
                      dispossessed of access to     equality. It            Department of Land         daughters have      Act (1927),         legislation on its
                      land by both apartheid        expressly protects      Affairs is concentrating   no legal right to   11(3) (b) makes     own is not
                      and tradition. The            the interests of        on legislation which       inheritance in      a wife a minor in   sufficient as
                      Constitution outlaws          women.                  will afford all married    customary law if    terms of both       women are
                      discrimination based on                               women the right to use     there is no         common and          largely ignorant
                      sexual preference.                                    property registered in     testament, or       customary law.      of the Land
                                                                            the name of their          have a lesser                           Reform
CEDAW/C/ZAF/1                                                               spouses as security to     right than a son.                       Programme and
of 25 February 1998                                                         obtain financial loans.                                            their rights.




                                                                                    53
                      Equality enshrined in         Equal access to     Right to property         Inheritance/      Legal capacity      Obstacles
                         the Constitution               land                                        Succession
Tanzania            Constitution embodies the   .                     It has been found that    The law of                           Cultural norms
                    principle of equality                             the main legal problems   succession is                        and traditions
                    before the law, and legal                         facing women centre on    under discussion,                    continue to
                    practice respects it.                             issues of divorce,        various                              militate against
                                                                      custody and child         individuals and                      women. The law
                                                                      support, and property     religious                            requires the
                                                                      adjustment after          institutions made                    courts to
                                                                      dissolution of marriage   comments that                        consider the
                                                                      and after the death of    will enable the                      customs of the
                                                                      the male spouse.          Government to                        parties
                                                                                                come up with a                       concerned before
                                                                                                uniform law on                       determining
                                                                                                matters of                           issues
                                                                                                succession;                          concerning
                                                                                                report has been                      custody of
CEDAW/C/TZA/2-                                                                                  forwarded to the                     children, division
3 of 30 September
                                                                                                Attorney                             of property and
1996
                                                                                                General's.                           inheritance.




                                                                              54
                       Equality enshrined in         Equal access to        Right to property           Inheritance/       Legal capacity          Obstacles
                          the Constitution                 land                                          Succession
                     The Constitution (1959)       In order to            Neither the Code of        The Personal         In accordance         Given the wide
Tunisia              enshrines the principle of    encourage access       Obligations and            Status Code          with Article 27       extent of the
                     legal equality between the    to property by         Contracts nor the          (1956),              of the Code of        reforms
                     sexes (arts. 6 and 7) and     married women,         Property Code make         instituted, in       Personal Status,      introduced, it
                     subsequent laws laid          the legislator         any sex-related            matters of           at the age of 20,     was essential to
                     down the economic,            promulgated a law      distinction in regard to   inheritance, a       a child (whether      ensure that
                     social, political and         organizing the         the possession,            mandatory            male or female)       behaviour was
                     cultural rights of women.     regime of the joint    acquisition,               bequest in favour    may exercise his      modified and the
                     The Constitution              estate of husband      management or disposal     of the daughter's    or her full rights,   social fabric
                                                   and wife in                                                                                  adapted. It was
                     strengthened the principle                           of property.               children if she      assume his or her
                                                   accordance with                                                                              not simply a
                     of the equality of citizens                          Act No. 98-97 of 9         should               responsibilities
                                                   the new relations of                                                                         question of
                     by explicitly decreeing,                             November 1998              predecease her       and enjoy the
                                                   shared                                                                                       attuning the
                     by way of the                                        concerning the regime      father; and          same capacity as
                                                   responsibility and                                                                           country to the
                     amendments made to                                   of the joint estate of     further instituted   men to institute
                                                   partnership            husband and wife                                                      new political
                     Articles 8 and 21, the        governing the                                     statutory            proceedings in        choices laid
                     inadmissibility of                                   established a new          reversion,           regard to matters
                                                   couple, as                                                                                   down in basic
                     discrimination between                               system of property         whereby an only      of personal
                                                   stipulated in new                                                                            documents such
                     the sexes.                                           based on partnership       daughter inherits    status, civil and
                                                   Article 23 of the                                                                            as the
                     The Personal Status Code,                            and joint management       her parents'         commercial acts
                                                   Personal Status                                                                              Declaration of
                                                                          within the couple.
                     the Nationality Code, the     Code.                                             estate in its        and political         7 November,
                                                                          Under Article 24 of the
                     Criminal Code and the                                                           entirety.            rights, with no       since it also
                                                                          Personal Status Code
                     Labour Code underwent a                                                                              limit, except in      entailed ensuring
                                                                          concerning the                                                        that these
                     series of reforms                                                                                    the cases of legal
                                                                          separation of property                                                cultural choices
                     following the measures                                                                               incapacity
                                                                          owned by married                                                      which formed
                     announced on the                                                                                     provided for by
                                                                          couples, women                                                        the basis of the
                     occasion of Women's Day                                                                              law and
                                                                          dispose of property                                                   new social order
                     on 13 August 1992 and                                                                                applicable to
                                                                          which they acquire                                                    would be long-
                     adopted in July 1993 by                                                                              men and women
                                                                          during the marriage                                                   lived.
                     the Chamber of Deputies.                                                                             without
                                                                          under the same
                                                                                                                          distinction.
                                                                          conditions as their
CEDAW/C/TUN/3-
4 of 2 August 2000
                                                                          husbands.




                                                                                  55
                   Equality enshrined in         Equal access to       Right to property          Inheritance/       Legal capacity         Obstacles
                      the Constitution                  land                                       Succession
Uganda           The new Constitution          The Land Act and      Legal Aid services for    A legally            Women have the       Law is gender
                 (1995) includes sex as a      the Domestic          women on inheritance,     married woman        legal capacity to    neutral, but its
                 discrimination clause         Relations Bill will   property rights,          is entitled to 15    enter into           application and
                 (Article 21(3)). It           determine the         marriage, assault,        per cent of the      contracts in their   enforcement
                 recognizes equality before    future prospects of   divorce, separation and   property of the      own names. The       tends to be
                 the law and equal             women to access       child support are         deceased             Constitution         biased. Legal
                 protection of the law in      and ownership of      provided by the           husband. A           (Article 26 (1)      regime
                 Article 21(1) and (2). The    land, marital         Federation of Uganda      widower is also      gives women the      discriminates
                 Constitution is credited as   property and other    Women Lawyers             entitled to 15 per   right to own         against women
                 being one of the most         forms of real         (FIDA), the Law           cent of the          property either      and perpetuates
                 gender sensitive              property.             Development Centre        property of a        individually or in   women‘s
                 constitutions of the          Women‘s access to     (Makere University)       deceased wife‘s      association with     subordinate
                 continent.                    land, property and    and the Legal Aid         estate but in        others. Women        position in
                 Laws applicable in            credit is still       Project (LAP) of the      reality usually      enter into credit,   society.
                 Uganda include statutory      extremely low.        Uganda Law Society.       takes the whole      real estate and      In laws of
                 law, case law, common         With the coming                                 estate. Under        other                marriage,
                 law and doctrines of          into force of the                               customary law it     commercial           divorce and
                 equity. Statutory law         1998 Land Act,                                  is assumed that      transactions on      inheritance there
                 takes precedence over any     rural women‘s                                   widow and            their own.           is no gender
                 other. Customary law          rights to the land                              children will be                          equality. The
                 only applies in the           have been                                       taken care of by                          woman is always
                 absence of statutory and      strengthened; they                              the deceased‘s                            in a subordinate
                 case law. Uganda has a        not only have                                   kin. In practice,                         position.
                 dual court system: formal     access to land but                              this is usually
                 and informal.                 also control and                                not the case as
                                               ownership.                                      widows and their
                                                                                               children are
                                                                                               dispossessed of
                                                                                               the family‘s
                                                                                               assets and
                                                                                               usually forced to
                                                                                               move back to the
CEDAW/C/UGA/3                                                                                  widow‘s parent‘s
of 3 July 2000
                                                                                               home.




                                                                             56
                        Equality enshrined in        Equal access to        Right to property           Inheritance/     Legal capacity        Obstacles
                           the Constitution                land                                          Succession
Zambia                The Constitution (Article    The Constitution       Customary law denies       The Interstate      Customary law is   Ministry of Land
                      11) provides that every      recognizes a dual      women any rights to        Succession Act 6    unwritten,         has a strategic
                      person is entitled and       system whereby         family property or         of 1989 gives       administered by    plan of
                      shall continue to be         customary or           maintenance on             spouses rights of   male-dominated     integrating
                      entitled to fundamental      traditional law is     dissolution of marriage    inheritance and     local court        gender
                      rights and freedoms          administered by        while statutory law        supersedes          system             perspectives into
                      without distinction; only    local courts which     provides for the sharing   customary law,      composed of        land issues to
                      in 1994 were the terms       in practice is often   of property between        is not widely       untrained          redress the
                      ―sex‖ and ―marital status‖   discriminatory         husband and wife and       known and partly    justices who       gender
                      included.                    against women;         the maintenance of         because relatives   come from a        imbalance and
                                                   uphold customs         either spouse on           of the deceased     patriarchal        other forms of
                                                   usually on maters      divorce.                   chose to ignore     background.        discrimination in
                                                   of inheritance,                                   the law.                               landholding by
                                                   marriage or                                                                              encouraging
                                                   compensation for                                                                         women and
                                                   property that                                                                            people with
CEDAW/C/ZAM/3-                                     discriminate                                                                             special needs to
4 of 12 August 1999
                                                   against women.                                                                           own land.




                                                                                  57
                    Equality enshrined in      Equal access to      Right to property             Inheritance/      Legal capacity         Obstacles
                       the Constitution              land                                          Succession
Zimbabwe          The Constitution           The Government       The Matrimonial              Inheritance          Women above         Three types of
                  guarantees to everyone     set up the           Causes Act (1985)            rights are           the age of 18       marriage: civil
                  the right to equality      Commission of        allows for an equitable      governed by both     have legal          marriage,
                  before and protection of   Inquiry into Land    distribution of              general and          capacity to marry   registered
                  the law.                   Tenure to resolve    matrimonial property         customary law.       or enter into       customary
                                             the problem of       between spouses on           The devolution       commercial          marriage,
                                             unequal access to    divorce. The Deed            of the property is   contracts or to     unregistered
                                             land, especially     Registries Act (1991)        in accordance        sue or be sued in   customary
                                             with regard to the   enables a married            with customary       their own rights    marriage. The
                                             disadvantaged,       woman to deal in             law. The             (Legal Age of       registration of
                                             mostly women.        immovable property           customary law of     Majority Act,       marriages is not
                                             They were under-     without the assistance       inheritance          1982).              yet compulsory.
                                             represented on the   of her husband. The          disadvantages        Property. A         The Matrimonial
                                             Land Tenure          Immovable Property           women and does       woman can           Causes Act
                                             Commission since     (Prevention of               not recognize the    acquire property    (1985) does not
                                             only one member      Discrimination) Act          woman‘s right to     in her own right.   apply to
                                             out of 12 was a      1982 prohibits               inherit from her     In dividing the     unregistered
                                             woman.               discrimination in            husband and vice     property, the       customary law
                                             Government           respect of the sale, lease   versa, unless        courts will look    marriages. At
                                             enacted the Land     or disposal of               there is a will      at the principle    least 80 per cent
                                             Acquisition Act      immovable property           providing for he     of equity rather    of women are
                                             (1990) to address    and the financing of         contrary. Women      than who bought     rural based and
                                             the problem of       such sale, lease or          cannot inherit       what. The courts    marry under
                                             inequitable land     disposal on the ground       from their fathers   take into account   customary law
                                             distribution.        of, among other things,      except if there is   the duration of     and do not
                                                                  sex.                         no surviving son     the marriage, the   register their
                                                                                               but a daughter       direct and          marriages,
                                                                                               only. The Legal      indirect            mainly due to
                                                                                               Age of Majority      contributions of    ignorance of the
                                                                                               Act does not put     the parties and     existence of the
                                                                                               men and women        the needs of each   legal
                                                                                               on the same          spouse and their    requirement for
CEDAW/C/ZWE/1                                                                                  footing in           minor children.     registration of
of 20 July 1996                                                                                inheritance.                             marriages.




                                                                           58
                  Equality enshrined in         Equal access to          Right to property          Inheritance/       Legal capacity      Obstacles
                     the Constitution               land                                             Succession
ASIA AND PACIFIC
Armenia         In 1995, Armenia adopted                               Women enjoy equal                              Women can
                a new Constitution in and                              real estate ownership                          enter contractual
                created its own legislative                            and other property                             relations alone in
                basis, which will enter                                rights. According to                           their own right.
                into force during 1999.                                article 3 of the Family                        A woman can
                The principle of equal                                 and Marriage Code,                             use her name,
                rights of men and women                                husbands and wives                             without the
                is set out in Art. 3, 4, 15,                           possess equal personal                         requirement of
                16 and 32 of the                                       property rights.                               second or
                                                                                                                      collateral
                Constitution and is
                                                                                                                      persons, except
CEDAW/C/ARM/1
                indirectly laid down in
                                                                                                                      for property that
of 26 September many other articles.
                                                                                                                      belongs equally
1995,
CEDAW/C/ARM/2                                                                                                         to both members
                  .
of 9 September                                                                                                        of the couple.
1999
Azerbaijan        The Constitution             Articles 27-70          Spouses have equal         The right to
                  enshrines equal rights and   specify the basic       rights in respect of the   property
                  obligations (Article 19)     rights and              ownership, enjoyment       acquired during
                  and defines the right to     freedoms enjoyed        and disposition of joint   the marriage is
                  equality (Article 25). The   by citizens of the      property, regardless of    recognized for
                  State guarantees the         Azerbaijani             whether it was acquired    both spouses,
                  equality of rights and       Republic, including     from the earnings          even if the
                  freedoms of everyone         inter alia, the right   (income) of the            property is
                  irrespective of sex.         to property.            husband or of the wife.    registered in the
CEDAW/C/AZW/1                                                                                     name of one of
of 16 September                                                                                   the spouses
1996                                                                                              (Article 23).




                                                                               59
                      Equality enshrined in         Equal access to      Right to property      Inheritance/       Legal capacity         Obstacles
                         the Constitution                  land                                  Succession
Bangladesh          The Constitution defines      It is customary for                        Islamic law          Except for the       Though the
                    that all citizens are equal   a woman not to                             provides rights      inheritance, all     Constitution
                    before the law and are        claim her share of                         of inheritance for   other matters        guarantees equal
                    entitled to equal             the family property                        women, but           concerning           rights for men
                    protection of the law (Art.   unless it is given                         precludes            property are         and women in
                    27); the state shall not      willingly. Women                           inheritance on an    governed by civil    the public life it
                    discriminate against any      often surrender                            equal basis with     law (ownership,      does not extend
                    citizen on ground of sex      their right to                             male co-sharers.     administration),     this to the private
                    (Art. 28); all citizens       property in                                Under the Hindu      women can            sphere where the
                    enjoy fundamental rights      exchange of the                            Women‘s Right        administer           various personal
                    (including the right to       right to visit their                       to Property Act      property, by         laws based on
                    property) (Art. 26).          parental home and                          (1937), a widow,     executors or         religion are
                                                  seek their brothers‘                       or all widows in     administrators of    recognized.
                                                  assistance in cases                        a polygamous         estates. Women       The Constitution
                                                  of marital conflict.                       marriage, inherit    have the right to    allows for
                                                                                             the same share as    make contracts,      Personal Laws in
                                                                                             a son. For           including those      the private
                                                                                             Christians, the      related to credit,   sphere which are
                                                                                             Succession Act       real estate and      in some cases
                                                                                             of 1925 provides     other property as    discriminatory
                                                                                             equal inheritance    well as other        against women.
CEDAW/C/BGD/3-                                                                               between sons         commercial
4 of 1 April 1997                                                                            and daughters.       transactions.




                                                                              60
                      Equality enshrined in          Equal access to        Right to property           Inheritance/        Legal capacity     Obstacles
                          the Constitution                 land                                          Succession
China               The Constitution               The Women's Act        Article 29 of the          Article 31
                    established legal rights for   stipulates, that       Women's Act stipulates     stipulates that the
                    women and men in               women enjoy            that the lawful rights     equality of
                    political, economic,           rights equal with      and interests of women     women's and
                    social, cultural and family    those of men in the    in joint ownership         men's rights to
                    life.                          distribution of land   relations, as well as in   property
                    The Women's Act (1992)         under the              marriage and the           inheritance is
                    is China's first basic law     household contract     family, shall not be       protected by law.
                    to deal with women's           responsibility         infringed. Article 44      Widows have the
                    rights and interests.          system, as well as     stipulates that, in the    right to dispose
                                                   in the allocation of   case of divorce, the       of inherited
                                                   private plots for      living quarters jointly    property, a right
                                                   growing crops or       rented by the husband      that may not be
                                                   building houses.       and wife shall be          infringed by
CEDAW/C/CHN/3-                                                            divided by mutual          anyone.
4 of 10 June 1997                                                         agreement.
Georgia             The constitutional                                    The right to property      Inheritance by        Under the Civil
                    provisions on the equality                            and inheritance is         law (wife,            Code, women
                    of citizens before the law                            guaranteed to all          together with the     have the same
                    (Art. 14 and 38, para.                                persons on an equal        children and          right as men to
                    1).and the rights of aliens                           basis (Article 21 of the   parents is            conclude any
                    are consolidated in the                               Constitution). The new     considered a          agreements and
                    Georgian Citizenship Act                              Civil Code, which was      direct heir, has      to own, manage
                    (arts.4 and 8).                                       adopted on 27 June         the right to an       and dispose of
                                                                          1997, includes a section   equal share) and      property. They
                                                                          on family law that         inheritance by        have the right
                                                                          expands on the             testament (wife,      independently to
                                                                          provisions on the          receives the          receive financial
                                                                          equality of personal and   obligatory share,     services (credit,
                                                                          property rights and the    which is not less     loans) without
                                                                          obligations of spouses     than half of what     having to obtain
                                                                          (Book V).                  she would             anyone's
CEDAW/C/GEO/1                                                                                        receive by law).      permission.
of10 March 1998




                                                                                  61
                     Equality enshrined in         Equal access to       Right to property            Inheritance/      Legal capacity         Obstacles
                        the Constitution                 land                                          Succession
India              Article 14 of the             There are different   The only law according      In spite of the      Although women      Hindu Personal
                   Constitution of India         personal laws for     substantive rights to the   Hindu                have the legal      Law and
                   ensures the right to          various religions:    wife in the property of     Succession Act,      capacity to enter   Christian
                   equality and Article 15(1)    The Hindu             the husband, by express     granting equal       into contracts of   Personal Law
                   specifically prohibits        Marriage Act 1955,    provisions of unity of      inheritance rights   their own names,    have been
                   discrimination; Article 16    the Indian            possession and              to women except      relatively few      overhauled to
                   provides for equality of      Christian Marriage    community of interest       in case of co-       women do so in      give women
                   opportunity to all. Article   Act 1862, the         of the property of both     parcenary            practice because    greater rights
                   13(3) provides for            Indian Divorce Act    the spouses during          property, women      of the very         regarding
                   affirmative and positive      1869 applicable for   marriage, is the            are invariably       limited property    inheritance,
                   action in favour of women     Christians, the       Portuguese Civil Code       coaxed into          they hold.          adoption and
                   by empowering the state       Muslim Women‘s        1867 applicable             relinquishing                            divorce; personal
                   to make special               Protection Act, The   generally to all the        such rights in                           laws of some
                   provisions for them.          Parsis Marriage       inhabitants of the State    favour of their                          minorities and
                   Article 39 ensures right to   and Divorce Act of    of Goa and the Union        male heirs. Even                         other
                   adequate means of living      1936.                 Territories of Daman        co-parcenary                             communities
                   for men and women                                   and Diu.                    rights have been                         have remained
                   equally, equal pay for                                                          granted on equal                         unchanged on
                   work.                                                                           terms to women                           the basis of a
                                                                                                   in some states                           policy that the
                                                                                                   but they remain                          demand for such
                                                                                                   on paper only.                           changes must
                                                                                                                                            come form
                                                                                                                                            within the
                                                                                                                                            communities
                                                                                                                                            themselves
                                                                                                                                            before the state
                                                                                                                                            can intervene.


CEDAW/C/IND/1
of 10 March 1999




                                                                               62
                        Equality enshrined in       Equal access to      Right to property         Inheritance/        Legal capacity        Obstacles
                           the Constitution               land                                       Succession
Indonesia             The 1945 Constitution       The Agrarian Act     Property acquired         Women‘s lack of      Women have the      Although the
                      states that every citizen   of 1960 guarantees   during marriage is        direct access to     right to seek       legal provision
                      has equal status, rights    the right of women   common property;          land, which is       bank loans,         exists, because
                      and obligations, and        to own land.         property brought in by    related to system    mortgages, etc.     of culture and
                      opportunities both in the                        the husband or the wife   of inheritance       Single women        customs, women
                      family and in society                            respectively and          and the role of      can secure a        are reluctant to
                      Equal status and rights                          property acquired by      customary law in     mortgage if they    set up any
                      between men and women                            either one of them as a   land and             have the means      business without
                      is emphasized in the 1978                        gift or an inheritance    property matters,    to provide          the consent and
                      Guidelines of State                              remains under the         also restricts       collateral asked    approval of the
                      Policy.                                          respective control of     their access to      for by the banks    husband or
                                                                       either one of them,       credit and           Laws relating to    fathers.
                                                                       provided the parties      therefore to other   marriage and
                                                                       have not decided          commercial           others have been
                                                                       otherwise.                outputs.             amended:
                                                                                                                      married women
                                                                                                                      can set up trades
                                                                                                                      and business for
                                                                                                                      which they do
                                                                                                                      not require the
                                                                                                                      husband‘s
CEDAW/C/IDN/2-3                                                                                                       permission.
of 12 February 1997




                                                                               63
                       Equality enshrined in       Equal access to       Right to property           Inheritance/       Legal capacity         Obstacles
                          the Constitution               land                                         Succession
Iraq                 The Constitution (1970)     The Agrarian          Law 191/1975 makes         The Personal         The Civil Code       It is difficult to
                     embodies the elimination    Reform Law            men and women equal        Status Code          (1951) makes no      speak of a
                     of discrimination against   (117/1970) gave       in respect of financial    (188/1959), as       distinction          country‘s
                     women in Article 19.        women the right to    rights and privileges.     amended, is the      between men and      implementation
                                                 exercise economic                                basic enactment      women in terms       in isolation from
                     From the time of            independence and      In marriage, a wife may    regulating           of legal capacity.   the
                     mankind‘s first laws and    to hold a tract of    keep her movable and       matters of           The Commercial       circumstances in
                     legal codes, Iraq has       land for              immovable property         personal status in   Code (10/1984)       which the
                     shown concern for           reclamation and       and manage it as she       Iraq, such as        and all previous     country finds
                     women. The Code of          cultivation on the    sees fit in her own        marriage,            such codes,          itself. The
                     Hammurabi affirms the       same terms as men.    interests. Her rights as   kinship, child       which do not         embargo
                     full legal capacity of      The regulations of    a spouse include the       custody and          discriminate         imposed on Iraq
                     women and contains          the Agricultural      entitlement to a dowry     inheritance. An      between men and      has affected all
                     provisions to protect the   Bank also permit      and to maintenance, as     exemption is         women with           segments of
                     wife and safeguard her      women to borrow       regulated by the           made for non-        respect to the       society,
                     financial and human         on an equal footing   Personal Status Code.      Muslim citizens,     pursuit of trade     including
                     rights.                     with men.                                        for whom             or the conduct of    women.
                                                                                                  matters as           business
                                                                                                  marriage and its     provided that the
                                                                                                  dissolution are      person
                                                                                                  regulated by the     concerned has
                                                                                                  religious            legal capacity
                                                                                                  communities to       and is of Iraqi
                                                                                                  which they           nationality.
                                                                                                  belong.              There is not
                                                                                                                       requirement for
                                                                                                                       the husband‘s
CEDAW/C/IRQ/2-3                                                                                                        prior approval.
of 19 October 1998




                                                                               64
                       Equality enshrined in           Equal access to      Right to property           Inheritance/       Legal capacity         Obstacles
                          the Constitution                  land                                         Succession
                     The Constitution lays          The administration    According to religious     The Act on           Men and women        Jordan continues
Jordan               down the basic principle       of movable and        directives men are the     personal status      have equal rights    to be governed
                     that all Jordanians are        immovable             guardians of women. A      stipulates that at   with respect to      by customs and
                     regarded as equal without      property is based     wife may leave or allow    the husband's        the independent      traditions where
                     distinction among them.        on the legal          anyone else to enter the   death, the wife is   use of property      the man is the
                     Article 2 states that          ownership of such     house only with her        entitled to the      and regarding        head of the
                     Jordanians are equal           property. If the      husband's permission.      deferred portion     contracts for        family. There
                     before the law and that        wife is a property    She may dispose of         of the dowry and     sales, purchases,    are certain acts
                     there is no discrimination     owner, she has the    property only insofar as   to her share of      hire and             which, being
                     between them as regards        right to administer   he permits her to.         the inheritance,     participation.       within the
                     their rights and duties on     it, even though       Should the marriage        which varies         A wife is not        domain of men,
                     grounds of race, language      property acquired     contract be dissolved,     according to the     obliged under        are unacceptable
                     or religion.                   after marriage is     the wife does not have     number of            religious law or     for women to
                                                    often registered in   the right to demand half   claimants to the     substantive law      carry out.
                     Although the principle of      the name of the       the husband's property,    estate (children,    to maintain part     Although the
                     equality is set forth in the   husband, unless it    for example, and she       parents and          of her property      shariah accords
                     Constitution and in            is a question of      will receive only what     collaterals).        in order to          women the right
                     Jordanian law, some            acquisition by        he sees fit to give her,   Social practices     support herself      to inherit from
                     existing laws contain          inheritance.          including the amount he    that, in the past,   or her children;     both their fathers
                     discriminatory provisions;                           agreed to in the           deprived women       she can do so        as well as their
                     this aspect is dealt with in                         marriage contract as to    - wives or           voluntarily if she   husbands, it
                     greater detail in                                    the part of the dowry      daughters - of       wishes to share      frequently
                     paragraphs 4, 5, 14, 16,                             payable upon divorce,      the share of the     in the household     happens that they
                     32, 41, 50, 53, 97, 102                              plus any property          inheritance have     expenses.            renounce that
                     and 139                                              registered in her name     been prohibited.     Women are            right in favour of
                                                                          at the time the marriage   The practice of a    forbidden to         a close male
                                                                          contract was drawn up      widow marrying       travel alone,        relative.
                                                                          or during the marriage.    a brother of their   even on
                                                                                                     dead husband         pilgrimage, or to
                                                                                                     has now              choose a place of
CEDAW/C/JOR/1                                                                                        disappeared for      residence since a
of 27 October 1997
CEDAW/C/JOR/2                                                                                        good, except for     woman belongs
of 26 October 1999                                                                                   a few cases in       to her husband.
                                                                                                     the countryside.




                                                                                  65
                       Equality enshrined in          Equal access to      Right to property           Inheritance/   Legal capacity         Obstacles
                          the Constitution                  land                                        Succession
Kazakhstan           The Constitution (1995)        The Ministry of      A transaction concluded    The Civil Code    The Civil Code      More women
                     guarantees fundamental         Agriculture has      by one of the spouses      guarantees the    which entered       than men
                     human rights and               recommended to       involving the              equal property    into force on       participated in
                     freedoms.                      local authorities    disposition of the         and personal      1 July 1999, does   migratory
                     Article 14 of the              that they allocate   common property of the     non-property      not divide the      movements. In
                     Constitution states that all   plots of land on a   spouses may be             rights of the     legal capacity of   1998, 472,000
                     are equal before the law       priority basis to    nullified by a court on    spouses and       citizens on the     people departed
                     and before the courts.         mothers with large   the grounds of the lack    equal rights in   basis of gender.    and 269,000
                                                    families and to      of consent of the other    inheritance.                          arrived; the
                                                    single mothers.      spouse only at the                                               migration deficit
                                                    The agrarian         request of that spouse                                           was minus
                                                    reforms being        and where it is proved                                           203,000. As
                                                    carried out in       that the other party to                                          regards
                                                    Kazakhstan apply     the transaction knew or                                          international
                                                    equally to men       should have known the                                            migration, more
                                                    and women.           lack of consent of the                                           women than men
                                                                         other spouse to the                                              departed, and
                                                                         transaction. Apart from                                          more women
                                                                         the common property,                                             than men
                                                                         the legislation provides                                         arrived.
                                                                         for the right of each
                                                                         spouse to his or her
                                                                         own property.
                                                                         The property of each of
                                                                         the spouses includes
                                                                         (art. 34) property
                                                                         belonging to each of the
                                                                         spouses prior to the
                                                                         marriage, property
                                                                         received by the spouses
                                                                         during the period of the
                                                                         marriage as a gift or an
CEDAW/C/KAZ/1                                                            inheritance or through
of 12 October 2000                                                       some other transaction.




                                                                                 66
                       Equality enshrined in        Equal access to         Right to property         Inheritance/   Legal capacity      Obstacles
                          the Constitution                 land                                        Succession
Kyrgyzstan           The Constitution (Art. 15)   A return to             Changes in the                                              The rules of
                     prohibits discrimination     agricultural            economic and social                                         customary law
                     against women in the         production based        position of women are                                       (adat) are being
                     political, economic,         on unmechanized         creating an urgent need                                     re-established
                     social, cultural and civil   family labour is        for institutionalized                                       among the
                     spheres.                     creating the            assistance in obtaining                                     population
                                                  conditions for a        equal access to land                                        Women risk
                                                  revival of              resources and real                                          losing all the
                                                  paternalistic           estate.                                                     gains made in
                                                  arrangements and                                                                    terms of their
                                                  values. This is                                                                     rights and not
                                                  reinforcing the                                                                     obtaining any
                                                  traditions and                                                                      benefit from the
CEDAW/C/KGZ/1                                     customary law of                                                                    land reforms.
of 28 August 1998                                 Muslims (adat).
Maldives             Personal law which           Women can and do        Men and women can
                     includes family and          hold title to land,     and do maintain and
                     inheritance law are          which is allocated      manage their property
                     exclusively governed by      by the Government       and finances separately,
                     the Shari‘ah law.            based on the degree     the actual extend of this
                                                  of need; joint          needs to be researched.
                                                  ownership is            In the event of divorce,
                                                  possible when           any property which has
                                                  either party within     been registered s joint
                                                  the marriage            property is divided
                                                  specifically request    equally.
                                                  for such. Divorced
                                                  and widowed
                                                  women are also
CEDAW/C/MDV/1                                     eligible to apply for
of 28 January 1999                                land.




                                                                                  67
                        Equality enshrined in       Equal access to        Right to property          Inheritance/       Legal capacity      Obstacles
                           the Constitution               land                                         Succession
Mongolia              The Constitution adopted    Family law in          As a result of                                                   A revised draft
                      in 1992 guarantees to       Mongolia               privatization in the                                             family law has
                      every citizens prevention   guarantees the right   agricultural sector,                                             been submitted
                      of violations of human      of spouses to          some positive shifts                                             to the State Great
                      rights and freedoms and     common ownership       have become apparent                                             Hural. Revisions
                      restoration of infringed    of property that has   in rural life: women                                             affect mainly the
                      rights. Around 170 laws     been acquired in       who are heads of                                                 areas of family
                      have been passed since      marriage, their        households have                                                  property
                      the adoption of the new     equal parental and     become property                                                  regulation,
                      Constitution, including     spousal rights and     owners. However,                                                 children‘s
                      many provisions             duties before the      those women began to                                             upbringing, and
                      prohibiting gender          family and             face difficulties in                                             parental
                      discrimination.             children.              meeting their needs for                                          responsibility.
CEDAW/C/MNG/3                                                            rest, study and health
-4 of 15 March 1999                                                      protection.
Nepal                 The Constitution            Any women who          A daughter is restricted   The Act             Women have        Various petitions
                      stipulates that no          has completed 15       from sharing the           Concerning Land     equal legal       have been filed
                      discrimination should be    years of married       property that belongs to   (1964) restricts    capacity to       in the Supreme
                      made against any citizen    life and is at least   her parental family        daughters from      conclude any      Court by woman
                      in the application of       35 years old, may,     (Muluki Ain, Partition,    inheriting the      legal contract    lawyers against
                      general laws on grounds     obtain her partition   No. 1); she can share      tenancy rights of   under the         certain
                      of sex (Article 11 (2)).    share from her         property if she is         their father or     Contract Act      discriminatory
                                                  husband and live       unmarried and after the    mother. Widow       1996.             legal provisions.
                                                  separately             age of 35 years (No 16).   forfeits property                     The Court‘s
                                                  (Muluki Ain,           Women need                 of husband or his                     response has
                                                  Partition).            permission from their      family if she is                      been positive and
                                                                         father (if unmarried) or   found sexually                        it has given a
                                                                         from their adult son (if   disloyal to her                       directive order to
                                                                         married or widowed)        deceased                              the government
                                                                         before disposing of        husband.                              to amend
                                                                         immovable property         (Muluki Ain,                          discriminatory
CEDAW/C/NPL/1                                                            (Muluki Ain, Women‘s       Women‘s                               laws within two
of 23 November
                                                                         Property, No 2).           Property, No 6).                      years.
1998




                                                                                 68
                    Equality enshrined in       Equal access to        Right to property           Inheritance/      Legal capacity      Obstacles
                      the Constitution                land                                          Succession
Philippines       The Constitution (1987)     Administrative         Articles 96, 211 and                                             One of the
                  ensures fundamental         Order No. 2,           225 of the Family Code                                           biggest obstacles
                  equality between women      Series of 1993,        state that the husband or                                        to the
                  and men                     provides that all      father's decision should                                         equalization of
                                              farm workers who       prevail in case of                                               women's rights is
                  The 1987 Constitution       are married to each    disagreement in the                                              the difficulty of
                  and the Family Code (also   other may be           administration and                                               breaking down
                  passed in 1987) removed     entitled to three      employment of                                                    the patriarchal
                  many of the gross           hectares each,         community property,                                              traditional power
                  inequalities in law         provided that their    parental authority or in                                         structures in the
                  pertaining to marriage,     vested rights to the   the exercise of legal                                            family. When
                  family and property         land have been         guardianship over the                                            statutory laws
                  relations.                  duly established.      property of an                                                   have been
                                              A separate             unemancipated                                                    relaxed to a
                                              certificate of land    common child.                                                    woman's favour,
                                              ownership                                                                               customary laws
                                              agreement must be                                                                       continue to
CEDAW/C/PHI/4                                 issued to each of                                                                       render them
of 25 July 1996                               the spouses. .                                                                          academic.
Sri Lanka         Constitutional reform has   The Land                                           Inheritance is
                  included non-               Development                                        based on the
                  discrimination on the       Ordinance (1934)                                   principle of
                  ground of ―gender,          discriminates                                      primogeniture
                  marital status, maternity   against rural                                      which is alien to
                  and parental status‖ in     women. In new                                      the legal system
                  addition to ―sex‖. The      settlements land is                                of Sri Lanka and
                  Supreme court has been a    allocated to the                                   denies women in
                  powerful instrument for     male head of                                       new settlements
                  enforcing fundamental       household.                                         the right to
                  rights guaranteed by the                                                       family land if
                  Constitution.                                                                  they had no land
                                                                                                 in locations of
CEDAW/C/LKA/3-                                                                                   origin.
4 of 18 October
1999




                                                                             69
                       Equality enshrined in         Equal access to        Right to property           Inheritance/    Legal capacity      Obstacles
                          the Constitution                 land                                          Succession
                     The Constitution of the       Legislation has        Article 2 of the Family    Women are                           One of the
Uzbekistan
                     Republic of Uzbekistan        removed all the        Code of the Republic of    entitled on an                      innovations in
                     guarantees and establishes    obstacles which        Uzbekistan (1998)          equal basis with                    family
                     the equality of citizens      could have             provides for the           men to                              legislation is the
                     before the law, their equal   prevented women        equality of personal and   implement their                     provision of the
                     rights and freedoms and       working in             property rights of men     rights in court                     right to spouses
                     the inadmissibility of        agricultural           and women in marital       and to appeal                       to conclude a
                     exercising rights and         production from        relations.                 against unlawful                    marriage
                     freedoms to the detriment     feeling that they      Property acquired by       acts committed                      contract in which
                     of the interests of other     were fully fledged     spouses during             against them in                     they may
                     persons, the state or         owners of the land:    marriage as well as that   administrative                      mutually agree to
                     society.                      long leases have       acquired prior to          proceedings. The                    specify the mode
                                                   been introduced        registration of the        law on citizens‘                    of property
                                                   with the right of      marriage with the          appeals                             ownership as
                                                   inheritance and        shared resources of the    guarantees                          joint or separate
                                                   mortgage coupled       two spouses is their       equitable                           or shared in
                                                   with the               shared joint property,     consideration of                    proportions.
                                                   unconditional right    unless provided for        an appeal.
                                                   of people to benefit   otherwise by law or by
                                                   by the results of      a marriage contract.
                                                   their own labour.      In addition to joint
                                                                          property, the spouses
                                                                          own property which
                                                                          belongs to each of
                                                                          them. Such property
                                                                          includes everything that
                                                                          belonged to them
                                                                          before they entered into
                                                                          the marriage, as well as
                                                                          property acquired
CEDAW/C/UZB/1                                                             during the marriage
of 2 February 2000




                                                                                  70
                     Equality enshrined in           Equal access to         Right to property            Inheritance/       Legal capacity         Obstacles
                        the Constitution                    land                                           Succession
Viet Nam           The 1992 Constitution           The 1993 Land           Women still meet            Women usually        Article 8 of the     Prejudicial
                   stipulates that all citizens    Law provides for        various difficulties in     are not entitled     1995 Civil Code      customs and
                   are equal before the law        equal land-use          implementing their          to land              states that in       practices have
                   (Article 52) and male and       rights between          equal rights to property,   inheritance form     civil relations,     resulted in
                   female citizens have equal      women and men.          particularly in             their parents        parties are all      attitudes and
                   rights in all fields (Article   According to            determining possession      owing to the         equal. Women         conduct that
                   63).                            customs and             rights. Legally, women      traditional family   have the same        promote women
                                                   traditions, most of     cannot use ownership        custom of son        rights and           as inferior,
                                                   the land use            certificates in their       preference.          obligations as       negligent care of
                                                   certificates are in     husbands‘ names of          Based on             men under law        women and
                                                   the husband‘s           property owned by both      regulations on       (Articles 16, 17,    children and
                                                   names as they are       husband and wife in         the rights to        18 and 19 of the     maltreatment of
                                                   often heads of          civil transactions or as    possession,          Civil Code).         wives and
                                                   households. As          collateral when             inheritance,         Many civil           children.
                                                   women rarely have       applying for bank           participation in     contracts (house     Women,
                                                   their names on          loans. Local                production and       and/or high          especially
                                                   land-use                administrations advised     business             valued property      women of ethnic
                                                   certificates, it is     families that family        activities, the      purchase or sale)    minorities, have
                                                   very difficult for      property should be          law ensures, on      concluded by the     limited
                                                   them to use those       registered in the names     the basis of         husband without      understanding of
                                                   certificates to apply   of both husband and         equality between     consulting his       rights and
                                                   for mortgage.           wife. This is also a        men and women,       wife were            obligations
                                                   Many women after        positive measure to         the right to bank    disapproved by       stipulated in the
                                                   marriage do not         protect women‘s             loans, mortgages     the authorities as   Land Law.
                                                   have land for           interest in case of         and other forms      null and void.
                                                   cultivation because     divorces.                   of financial         Women also
                                                   their parents and                                   credit.              sued their
                                                   their husband‘s                                                          husbands for
                                                   parents do not give                                                      deception in
                                                   them the right to                                                        family property
CEDAW/C/VNM/2                                      use land allocated                                                       transactions and
of 15 March 1999
                                                   to their respective                                                      the courts
CEDAW/C/VNM/3
-4 of 20 October                                   families.                                                                nullified such
2000                                                                                                                        contracts.




                                                                                   71
                        Equality enshrined in      Equal access to     Right to property          Inheritance/        Legal capacity         Obstacles
                           the Constitution            land                                        Succession
Yemen                 The 1994 Constitution                          Property and related       A woman may          Women have the       Family relations
                      was amended in 2000.                           matters are regulated by   inherit from her     full right to        are regulated by
                      All its terms and                              Chapter IV of the Civil    deceased             perform actions      the Law of
                      provisions are based on                        Code (Law No. 19 of        husband, after       entailing legal      Personal Status
                      Islamic law, the Shari‘ah.                     1992) which gives          deduction of the     effects, such as     (Law No. 20 of
                                                                     women the right to own     amounts required     entering into        1992) and
                                                                     property, subject to no    for funeral          contracts on their   amendments
                                                                     restrictions that do not   expenses, her        own behalf and       thereto. The
                                                                     also apply to men.         own subsistence      engaging in          provisions of that
                                                                     Divorce does not entail    during ‗iddah,       commerce.            Law are derived
                                                                     a division of property:    payment of his       (Article 8 of the    from the Islamic
                                                                     the woman retains all      debts and the        Commercial           Shari‘ah, which
                                                                     her personal               execution of the     Code (Law No.        stipulates that in
                                                                     possessions, the           will. A widow        32 of 1991)).        the union of a
                                                                     husband not being          and her                                   man and a
                                                                     entitled to any part of    daughters inherit                         woman, each
                                                                     them.                      from their                                party has rights
                                                                                                deceased                                  and duties vis-à-
                                                                                                husband/father,                           vis the other in
                                                                                                regardless of                             the interests of
                                                                                                whether his                               their mutual
                                                                                                estate consists of                        affection and
                                                                                                land or movable                           kindness.
                                                                                                property. The                             Article 40 of the
                                                                                                widow and all                             Law of Personal
                                                                                                her children,                             Status states that
                                                                                                male and female,                          it ―is the wife‘s
                                                                                                inherit either                            duty to obey her
                                                                                                type of property,                         husband in
                                                                                                without                                   matters
CEDAW/C/YEM/4                                                                                   discrimination,                           conducive to the
of 15 March 2000,                                                                               even where the                            interests of the
CEDAW/C/YEM/5                                                                                   deceased man                              family.
of 15 February 2002
                                                                                                has not left will.




                                                                             72
              Equality enshrined in              Equal access to          Right to property           Inheritance/        Legal capacity         Obstacles
                 the Constitution                    land                                              Succession
LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN
Brazil      The Federal Constitution            Law 8,629 (1993)        The new Civil Code, to      The widow who        The Statute of       The rural area
            (Article 5) accords to all          related to the          enter into force on 11      remarried lost       Married Women        had already been
            individuals formal                  Agrarian Reform         January 2003,               the right to         eliminated from      historically
            equality before the law,            guarantees that the     eliminates                  administer the       the Civil Code       characterized by
            without distinction of any          title-deed and          discriminatory gender       property of the      the precept that     the lack of public
            nature.                             concession of use       rules such as the man       underage             the married          investments in
                                                shall be granted to     being head of the           children born out    woman was            basic services.
                  The Constitutions of          the man or the          marital society;            of the previous      incapable,           The option the
                  Ceará and Sergipe are the     woman, or to both,      preponderance of            marriage, as well    placing her          region‘s
                  only ones that deal           irrespective of their   paternal power and          as to usufruct.      alongside the        countries chose
                  expressly with the issue of   marital status,         husband‘s authority in      Changed Articles     profligate, the      for economic
                  rural working women.          preferably to the       managing the couple‘s       393 and 248 of       Indian, and the      development
                                                heads of large          assets, including the       the Civil Code       pubescent minor.     styles focused on
                  As a result of the            households (Art.        woman‘s private assets;     state that the       It also revoked      urban activities
                  competent mobilization of     19). The new            the man‘s right to have     mother who           the requirement      or on agro-
                  the movement during the       Federal                 the marriage annulled,      remarries will       of the husband‘s     industry,
                  activities of the             Constitution            in case he did not          not lose the right   authorization for    especially agro-
                  Constituent Assembly, a       guarantees, equal       know, beforehand, that      to paternal power    married women        industry for
                  significant majority of the   rights between men      the woman had already       with regard to       to perform           export, which
                  claims made by women          and women, or to        been deflowered, as         the children of      commercial           reinforced the
                  were incorporated into the    both, irrespective of   well as to disinherit the   the previous         activities. The      historical trend
                  constitutional text of        their marital status    dishonest daughter          marriage and can     control of the       to privilege the
                  1988.                         in the granting of      living with him             freely exercise      marital society is   urban in
                                                title deeds or                                      the right to         now shared with      detriment of the
                                                concession of land                                  which she is         the wife, in the     rural.
                                                use for the purpose                                 entitled with        common interest
                                                of agrarian reform                                  regard to the        of the couple and
CEDAW/C/BRA/1-                                  (Article 189).                                      persons and          the children.
5 of 7 November                                                                                     property of such
2002                                                                                                children.




                                                                                73
                       Equality enshrined in       Equal access to     Right to property          Inheritance/        Legal capacity         Obstacles
                          the Constitution             land                                        Succession
Chile                Article 1 of the                                Women married under       There are no          The legal            Overcoming
                     Constitution assures                            the joint ownership       inheritance           capacity of          poverty is seen
                     everyone the right to                           regime do not have the    restrictions for      women is             as the biggest
                     participate in the national                     same capacity as men to   women who can         identical to that    challenge facing
                     life with equal                                 acquire, administer and   be executors or       of men. The case     the country.
                     opportunity, while Article                      dispose of joint          administrators of     of marriage
                     19, among other                                 property; unless the      an inheritance        entered into
                     constitutional guarantees,                      parties expressly         under the same        under the regime
                     establishes ―equality                           mention their wish to     conditions as         of joint
                     before the law‖. Civil and                      adopt another regime.     men.                  ownership of
                     labour laws expressly                           The husband is the head   Law No. 19,585        property is an
                     prohibit any form of                            of the conjugal           of 26 October         exception to this
                     discrimination, including                       partnership and           1998 amended          statutory norm.
                     discrimination on the                           administers the joint     the Civil Code in     Until 1989, when
                     basis of sex (Article 55 of                     estate and the wife‘s     filiation to confer   the Civil Code
                     the Civil Code, Article 2                       property (Civil Code,     equal status on       was amended
                     of the Labour Code).                            Art. 1,749). Despite      all children          (Act No.
                     The Convention is the law                       the general capacity      (categorized as       18,802), a
                     of the State under the                          accorded to her by law,   legitimate, born      woman who
                     provisions of the second                        a woman married under     out of wedlock        married under
                     paragraph of Article 5 of                       this regime cannot        and illegitimate)     the joint property
                     the Constitution. The                           dispose of her own        by providing for      regime suffered
                     definition of                                   property, unless it has   the free              from relative
                     discrimination contained                        been expressly            establishment of      incapacity. Act
                     in the Convention is                            excluded from the         paternity,            No. 19,335 of 23
                     therefore fully applicable.                     husband‘s                 improving the         September 1994
                                                                     administration, nor can   inheritance rights    included, as an
                                                                     she receive proceeds      of the surviving      alternative to the
                                                                     from such property,       spouse and            joint ownership
                                                                     which becomes part of     extending             and separation of
                                                                     the assets of the         paternal              property
                                                                     conjugal partnership      authority (patria     regimes, the
CEDAW/C/CHI/3                                                        administered by the       potestad) to the      sharing of assets
of 27 January 1999                                                   husband (Art. 1,725).     mother.               regime.




                                                                            74
                    Equality enshrined in         Equal access to         Right to property          Inheritance/        Legal capacity    Obstacles
                       the Constitution                  land                                          Succession
Cuba              The 1976 Constitution of      There is no             The spouses require        Women and men        The Civil Code
                  the Republic, as amended      distinction based       each other's consent to    have equal rights    (Law No. 59 of
                  by the People's National      on sex with regard      acts connected with the    with regard to       16 July 1987)
                  Assembly (Parliament) in      to the right of rural   ownership,                 the legal capacity   invests both
                  July 1992, states the         landowners to           administration or          to inherit,          sexes with the
                  principle of the equality     credit and bank         alienation of the          regardless of        same legal
                  of men and women              loans:                  common property of a       whether the          capacity and
                  (Article 41).                                         marriage; this             legator is testate   means of
                  Discrimination is                                     requirement applies        or intestate.        exercising it.
                  addressed in article 42.                              equally to both of them.                        Cuban women
                  provides that women and                               Excluded from the                               have the legal
                  men shall enjoy equal                                 common property is                              capacity to sign
                  rights in economic,                                   personal property                               civil and
                  political, cultural, social                           acquired before or                              commercial
                  and family matters                                    during the marriage                             contracts of
                  (Article 44). .                                       which both spouses                              every kind,
                                                                        may freely dispose of.                          administer
CEDAW/C/CUB/4                                                                                                           property and
of 25 September                                                                                                         obtain financial
1999                                                                                                                    credit.




                                                                                75
                    Equality enshrined in         Equal access to       Right to property          Inheritance/      Legal capacity         Obstacles
                       the Constitution                  land                                       Succession
Ecuador           The Constitution clearly      The Agrarian          In the civil domain, to    Women are          Article 1489 of      Statistics show,
                  establishes the equality of   Development Law       contract liens on          equally            the Civil Code       that most
                  women and men before          of 1994 promotes      conjugal property, the     empowered to be    establishes full     conjugal
                  the law, and the duty of      training for          ―head‖ of the marriage     executor or        legal capacity for   societies are
                  the State to respect and      campesinos and        enterprise or ―conjugal    administrator of   women on equal       headed by the
                  enforce respect for human     organization for      society‖ must obtain       any inheritance.   terms with men,      man.
                  rights. Article 37 of the     productive            written authorization                         guaranteeing the
                  Constitution protects         purposes. It          from the other spouse.                        principles of
                  marriage, maternity and       activates the land    In the absence of this                        freedom of
                  family property and           market, guarantees    formal requirement, any                       contract, and
                  equally supports women        land ownership,       such contracts are not                        freedom of work,
                  who are heads of              provides for          executed or lose legal                        commerce and
                  households.                   mechanisms to         force. The conjugal                           industry. In
                                                enable the small-     society can be headed                         1989, the
                                                scale producer to     by either of the spouses                      Constitutional
                                                gain access to        by common agreement;                          Guarantees
                                                credit, and           but in the absence of                         Tribunal
                                                rationalizes          explicit pronouncement,                       declared null and
                                                agricultural          the husband is deemed                         void those
                                                marketing             responsible for its                           articles of the
                                                processes. It also    administration.                               Commercial
                                                streamlines                                                         Code that
                                                administration in                                                   prohibited
                                                the National                                                        women from
                                                Agrarian                                                            acting as
                                                Development                                                         stockbrokers,
                                                Institute (INDA)                                                    public
                                                for formalizing                                                     auctioneers and
                                                rural land                                                          trade factors.
                                                ownership, and
                                                provides incentives
CEDAW/C/ECU/4-                                  for investment in
5 of 25 January                                 the agricultural
2002                                            sector.




                                                                              76
                       Equality enshrined in      Equal access to     Right to property        Inheritance/    Legal capacity         Obstacles
                          the Constitution            land                                      Succession
Guatemala            Article 4 of the                               The Civil Code                            Guatemalan           Indigenous
                     Constitution recognizes                        establishes provisions                    legislation          women‘s lack of
                     equality among human                           for marriage settlements                  recognizes the       access to land is
                     beings. Article 46 of the                      (Article 116 and 121,                     institution of de    attributable to
                     Constitution stipulates                        125), community of                        facto union, that    many factors,
                     that, in human rights                          property (Article 122),                   is, the stable,      including the fact
                     matters, treaties and                          separation of property                    free and             that in
                     conventions take                               (Article 123) and                         exclusive union,     Guatemalan
                     precedence over the                            community of                              for a period of      society men own
                     Constitution, with the                         acquisitions (Article                     time determined      the land and
                     result that the definition                     124), subsidiary regime                   by law, of a man     indigenous
                     of discrimination                              (Article 126) and                         and a woman          women are rarely
                     contained in the                               property of each spouse                   who have lived       given a share in
                     Convention can be                              (Article 127).                            together openly      it. With regard to
                     invoked before the                                                                       and continuously     access to credit,
                     corresponding judicial                         Under the Guatemalan                      for the same         indigenous
                     organs.                                        Civil Code, betrothal                     purposes and         communities in
                                                                    does not create an                        with the same        general do not
                                                                    obligation to enter into                  effects as if they   have the
                                                                    marriage; however, it                     were married.        necessary means
                                                                    does create the                                                to obtain credit,
                                                                    entitlement to demand                                          such as good
                                                                    the return of gifts                                            organization and
                                                                    made as a pledge of a                                          property to
                                                                                                                                   secure it.
CEDAW/C/GUA/2-
                                                                    marriage that did not
4 of 20 March 2001                                                  take place.
CEDAW/C/GUA/5
of 17 January 2002




                                                                            77
                      Equality enshrined in        Equal access to        Right to property      Inheritance/   Legal capacity      Obstacles
                         the Constitution                land                                     Succession
Nicaragua           The Political Constitution   Amendments to the      Law No. 209 on                                           The Institute for
                    of the Republic              Constitution           stability of ownership                                   Agrarian Reform
                    guarantees equality under    establish the          was amended in 1997                                      (INRA) and
                    the law between men and      concept of family      by the inclusion of a                                    INIM have been
                    women and aims to            assets; The Labour     new article 32                                           working since
                    achieve the elimination of   Code establishes       providing for title                                      1990 to promote
                    discrimination against       equal rights for       ownership by couples.                                    women's right to
                    women                        men and women;         This has extended                                        own property.
                                                 The Agrarian           women's access to                                        An awareness
                                                 Reform Act gives       property titles.                                         campaign was
                                                 women the right of     Legislation permitting                                   undertaken
                                                 access to land.        title ownership by                                       among the
                                                 Land ownership         women is in                                              beneficiaries as
                                                 solves the problem     preparation.                                             well as among
                                                 of women not                                                                    INRA experts to
                                                 having access to                                                                give women first
                                                 financial resources,                                                            right of
                                                 and therefore the                                                               ownership of the
                                                 policy is vital in                                                              lands which they
                                                 the context of the                                                              were farming.
CEDAW/C/NIC/4                                    right of women to
of 28 August 1998
                                                 control their own
CEDAW/C/NIC/5
of 9 September                                   productive
1999                                             resources.




                                                                                78
                    Equality enshrined in      Equal access to     Right to property        Inheritance/    Legal capacity         Obstacles
                       the Constitution            land                                      Succession
Peru              Article 2(2) of the                            Through the                               Each spouse          The informal
                  Constitution embodies the                      Commission for the                        retains the right    property
                  principle of equality                          Formalization of                          to administer his    situation is unfair
                  before the law.                                Informal Ownership                        or her personal      especially to
                  Accordingly, no person                         (COFOPRI), duly                           property and to      women: in the
                  may be discriminated                           registered property                       dispose of or        informal real
                  against on grounds of                          deeds are being issued                    encumber it          estate market,
                  origin, race, sex,                             to families living in                     (Civil Code,         when a family
                  language, religion,                            informal settlements                      Article 303).        sold its property
                  opinion or economic                            and urban districts. In                   Either of the        there was no
                  status, or on any other                        these situations,                         spouses may          requirement that
                  grounds.                                       possession of the                         authorize the        the deed of sale
                  The Constitution of 1993                       housing lots is not in                    other to assume      be signed by
                  contains three articles                        question, but the                         total or partial     both spouses;
                  governing the application                      owners lack the                           responsibility for   therefore, the
                  of treaties in national                        juridical certainty that                  such                 husband had
                  legislation; it reads                          can come only from                        administration       unilateral control
                  verbatim: Treaties signed                      universal recognition                     (Article 313).       of the property.
                  by the State and in force                      through issuance of the                   To dispose of or
                  are part of national law.                      corresponding property                    encumber joint
                  The Convention is                              titles duly recorded in                   property, the
                  therefore deemed                               the national system of                    involvement of
                  incorporated into the body                     public registers.                         both husband
                  of domestic law for                                                                      and wife is
                  purposes of legislating on                                                               indispensable,
                  national matters.                                                                        but this is not
                                                                                                           required for
                                                                                                           acquisitions of
                                                                                                           immovable
                                                                                                           property by one
                                                                                                           of the spouses
                                                                                                           individually
CEDAW/C/PER/5                                                                                              (Article 315).
of 6 March 2001




                                                                         79
                      Equality enshrined in          Equal access to       Right to property         Inheritance/         Legal capacity        Obstacles
                         the Constitution                   land                                      Succession
Suriname            The concept of                Land policy is         The Civil Code does       Inheritance can       The legal           Women in the
                    discrimination has been       based on Decree L-     not prevent the           only take place       capacity of         interior are
                    laid down in Article 126      1-1982 No.10. If a     acquisition of property   upon death            married women       dependent on
                    bis of the Penal Code.        woman holds the        on the basis of gender.   (Article 859          is regulated by     male villagers
                    The Constitution prohibits    title to land, in                                Civil Code). If       Decree C11          for access to
                    discrimination (Article 8,    most cases she has                               the wife is the       (Bulletin of Acts   land, since
                    para 2).                      acquired it through                              sole heir, she        and Decrees         laying out/
                    The principle of equality     inheritance, only in                             inherits the entire   1981 No.23).        clearing the
                    of men and women is           few cases by                                     estate of her         Married women       fields and
                    incorporated in the           applying to the                                  husband. If there     can perform         building a work-
                    Constitution (Article 35,     Ministry of Natural                              are legitimate        legal acts on       hut is the
                    para, 2). However, no         Resources, which                                 children from the     their own,          responsibility of
                    sanctions have been           is responsible for                               marriage, the         without             men. With the
                    instituted with regard to     land policy.                                     estate is divided     permission or       support of NGOs
                    this prohibition. There       The only                                         among the wife        assistance from     and the
                    are also legal provisions     possibility for                                  and these             their husbands.     Government,
                    in the national legislation   tribal women to                                  children. The         A cohabitation      women have
                    which are in conflict with    attain title to land                             inheritance of        contract presents   turned to
                    these principles such as      is individual title                              widows and            them with the       acquiring tools to
                    Elections Act, Holiday        on the basis of the                              widowers is           possibility of      clear the fields
                    Act, Law on Nationality       L-Decree, which                                  provided for in       settling their      themselves, if
                    and Residence, Personnel      does not fit with                                Article 862 of        mutual property     men are absent
                    Act, etc.                     the ideas of                                     the Civil Code        rights.             because of gold-
                                                  collective land and                                                                        mining, logging
                                                  the inalienable                                                                            and trade.
                                                  ownership of land                                                                          An obstacle for
                                                  in the interior. The                                                                       women‘s access
                                                  Government                                                                                 to land is the
                                                  instituted the                                                                             lack of a fixed
                                                  Commission on                                                                              and sufficient
                                                  State Land for                                                                             income, a
                                                  Indigenous Peoples                                                                         requirement for
                                                  and Maroons.                                                                               granting state
CEDAW/C/SUR/1-                                                                                                                               land.
2 of 5 March 2002




                                                                                 80
                    Equality enshrined in          Equal access to         Right to property           Inheritance/        Legal capacity           Obstacles
                      the Constitution                 land                                             Succession
EUROPE
Albania            The Constitution states        A special chapter      Normally land is            The first line of    Legal capacity is      Only when the
                   that ―all are equal before     of the Civil Code is   registered to the head of   inheritance is the   acquired at 18         male is not
                   the law‖ and that ―no one      dealing with           family (the husband)        spouse and the       years of age           present (because
                   shall be unjustly              common property        thus denying the right      children (also       (Civil Code,           of abandonment,
                   discriminated for reasons      among members of       of community property       outside of           article 6(1)),         or
                   such as sex, race, religion,   a farm family (Art.    after marriage to the       wedlock) in          while married          separation/divorc
                   ethnicity‖ (Art. 18).          222-230). The          woman. The same             equal parts          women, who are         e or emigration)
                   Related to international       family is              applies for the             (article 361), if    not yet of age,        the woman takes
                   documents, the                 represented in         registration of private     there are no         have full legal        his place, but
                   Constitution foresees ―An      property               companies, whereby          children, second     capacity through       only in as far as
                   international agreement        relationships with     even though the wife's      line heirs may       marriage (article      there are no
                   ratified by law has            third parties by the   financial contribution      inherit, but         6(2)). This right      other male
                   superiority to the laws of     head, elected by       may be equal or even        anyway the           is not lost even       members who
                   the country that don‘t         the members of the     more than the husband,      spouse is entitled   thought the            can replace him
                   agree with it‖ (Art. 122       family. The head       the private company is      to half of the       marriage is            (father-in-law,
                   (2)).                          of family is, by       registered under the        inheritance.         invalid or is          oldest male child
                                                  tacit agreement, the   husband's name.             In a regime of       resolved before        etc.).
                                                  man and the land is                                common               the coming of          Normally the
                                                  registered under his                               property, a          age of the             wife moves upon
                                                  signature. If the                                  spouse may           woman.                 marriage to the
                                                  head wants to                                      dispose only of      Every person           house of the
                                                  alienate the family                                50 per cent of the   who has legal          husband (which
                                                  land, he can easily                                property             capacity has           is not as a
                                                  coerce the wife and                                acquired after       capacity to act in     consequence
                                                  other family                                       marriage.            civil trials (art.91   acquired during
                                                  members.                                                                Civil Procedure).      marriage), very
                                                                                                                                                 often the wife
                                                                                                                                                 has no claim
CEDAW/C/ALB/1-                                                                                                                                   over the house.
2 of 23 May 2002




                                                                                 81
                 Table 4: Statistics on rural population, agricultural labour force, women farmers and access to land

                                       Rural Population        Rural female labour force           Women farmers/                Access to land
                                                                  And remuneration               Women cooperatives/          Land owned by women
                                                                                                Collective farms run by
                                                                                                        women
AFRICA
                                    Rural women account for    Women make up 11.9 per           Rural women are engaged
Algeria                                                                                                                       Surveys, meetings and
                                    more than 49 per cent of   cent of the total labour         in various agricultural
                                                                                                                              discussions with rural
                                    the female population.     force, and 7.5 per cent of the   activities, in particular:
                                                                                                                              women show that they
                                                               rural workforce. An              small livestock operations
                                                                                                                              face the same general
                                                               analysis of employment           (poultry, turkeys, rabbits,
                                                                                                                              problems affecting
                                                               trends reveals a downward        bee-keeping); dairy           agriculture as do male
                                                               trend in female workers in       production; vegetable         farmers: land ownership,
                                                               nearly all branches of           gardening; harvesting
                                                                                                                              especially when it comes
                                                               economic activity,               and processing of fruits
                                                                                                                              to communal farms; high
                                                               particularly in agriculture      and vegetables;
                                                                                                                              costs of inputs and means
                                                               (2.22 per cent). The             harvesting, storing and
                                                                                                                              of production; inadequate
                                                               proportion of rural women        pressing of olives for oil;   departmental extension
                                                               in paid employment does          horticulture;- handicrafts    and training services.
                                                               not reflect their real           (carpet and blanket
                                                               participation in                 weaving, basket making,
                                                               development. Rural women         pottery, etc.). Women
                                                               are overlooked when it           engage in artisan and
                                                               comes to measuring               handicraft activities but
                                                               development effort, since        rarely benefit from the
                                                               their work is regarded as an     proceeds of sale, nor do
                                                               extension of their domestic      they have much role in
                                                               chores. In rural areas,          management or in
                                                               women take part in the work      marketing the products of
                                                               of medium- and small-scale       their labour.
                                                               operations. Their
                                                               agricultural work provides a
                                                               means of supplementing the
                                                               family budget.
CEDAW/C/DZA/1 of 1 September 1998




                                                                       82
                                   Rural Population         Rural female labour force       Women farmers/               Access to land
                                                               And remuneration           Women cooperatives/         Land owned by women
                                                                                         Collective farms run by
                                                                                                 women
Burkina Faso                   86 per cent of female        93.48 (1985) - 90.1 (1995)
                               population live in the       per cent of women
                               countryside                  employed in rural
                               Rural women account for      environment:
                               44.11 per cent of the
                               population.
CEDAW/C/BFA/2-3 of 15/02/98
Burundi                        More than 90 per cent of
                               women live in rural areas.
CEDAW/C/BDI/1 of 3 July 2000
Cameroon                                                                                 According to the Ministry    The National Agricultural
                                                                                         of Agriculture‘s estimates   Extension Services
                                                                                         for 1996, only about 17      Programme (PNVA)
                                                                                         per cent of farms are run    operates through mixed
                                                                                         by women. . This             groups (men and women)
                                                                                         national average conceals    and technical
                                                                                         differences at the           demonstration units. It is
                                                                                         provincial level.            planned to recruit nearly
                                                                                         Provincial level: 25.2 per   200 women extension
                                                                                         in the West, 7.1 per cent    workers in order to
                                                                                         in the far North             address more effectively
                                                                                                                      the concerns of rural
                                                                                                                      women. In 1992/1993,
                                                                                                                      the PNVA was using a
                                                                                                                      total of 987 people
                                                                                                                      including 32 women or
                                                                                                                      3.2 per cent. Today, it is
                                                                                                                      using 117 women out of a
                                                                                                                      total of 2,340 or 5 per
CEDAW/C/CMR/1 of 9 May 1999                                                                                           cent.




                                                                   83
                                       Rural Population        Rural female labour force         Women farmers/               Access to land
                                                                  And remuneration             Women cooperatives/         Land owned by women
                                                                                              Collective farms run by
                                                                                                      women
Congo                                                          Women account for 64 per
                                                               cent of the agricultural
                                                               workforce in rural areas and
                                                               produce nearly 80 per cent
CEDAW/C/COG/1-5 of 8 April 2002                                of the foodstuffs consumed.
Democratic Republic of Congo

CEDAW/C/COD/1 of 18 June 1999
Egypt                              Rural population:
                                   53 per cent in 1991
CEDAW/C/EGY/3 of 25 July 1996      57 per cent in 1996.
CEDAW/C/EGY/4-5 of 30 March 2000
Guinea                             Agriculture provides        144 women for every 100        Guinean women do play
                                   employment for 80 per       men working in the sector.     an economic role in the
                                   cent of the Guinean         Agriculture assures the        agricultural sector, where
                                   population, and accounts    survival of 80 per cent of     they are responsible for
                                   for 29 per cent of the      the population and provides    80 per cent of all food
                                   country‘s Gross Domestic    employment for 87 per cent     production and 90 per
                                   Product.                    of all working women.          cent of transformation and
                                                               Women‘s share of income        marketing activities.
                                   75 per cent of women live   from exploration [sic] rose
                                   in rural areas              from 3.6 per cent in 1991 to
                                                               15 per cent in 1994, with
                                                               women accounting for 2 per
                                                               cent of all those in the
CEDAW/C/GINB/1-3 of 6 March 01                                 sector.




                                                                       84
                                         Rural Population          Rural female labour force           Women farmers/              Access to land
                                                                      And remuneration               Women cooperatives/        Land owned by women
                                                                                                    Collective farms run by
                                                                                                             women
                                     28 per cent of the            Extension officers have         The Co-operatives Act        Customary allocation of
Namibia                              population live in urban,     been staffed largely by men     has affirmative action       land by traditional
                                     72 per cent in rural areas.   and the focus is mainly on      provisions: Registered       authorities prevails and in
                                     73 per cent of women live     livestock and commercial        co-operatives in which       some areas rural women
                                     in the rural areas.           production. They work out       more than one-third of the   have no direct rights to
                                     39 per cent of all            of regional centers and their   members are women must       land. Female-headed
                                     households are headed by      services are less accessible    have a minimum of one        households also lack the
                                     women, 43 per cent in         to women who are usually        woman on each                resources to farm the land
                                     rural areas, and 31 per       less mobile than men in         management committee         they have.
                                     cent in urban areas. 32,7     rural areas.                    and sub-committee.
                                     per cent of female            Although agriculture
                                     households in comparison      provides the most
                                     to 28,2 per cent of male-     employment, it is not the
                                     headed households are         major income provider and
                                     poor.                         households must rely on
                                                                   monetary income from other
                                                                   sources to cover basic needs
                                                                   such as food.
CEDAW/C/NAM/1 of 10 February 1997

Nigeria                                                                                                                         7 out of every 8 land
                                     .                                                                                          holders are men (87 per
                                                                                                                                cent). Women may have
                                                                                                                                access to land for annual
                                                                                                                                crops but do not have the
                                                                                                                                control necessary to plant
                                                                                                                                permanent crops or
                                                                                                                                orchards.
CEDAW/C/NGA/2-3 of 26 February1997




                                                                           85
                                        Rural Population          Rural female labour force          Women farmers/               Access to land
                                                                     And remuneration             Women cooperatives/          Land owned by women
                                                                                                 Collective farms run by
                                                                                                          women
                                    Just over half of the South   Land ownership patterns       The Department of              The major limitation of
South Africa                        African population lives      and restrictions imposed by   Agriculture‘s official         the report is the
                                    in non-urban areas. The       law such as the 1913 and      definition of ―farmer‖ was     deficiencies in data and
                                    urban-rural split differs     1936 Land Acts resulted in    radically altered in 1994      statistics.
                                    between the provinces.        further hardship. In the      to include previously          A key contributing factor
                                    The poorest provinces are     1990s, as a result, people    disadvantaged farmers.         to women‘s inability to
                                    those where a larger          living in rural areas often   The new definition makes       overcome poverty is lack
                                    percentage of the             have neither industrial nor   specific reference to          of access to, and rights in,
                                    population is rural.          commercial jobs, nor land     women, as well as              land.
                                    Women and children            on which to support           resource poor producers        A major barrier for
                                    dominate the population       themselves.                   more generally.                women in land restitution
                                    in rural areas. In the                                      Women farm workers             is that most of the land
                                    Northern Province, with                                     have taken the first step to   now being claimed was in
                                    91 per cent of rural                                        organize themselves. A         the name of men. Proof
                                    inhabitants is the province                                 national conference for        of ownership is a
                                    with the highest                                            women farm workers and         prerequisite for land to be
                                    proportion of non-urban                                     dwellers was held in June      restored.
                                    dwellers. 0-19 years:                                       1997.                          The fact that traditional
                                    Non-urban women                                                                            land is all in the name of
                                    5,764,000, Non-urban                                                                       men poses a major
                                    men: 7,789,000                                                                             challenge for those
                                    20-39 years: Non-urban                                                                     seeking to ensure that
                                    women 2,917,000, Non-                                                                      women are equal
                                    urban men: 2,349,000                                                                       beneficiaries. Many
                                    40-59 years: Non-urban                                                                     women are involved in
                                    women 1,641,000, Non-                                                                      tenant farming, but
                                    urban men: 1,064,000                                                                       generally their husbands
                                    over 60 years: Non-urban                                                                   or male partners are
                                    women 751,000, Non-                                                                        regarded as the tenants
                                    urban men: 487,000                                                                         and are the ones likely to
                                                                                                                               benefit form the land
CEDAW/C/ZAF/1 of 25 February 1998
                                                                                                                               tenure reform.




                                                                          86
                                           Rural Population        Rural female labour force          Women farmers/               Access to land
                                                                      And remuneration              Women cooperatives/         Land owned by women
                                                                                                   Collective farms run by
                                                                                                           women
Tanzania                               About 80 per cent of the
                                       population lives in rural
                                       areas.
CEDAW/C/TZA/2-3 of 30 September 1996

Tunisia                                The percentage of women     The number of                   The basic agricultural       The policy of promoting
                                       heads of household is       economically active women       survey (1990) recorded       agricultural investments
                                       relatively high some of     in the field of agriculture     15,000 women in charge       has encouraged young
                                       the governorates: 17.25     increased from 69,000 in        of running small farms,      women farmers holding
                                       per cent in Jendouba,       1975 to 107,000 in 1994.        (3.8 per cent of farmers).   certificates from
                                       16.55 per cent in Kef,      The proportion of women         In 1994-1995, a total of     engineering and
                                       20.58 per cent in Kébili    working in family               26,200 women were            agricultural colleges to set
                                       and 17.86 per cent in       agriculture is 64.29 per cent   farmers (5.6 per cent of     up on their own account.
                                       Tataouine.                  In 1994, the number of          farmers), but only 10,400    According to statistics
                                                                   economically active rural                                    produced by APIA, only
                                                                                                   full-time. The National
                                                                   women amounted to                                            310, or 3.3 per cent, of the
                                                                                                   Institute of Statistics
                                                                   159,797, representing an                                     total of 9,200 approved
                                                                                                   recorded 22,100 women
                                                                   increase of 26.9 per cent in                                 portfolios have been
                                                                                                   in charge of running small   submitted by women
                                                                   comparison with 1989.           farms in 1994.
                                                                   One-third of economically                                    since the Agency was first
                                                                                                   The diversification of       established.
                                                                   active rural women work in      production systems and
                                                                   the manufacturing                                            Women in charge of
                                                                                                   the development of the       running farms have
                                                                   industries, especially in       productive sectors which
                                                                   textiles. Female                                             benefited from productive
                                                                                                   use intensive labour         agricultural activities in
                                                                   employment in rural areas
                                                                                                   (irrigated vegetable and     the fields of tree
                                                                   includes a significant
                                                                                                   fruit farming) have been     cultivation, irrigation and
                                                                   proportion of girls between
                                                                   the ages of 15 and 29,          largely reliant on           livestock farming.
                                                                   representing 57.8 per cent in   mobilizing the female
                                                                   1994 compared with 17 per       labour in small family run
                                                                   cent for those aged between     farms, as well as within
                                                                   30 and 39 and 14 per cent       the framework of the
                                                                   for those over the age of 50.   agricultural wage-earning
CEDAW/C/TUN/3-4 of 2 August 2000                                                                   class.




                                                                           87
                                   Rural Population        Rural female labour force         Women farmers/                Access to land
                                                              And remuneration             Women cooperatives/          Land owned by women
                                                                                          Collective farms run by
                                                                                                  women
Uganda                                                     Uganda is predominantly an                                   97 per cent of women
                                                           agricultural based economy.                                  have access to land, only
                                                           Agriculture contributes 51                                   8 per cent have leaseholds
                                                           per cent of the GDP;                                         and 7 per cent actually
                                                           industry 10 per cent and                                     own land, even though
                                                           manufacturing 4 per cent.                                    land is held under the
                                                           Women produce 80 per cent                                    customary land tenure
                                                           of the food and provide 70 -                                 system that favours the
                                                           80 per cent of the                                           passing of land through
                                                           agricultural labour force.                                   the matrilineal line.
CEDAW/C/UGA/3 of 3 July 2000
Zimbabwe                        Women form the largest     Percentage employment          In the commercial             The 1992 census revealed
                                number of inhabitants on   distribution in Agriculture:   farming areas where           that among the rural
                                communal lands 2 873       1980 M 74.0       F. 26.0      much of the land is held      population it is the
                                609 as compared with 2     1985 M 75.7       F 24.3       on freehold, there are very   women from poorer
                                478 695 males) and small   1990 M 73.9       F 26.1       few women who can             households whose health,
                                scale commercial farms                                    afford to buy land in their   education, incomes and
                                resettlement areas (215    Number of households           own right. Most of the        general lifestyles are least
                                888 as compared with 210   headed by females: 33.17       rural women on these          developed.
                                799 male).                 per cent.                      farms are relatives or
                                                                                          labourers of the male farm
                                                                                          owners. Most rural
                                                                                          women are not in a
                                                                                          position to acquire wealth
                                                                                          and property since they
                                                                                          have very low incomes
                                                                                          and no independent
CEDAW/C/ZWE/1 of 20 July 1996                                                             access to land.




                                                                   88
                                      Rural Population   Rural female labour force             Women farmers/             Access to land
                                                            And remuneration                Women cooperatives/        Land owned by women
                                                                                           Collective farms run by
                                                                                                   women
Zambia                                                   Women are treated as             Agricultural small holders   Few women own land,
                                                         labourers in spite of the fact   comprise 75 per cent of      customary law dictates
                                                         that they constitute the         the farming population       that women are not
                                                         majority of peasant farmers      and women farmers are        allowed to own land;
                                                         and produce 80 per cent of       the majority although they   women are the majority of
                                                         the nations‘ food stock.         may be members of either     persons without title
                                                                                          male-headed or female        deeds; 10 per cent of
                                                                                          headed households            female headed households
                                                                                                                       seek title on inheritance.
                                                                                                                       Increase in the number of
                                                                                                                       women applying for land
CEDAW/C/ZAM/3-4 of 12 August 1999                                                                                      since 1999.
ASIA AND PACIFIC
Armenia                                                                                                                Land privatization in
                                                                                                                       1991-1992: 304,000
                                                                                                                       (302,400 individual and
                                                                                                                       1,600 collective) private
                                                                                                                       farms were created. Land
                                                                                                                       was distributed to
                                                                                                                       households, with equal
                                                                                                                       ownership rights for both
CEDAW/C/ARM/1 of 26 September 1995,                                                                                    male and female
CEDAW/C/ARM/2 of 9 September 1999                                                                                      households.
Azerbaijan
CEDAW/C/AZW/1 of 16 September 1996




                                                                  89
                                      Rural Population        Rural female labour force            Women farmers/            Access to land
                                                                 And remuneration               Women cooperatives/       Land owned by women
                                                                                               Collective farms run by
                                                                                                        women
Bangladesh                        About 80 per cent of the    78.8 per cent of the women      A large number of women     Actual data on land
                                  population lives in rural   in the labour force are         are working in the rural    ownership is scarce,
                                  areas.                      involved in the agriculture     areas as field workers or   studies have shown that
                                                              and fisheries sectors, 40 per   agents of different         landlessness is increasing
                                                              cent of the employed            development                 every year, resulting in
                                                              women work as unpaid            programmes. Many            unemployment
                                                              family helpers, 18 per cent     women are working as
                                                              as day labourers, 25.3 per      extension agents in
                                                              cent as employees and 22.3      various public sector
                                                              per cent are self-employed      programmes although the
                                                              (1995/96 Labour Force           total number is not
                                                              Survey (LFS))                   available.
                                                              20.6 per cent of persons
                                                              employed 15 years and over
                                                              work in agriculture, forestry
                                                              and fisheries (men: 17.8,
                                                              women 2.8)
CEDAW/C/BGD/3-4 of 1 April 1997
China                                                         Women make up 70 per
                                                              cent of the workforce in
                                                              crop farming and animal
                                                              husbandry, between one
                                                              third to one half of the 14
                                                              million rural service
                                                              personnel and 40 per cent of
                                                              the employees in rural and
CEDAW/C/CHN/3-4 of 10 June 1997                               township enterprises.




                                                                      90
                                    Rural Population         Rural female labour force          Women farmers/              Access to land
                                                                And remuneration              Women cooperatives/        Land owned by women
                                                                                             Collective farms run by
                                                                                                     women
Georgia                                                      Women account for 42 per
                                 1,069,000 women, or one     cent of all agricultural
                                 quarter of the country's    workers. During the
                                 population, live in the     implementation of the land
                                 countryside.                reform, the number of
                                                             agricultural workers rose;
                                                             total number of agricultural
                                                             workers in 1997: 1,278,000,
                                                             of which 537,000 were
                                                             women.
                                                             Women account for 53 per
                                                             cent of all labour resources,
                                                             and 46 per cent of these are
                                                             currently employed. Most
                                                             women are employed in
                                                             agriculture (81.3 per cent);
CEDAW/C/GEO/1 of10 March 1998
                                                             The 73rd and 74th               Women‘s participation in
India                            Rural women constitute      Constitutional Amendment        cooperatives has
                                 nearly 80 per cent of the   Acts of 1993 ensures 1/3 of     increased. The number of
                                 female population;          total seats for women in all    exclusive women‘s
                                 There is a tendency for     elected offices of local        cooperatives has gone up.
                                 poverty to be               bodies. In the rural areas,     A special policy towards
                                 concentrated in Central     about 1 million women are       increasing women‘s
                                 and Eastern India (almost   going to emerge as leaders/     membership and
                                 75 per cent of the rural    decision-makers at the grass    formation of women‘s
                                 poor are found in this      root level and enter public     cooperatives has been
                                 belt).                      life through the existing       seen of utmost
CEDAW/C/IND/1 of 10 March 1999
                                                             0.25 million bodies.            importance.




                                                                     91
                                         Rural Population          Rural female labour force            Women farmers/              Access to land
                                                                      And remuneration               Women cooperatives/         Land owned by women
                                                                                                    Collective farms run by
                                                                                                             women
Indonesia                                                          Half of female and male         Percentage of women           There remains a great
                                                                   labour force is employed        working as unpaid family      need to integrate the
                                                                   agriculture, a decrease by 7    labour increased to 58 per    collection of statistical
                                                                   per cent for men and 4 per      cent during the decade,       indicators on women into
                                                                   cent for women between          while the percentage of       the national statistical
                                                                   1980 and 1990; female           women working as              system at all levels
                                                                   employment in the informal      employees fell from 17 to     There is a lack of research
                                                                   sector: 57 per cent in          14 per cent; the growth of    data
                                                                   agriculture (1980), 60 per      employment in agriculture
                                                                   cent (1990) (Central Bureau     has been greater for
                                                                   of Statistics). The income      women than for men
                                                                   of women in the agricultural    leading to a feminization
                                                                   sector is almost half that of   of the agricultural labour
CEDAW/C/IDN/2-3 of 12 February 1997                                men (1990).                     force;
Iraq                                  Enrolment in agricultural,   The share of women in the       The Cooperative Societies
                                      industrial and commercial    agricultural workforce is       Law (43/1979) gave
                                      vocational schools (1996):   high, at some 50 per cent of    women the right to
                                      Males; 74,772, Females:      the total, over and above       participate in cooperatives
                                      9,006 (11 per cent).         their societal role and their   as members on a basis of
                                                                   responsibilities as mothers     equality with men with
                                                                   and housewives.                 respect to all the rights
                                                                                                   and duties specified in the
CEDAW/C/IRQ/2-3 of 19 October 1998                                                                 Law.




                                                                           92
                                       Rural Population           Rural female labour force            Women farmers/               Access to land
                                                                     And remuneration               Women cooperatives/          Land owned by women
                                                                                                   Collective farms run by
                                                                                                            women
Kazakhstan                         The urban population in        Percentage of women in          In the Ministry of             The Ministry of
                                   1999 was 55.9 per cent         labour force (1995) in          Agriculture, women             Agriculture has
                                   (8.4 million) and the rural    Agriculture: 29.5, in           account for over 40 per        recommended to local
                                   population was 44.1 per        Forestry: 18.6, in Fisheries    cent of staff of the central   authorities that they
                                   cent (6.6 million).            56.0. As of 1 January 1998,     apparatus, with                allocate plots of land on a
                                   Women made up 50.1 per         the number of unemployed        approximately 10 per cent      priority basis to mothers
                                   cent of the total rural        in the rural areas was          occupying managerial           with large families and to
                                   population (1998).             93,314, 42,283 men and          posts as chiefs and deputy     single mothers.
                                   Women are more likely to       51,031 women. The number        chiefs of divisions in
                                   migrate between regions        of women in the rural areas     ministerial committees
                                   and between town and           who were unemployed             and departments.
                                   village, abandoning            between 6 and 12 months
                                   regions becoming               was 12,689 (24.9 per cent),
                                   ecologically degraded,         and those out of work for
                                   particularly in rural areas.   more than a year came to
                                   As of 1 January 1998, the      10,099 (19.8 per cent). The
                                   number of women per            average per capita income in
                                   thousand men was as            1998 was 29,626 tenge, in
                                   follows: in Qyzylorda          urban areas: 40,879 tenge,
                                   region (ecological disaster    in rural areas: 17,907 tenge.
                                   zone — 1,045 (town) and        In agriculture the lowest
                                   947 (village); in Atyrau       average monthly wage was
                                   region — 1,084 (town)          3,704 tenge (in 1998); the
                                   and 987 (village).             average per capita income
                                                                  1,492 tenge (the average
                                                                  subsistence minimum is
CEDAW/C/KAZ/1 of 12 October 2000                                  3,707 tenge).
Kyrgyzstan                                                        46.5 per cent of women are      354 collective enterprises     Shares of land have been
                                   The rural population           engaged in agriculture, with    have been restructured         allotted to about
                                   accounts for two thirds of     31.2 per cent working on a      into 24,225 peasant            2,462,000 individuals,
                                   the population.                self-employed basis.            holdings and 14,449            50.8 per cent of whom are
                                                                  Of the total number of          farms; the directors of 159    women (2001).




                                                                          93
                                  individuals working in           farms are women. Total
                                  agriculture, 36.1 per cent are   number of women
                                  women                            directors of agricultural
                                                                   enterprises and
                                                                   institutions: 401 (15 per
                                                                   cent).
                                                                   About 18 per cent of
                                                                   people who own their
                                                                   own businesses are
                                                                   women, and in rural areas
                                                                   women make up 15 per
                                                                   cent of owners of peasant
CEDAW/C/KGZ/1 of 28 August 1998                                    holdings.




                                          94
                                        Rural Population          Rural female labour force        Women farmers/                 Access to land
                                                                     And remuneration            Women cooperatives/           Land owned by women
                                                                                                Collective farms run by
                                                                                                        women
Maldives
                                                                  Female labour force           Women are engaged in a
                                                                  participation has declined    variety of productive
                                                                  from 62 per cent in 1979 to   activities that include fish
                                                                  21 per cent in 1995.          processing, agriculture
CEDAW/C/MDV/1 of 28 January 1999                                                                and handicraft production.
Mongolia
                                                                  Women constitute 45.9 per
                                                                  cent of those employed in
                                                                  agriculture and animal
                                                                  hunting.

CEDAW/C/MNG/3-4 of 15 March 1999
Nepal
                                    81 per cent of the            Women constitute 46 per
                                    population depends on         cent of the total
                                    agriculture, 65 per cent of   economically active
                                    all farm families are         population, 90 per cent are
                                    classified as small farmers   engaged in agriculture(1991
                                    with an average holding       census); studies show that
                                    of 0.96 hectares of land      women work on average for
                                                                  11 hours a day, while men
                                                                  work for seven hours.
CEDAW/C/NPL/1 of 23 November 1998




                                                                          95
                                         Rural Population     Rural female labour force      Women farmers/              Access to land
                                                                 And remuneration          Women cooperatives/        Land owned by women
                                                                                          Collective farms run by
                                                                                                  women
Philippines                                                                                                           As of 1992, the
                                                                                                                      Comprehensive Agrarian
                                                                                                                      Reform Program
                                                                                                                      distributed a total of
                                                                                                                      363,276.65 hectares of
                                                                                                                      agricultural land to farmer
                                                                                                                      beneficiaries; 270,096
                                                                                                                      under the emancipation
                                                                                                                      patents and 28,455
                                                                                                                      certificates of land
                                                                                                                      ownership agreements.
                                                                                                                      Only 11.5 per cent of the
                                                                                                                      emancipation patent
                                                                                                                      holders were women.
                                                                                                                      Approximately 326,496
                                                                                                                      hectare ( 90 per cent)
                                                                                                                      were owned and
                                                                                                                      controlled by men and
                                                                                                                      only 10 per cent were
                                                                                                                      owned by women. Men
                                                                                                                      comprised 82 per cent of
                                                                                                                      the total holders of
                                                                                                                      certificate, women only
CEDAW/C/PHI/4 of 25 July 1996                                                                                         18 per cent.
Sri Lanka                            78 per cent of the                                   In the Mahaweli
                                     population live in the                               Development Programme
                                     rural areas                                          which translocated nearly
                                                                                          100.000 rural families,
                                                                                          women have been
                                                                                          perceived as farmer‘s
                                                                                          wives rather than as
CEDAW/C/LKA/3-4 of 18 October 1999                                                        farmers or producers.




                                                                     96
                                       Rural Population          Rural female labour force            Women farmers/             Access to land
                                                                    And remuneration                Women cooperatives/       Land owned by women
                                                                                                   Collective farms run by
                                                                                                            women
Uzbekistan                                                       The self-employment of           Of the total number of      From 1993 to 1994, about
                                                                 rural women has been             members of the              1 million hectares of
                                                                 safeguarded and a large          Association of Peasants‘    agricultural land were
                                                                 number of rural women            and Farmers‘ Enterprises,   transferred for
                                                                 have become farmers and          211 are headed by           management as personal
                                                                 are actively working in the      women. In 1998,             subsidiary plots. As of 1
                                                                 agrarian sector. The             9,770,000 som in loans      January 1997, there were
                                                                 Government has established       were allocated from the     more than 3.6 million
                                                                 a series of economic             Support Fund for            personal subsidiary plots
                                                                 benefits for them including,     Peasants‘ and Farmers‘      in Uzbekistan on which
                                                                 inter alia, the full exemption   Enterprises to farming      more than 1.4 million
                                                                 from value-added tax and         units managed by women.     citizens of working age
                                                                 estate tax and tax on any                                    were employed.
                                                                 profit for a period of 2 years
                                                                 from the date of
CEDAW/C/UZB/1 of 2 February 2000                                 establishment.
Viet Nam                           Rural women account for       Women represent 53 per           A survey showed that        Under the 1993 Land
                                   78.66 per cent of the total   cent of the agricultural         over 76 per cent of urban   Law, 10.4 million farmer
                                   number of women.              labour force.                    women and 51.2 per cent     households have received
                                   Women as heads of             At present, about 50 per         of rural women said that    land-use certificates,
                                   household make up 27.9        cent of rural women have         they had full               which was equal to about
                                   per cent of total farmer      access to low-interest credit    independence and had        90 per cent of households
                                   households.                   loans. Poor families with        entered into civil          using agriculture land.
                                                                 women as the bread winner        contracts (particularly     The number of land-use
                                                                 are given priority by the        contracts to borrow         certificates registered in
                                                                 Government to have access        capital from the bank,      the women‘s names
                                                                 to the State Fund for the        mortgage, property, etc.)   account for only 10-12
                                                                 poor and the Farmer‘s            However, 23 per cent of     per cent, mostly for single
                                                                 Support Fund.                    urban women and 46 per      or widow households.
                                                                                                  cent of rural women said    The number of certificates
                                                                                                  they voluntarily passed     in both husband and
                                                                                                  this right to their         wife‘s names is very




                                                                         97
                                                                                                 husbands or children for    limited. The law sets the
                                                                                                 implementation.             working age for men as
                                                                                                                             from 15 to 60 and for
                                                                                                                             women as from 15 to 55
                                                                                                                             which is 5 years less than
                                                                                                                             men. As a result the
                                                                                                                             average land areas for
                                                                                                                             women is smaller than
                                                                                                                             that for men as one of the
                                                                                                                             basis for land allocation is
CEDAW/C/VNM/2 of 15 March 1999                                                                                               working age.
CEDAW/C/VNM/3-4 of 20 October 2000
Yemen                                Rural and urban             Most working women (87.5        Most rural women work       There are no statistics on
                                     population as percentages   per cent of the total) engage   on land that belongs to a   the division of land
                                     of total population:        in agriculture; of those,       family member, such as a    ownership between men
                                     rural: 73.7                 98.37 per cent work in rural    father or husband. Some     and women in Yemen,
                                     urban: 26.30                areas,                          79.49 per cent of women     owing to the complexities
                                                                 Rural women perform 97          in this position work       of land registration
                                                                 per cent of all agricultural    without pay, their farm     procedures, which are
                                                                 tasks, including tillage,       work being regarded as an   very difficult for women
                                                                 weeding, planting,              extension of their          who cannot read and
                                                                 harvesting and storage of       household duties.           write.
CEDAW/C/YEM/4 of 15 March 2000,                                  crops
CEDAW/C/YEM/5 of 15 February 2002




                                                                         98
                                     Rural Population   Rural female labour force           Women farmers/                Access to land
                                                           And remuneration               Women cooperatives/          Land owned by women
                                                                                         Collective farms run by
                                                                                                 women
LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN
Brazil                     32,585,066 of the            26.8 per cent of men and         Only 7 percent of all         Among the beneficiaries
                           country‘s overall            20.2 per cent of women           beneficiaries National        of agrarian reform plans,
                           160,336,471 inhabitants      work in agriculture. The         Program for the               85 percent are men.
                           lived in rural areas (20.3   female rural Economically        Strengthening of Family       Women have just 12.6
                           percent of the population)   Active Population (PEA)          Agriculture (PRONAF)          percent of the title deeds
                           in 1999.                     represents the second main       were women.                   and concession of land
                           Between 1981 and 1989,       branch of female economic        The Ministry of Agrarian      use.
                           the number of                activity in Brazil. 39 percent   Development determined
                           monoparental families        of the employed women are        that 30 percent of the
                           headed by women              classified as unremunerated      PRONAF funds should be
                           increased from 787,042 to    and 41.8 percent as              earmarked for actions
                           1,051,788 (33.64 per cent    providers of their own           aimed at rural women.
                           increase).                   support. In activities typical   The Ministry of Agrarian
                           Urbanization increased       of agriculture and livestock,    Reform also established a
                           from 67.6 percent in 1980    27.5 percent of the women        quota program, which
                           to 81.2 percent in 2000,     and 81 percent of the men        earmarks 30 percent of all
                           with largest                 were unremunerated.              funds (R$ 4.2 billion,
                           concentrations in                                             approximately US$ 1.9
                           metropolitan areas. At                                        billion for agrarian reform
                           present only 18.8 percent                                     financing) to women
                           of the population live in                                     settled in family
                           the rural area.                                               agriculture units.
CEDAW/C/BRA/1-5 of 7 November 2002




                                                                99
                                      Rural Population          Rural female labour force            Women farmers/            Access to land
                                                                   And remuneration               Women cooperatives/       Land owned by women
                                                                                                 Collective farms run by
                                                                                                          women
Chile                              Women account for 50.5       A module was included on        In order to support         The National Institute for
                                   per cent of the country‘s    the census form for the sixth   women seasonal fruit        Agricultural Development
                                   14,210,429 inhabitants.      National Agricultural           workers, an agreement       (INDAP) has developed a
                                   The population is 84.7 per   Census 1997, which              was signed in 1996          policy to support the
                                   cent urban and 15.3 per      measured the extent of          between SERNAM and          financing of productive
                                   cent rural.                  women‘s work in seasonal        SENCE for the               activities among peasant
                                                                agriculture and the work        implementation of a pilot   women. This has meant
                                                                done by peasant women           programme to train          changing the rules on
                                                                within family production        women seasonal agro-        access to credit, with
                                                                units. In addition, updated     industrial workers in       coverage being extended
                                                                evaluations were conducted      modern production           explicitly to women and
                                                                in five regions of the          technologies.               young people. In 1995,
                                                                country.                        169 women seasonal          7,280 female users of
                                                                                                workers in regions IV, V,   INDAP (11 per cent of all
                                                                                                VI, VII and the             users) obtained credit
                                                                                                metropolitan region         totalling over $3,500,000.
                                                                                                received remedial           In 1997, this share rose to
                                                                                                education and literacy      9,038 women (14 per cent
                                                                                                training (1996).            of users), who had access
                                                                                                 452 women seasonal         to credit totalling over
                                                                                                workers were able to        $6,700,000.
                                                                                                participate in adult        During 1997, INDAP
                                                                                                education programmes in     carried out a competition
                                                                                                19 communes (1997).         entitled ―Financing
                                                                                                Support and technical       Women‘s Productive
                                                                                                advice were provided to     Projects‖, awarding a sum
                                                                                                municipalities in setting   equivalent to $760,000,
                                                                                                up childcare centres for    with a subsidy of
                                                                                                women seasonal workers,     $380,000, to 91
                                                                                                amounting to a total of     organizations and
                                                                                                134 centres in 78           reaching 1,339 female
CEDAW/C/CHI/3 of 27 January 1999                                                                municipalities (1998).      users.




                                                                       100
                                        Rural Population          Rural female labour force            Women farmers/             Access to land
                                                                     And remuneration              Women cooperatives/         Land owned by women
                                                                                                  Collective farms run by
                                                                                                            women
Cuba                                                              Farming employs a total of     More than 60 per cent of      7,873 women are owners
                                     Rural population accounts    201,073 women workers,         the land in the small-        of farms or other land;
                                     for 32.9 per cent of the     21.3 per cent of the total     farming sector is held by     they comprise 9 per cent
                                     total and 46.9 per cent of   workforce, an increase of      cooperatives. Women           of all private owners
                                     rural dwellers are women.    57,339 over 1997. Women        currently account for 17
                                     .                            work in Basic Units of         per cent of the
                                                                  Cooperative Production         membership of the
                                                                  (UBPC), a decentralized        Farming and Livestock
                                                                  arrangement whose main         Production Cooperatives
                                                                  feature is the allocation of   (CPA) and for 10.3 per
                                                                  State land in usufruct to a    cent of the Credit and
                                                                  workers' collective. Women     Service Cooperatives
                                                                  already make up 18 per cent    (CCS); 16 women chair
                                                                  of their total membership.     CPAs and 37 chair CCSs.
                                                                  18.8 per cent are employed     The number of women
                                                                  in the sugar industry and      working in CCSs
                                                                  16.8 per cent in other         increased from 16,800 in
                                                                  branches. 8,445 women are      1996 to 18,400 in 1998.
                                                                  holding managerial posts       The number of women
                                                                  (21.5 per cent of all such     farmers has also increased
                                                                  posts). The administrative     as a result of the award of
                                                                  structure employs 557          land in usufruct, and
                                                                  women (8.5 per cent). The      today there are 6,800
                                                                  workforce in the sugar         women farming under this
                                                                  industry is 20 per cent        form of tenure, as against
                                                                  women; female employment       only 3,000 in 1996. In
                                                                  increased by 34,000 during     all, there are 76,453 rural
                                                                  the period. In this sector,    women engaged in the
                                                                  traditionally dominated by     various forms of
                                                                  men, 9.6 per cent of the       economic production.
CEDAW/C/CUB/4 of 25 September 1999                                managers are today women.




                                                                         101
                                         Rural Population         Rural female labour force          Women farmers/            Access to land
                                                                     And remuneration              Women cooperatives/      Land owned by women
                                                                                                  Collective farms run by
                                                                                                          women
Ecuador                                                           Labour force participation is                             Only 19 per cent of
                                     45 per cent of the           higher among rural women.                                 women were landowners,
                                     population is living in      In 1995, 61 per cent of                                   compared to 31 per cent
                                     rural areas in 1990, and     peasant women and 84 per                                  of men. There is also
                                     the figure is predicted to   cent of indigenous women                                  roughly a 10 point
                                     fall to 36 per cent by the   were ―economically active‖,                               disparity in terms of home
                                     turn of the new century.     whereas female labour-                                    ownership.
                                                                  market participation was 54
                                                                  per cent in urban areas.
                                                                  Female economic is higher
                                                                  among rural populations
                                                                  with links to the land. In
                                                                  1998, urban women
                                                                  received an average of
                                                                  881,077 sucres, while men
                                                                  received 1,337,489 sucres,
                                                                  or 65.9 per cent more. Rural
                                                                  women received an average
                                                                  of 328,911 sucres,
                                                                  compared to men‘s 613,253
CEDAW/C/ECU/4-5 of 25 January 2002                                (53.6 per cent more).




                                                                         102
                                        Rural Population          Rural female labour force         Women farmers/                 Access to land
                                                                     And remuneration             Women cooperatives/           Land owned by women
                                                                                                 Collective farms run by
                                                                                                         women
Guatemala                                                                                                                       In 1995, 2.2 per cent of
                                    Rural population              65 per cent of rural women                                    landowners owned 66 per
                                    5,417,187 inhabitants, or     are working in agriculture,                                   cent of cultivable land.
\                                   65 per cent of the total,     but this activity is under-                                   Of the 116,209 land
                                    Women accounted for 50        recorded.                                                     awards made by the
                                    per cent (2,706,283) of                                                                     National Institute for
                                    the rural population and                                                                    Agrarian Reform (INTA)
                                    52 per cent (1,522,022) of                                                                  (1954 – 1996), only eight
                                    the urban population.                                                                       per cent (9,240) were
                                                                                                                                made to women. The
                                                                                                                                types of land they
                                                                                                                                obtained are lots,
                                                                                                                                collectively- owned
                                                                                                                                farmland, parcels, micro
CEDAW/C/GUA/2-4 of 20 March 2001                                                                                                parcels and jointly-owned
CEDAW/C/GUA/5 of 17 January 2002                                                                                                family farmland.
Nicaragua                           56.4 per cent of the          The number of women in         Titles have been               A study involving
                                    population live in urban      the workforce has increased    transferred to women           321,000 rural households
                                    areas; the rest of the        in recent years and            either in their capacity as    found that only 32 per
                                    population is rural. Of the   amounted to 43.3 per cent of   heads of household or as       cent owned a piece of
                                    total male population,        the total in 1994.             partners, in which case        land. Women accounted
                                    54.5 per cent live in urban   In rural areas women           the titles are held jointly.   for 13 per cent, men 68
                                    areas, whereas in the case    account for 22.2 per cent of                                  per cent, couples 3 per
                                    of the female population,     the labour force.                                             cent, and other forms of
                                    58.2 per cent are urban.                                                                    ownership 16 per cent.
                                                                                                                                Seventy-one per cent of
                                                                                                                                the women owned a plot
                                                                                                                                up to 5 manzanas in size
                                                                                                                                [1 manzana = 1.73 acres],
                                                                                                                                and only 5.5 per cent
CEDAW/C/NIC/4 of 28 August 1998                                                                                                 owned productive land
CEDAW/C/NIC/5 of 9 September 1999                                                                                               larger than 50 manzanas.




                                                                         103
                                    Rural Population           Rural female labour force           Women farmers/              Access to land
                                                                  And remuneration              Women cooperatives/         Land owned by women
                                                                                               Collective farms run by
                                                                                                         women
                                Peru has more than 25          67.2 per cent of female        Government has
                                million inhabitants; 28 per    population is employed in      completely transformed a
Peru                            cent of them live in rural     agriculture.                   public sector entity,
                                areas, and of these more       Through the Resettlement       Grass-roots Co-operation
                                than 50 per cent are           Support Programme (PAR),       (COOPOP), so that it can
                                women. 34.3 per cent of        the Ministry for the           devote itself entirely to
                                all women live in rural        Advancement of Women           promoting women‘s
                                areas, that is, of every 100   and Human Development          grass-roots organizations
                                women in the country 34        has been executing the         and in particular to
                                live in rural areas.           Million Peasant project,       financing their small-scale
                                Women in the Peruvian          which in 1998 took care of     productive projects. The
                                Amazon account for 48          65 women in Puno and           National Programme for
                                per cent of the indigenous     Junín with loans of between    Food Aid (PRONAA),
                                population living in the       300 and 6,000 new soles        have incorporated into
                                departments situated in        each, to fund the production   their regular operations
                                the Selva.                     and marketing of foodstuffs,   efforts to promote micro
                                23.3 per cent of the           while in 1999 funding will     enterprises run by women,
                                country‘s households are       be provided for 100 women      as shown by the table
                                headed by women, who           at similar levels.             below.
                                have in their care some
                                4.5 million people.
                                Households headed by
                                women in rural areas
CEDAW/C/PER/5 of 6 March 2001
                                represent 17 per cent




                                                                      104
                                      Rural Population          Rural female labour force              Women farmers/              Access to land
                                                                   And remuneration                 Women cooperatives/         Land owned by women
                                                                                                   Collective farms run by
                                                                                                            women
Suriname                          Very few reliable             Population employed in            There is only one rural       The percentage of women
                                  statistical data and little   agriculture 1993-1996: Male       agricultural cooperative      who applied for and were
                                  general information are       8,7 per cent, Female 1,9 per      which was founded by          granted land by the
                                  available on women in         cent.                             and for Maroon women          Ministry of Natural
                                  agriculture. According to     Women are the most                for the production and        Resources through the
                                  the categorization of the     important producers in            sale of roots and tuber.      years is negligible: less
                                  working population in         small-scale agricultural          Female farmers are            than 1 per cent of the total
                                  agriculture, three to four    activities in the coastal plain   1) Women who work on          number of applications.
                                  times more men than           and the interior. An              the family farm full-time     The land requested by and
                                  women are employed in         increase in the planted area      or part-time in production,   granted to women –
                                  the agricultural sector.      for small-scale agriculture is    processing and marketing      particularly single women
                                                                apparent and might be an          the products; participation   and heads of households –
                                                                indication of the increasing      in production is              varies from 0.5 to 1 ha.
                                                                production capacity of rural      considered part of
                                                                women.                            household duties which        Women are members of
                                                                The number of women in            should be economically        mixed savings and credit
                                                                the informal sector (cottage      rewarded.                     cooperatives, in their own
                                                                industries) is increasing         2) female producers in the    community as well as
                                                                according to qualitative data     interior whose livelihood     outside, though this is
                                                                from women‘s                      is based on agriculture       limited and only a few
                                                                organizations. The formal         and who produce mainly        women are active.
                                                                sector consists mainly of         for subsistence while
                                                                agro-industrial activities, for   surpluses are sold;
                                                                which women are generally         3) Women in the coastal
                                                                employed in low-status,           plain use the same
                                                                low-paid, unskilled jobs.         agricultural techniques as
                                                                                                  the women of the interior
                                                                                                  and also plant the same
                                                                                                  crops; they are also
                                                                                                  specialized in processing
                                                                                                  root vegetables and tubers
CEDAW/C/SUR/1-2 of 5 March 2002                                                                   for sale.




                                                                        105
                                    Rural Population         Rural female labour force           Women farmers/            Access to land
                                                                And remuneration               Women cooperatives/      Land owned by women
                                                                                              Collective farms run by
                                                                                                      women
EUROPE

Albania                          In 1998, 64.5 per cent of   Most farmers do not have
                                 the population lived in     the possibility of investing
                                 rural areas were, by 1996   cash to make their farm
                                 only 56 per cent.           more productive and rural
                                 The number of women         credit is still found wanting.
                                 living in rural areas was   According to a study made
                                 98.690 in 1989, while       by the World Bank in 1995-
                                 according to non-official   1996, it is estimated that
                                 data about 100.000          600.000 people of rural
                                 women live at present in    areas live below the poverty
                                 towns with less than        ceiling.
CEDAW/C/ALB/1-2 of 23 May 2002   10.000 inhabitants.




                                                                     106
                                    Table 5: Gender units, focal points in technical ministries and action plans


AFRICA
Algeria
                    National machinery     The National Women's Council, an advisory body reporting to the Head of Government has been established by
                                           Executive Decree No. 97-98 of 29 March 1997. In its preamble, that decree provides expressly that creation of such a
                                           Council is pursuant to Algeria's accession to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
                                           against Women. The Council's primary duties are to ensure the implementation of a coherent policy of activities and
                                           programmes on behalf of women and to assist in defining a comprehensive and consistent strategy for ensuring that
                                           women's needs and aspirations are attended to. The Council's statutes call for it to be chaired by a woman. It is
                                           composed of representatives of all ministerial departments, five representatives of state advisory institutions and bodies,
                                           five representatives of the trade unions and employers' associations, twenty representatives of civil-society organizations
                                           active in the area of women's advancement, and four individuals selected to serve in a personal capacity;
CEDAW/C/DZA/1 of 1 September 1998
Burkina Faso
                    National machinery     The Department of the Promotion of the Family, was set up within the Ministry for Social Affairs and the Family and
                                           has as its fundamental mission the stimulation and coordination of all legislative, administrative and economic measures
                                           aimed at promoting women‘s status, and providing follow-up to all activities relating to the implementation of those
                                           measures.
                                    NGOs   Alongside the administrative structure provided by the Department for the Promotion of the Family, there are many
                                           associations and non-governmental organizations which are also endeavouring to promote women‘s status and whose
                                           fundamental goals are to keep a watchful eye on the observance of women‘s rights and freedoms and to contribute to the
                                           genuine integration of women into the development plans and policies put in place by government authorities.
CEDAW/C/BFA/2-3 of 15 February 1998
Burundi
                    National machinery     A ministry for the advancement of women was created in 1983 (Decree-Law No. 100/5 of 13 February). The Ministry,
                                           in conjunction with the Union of Women of Burundi (UFB), has introduced many changes to promote the advancement
                                           of women. In the 1990s, the work of these two bodies began to be supplemented by the activities of women's
                                           associations in various fields: the law, micro-credit, family welfare, peace, etc. Many of them joined together to form
                                           the Collective of Women's Associations and NGOs of Burundi (CAFOB).
CEDAW/C/BDI/1 of 3 July 2000
Cameroon
                    National machinery     The Ministry of Women‘s Affairs and the Ministry of Social Affairs were merged by into the Ministry of Social and
                                           Women‘s Affairs (MINASCOF) (Decree No. 88/1281 of 21 September 1988). This ministerial department included a
                                           Directorate for the Advancement of Women. Later, the Ministry of Women‘s Affairs was re-established (Decree No.




                                                                                107
                                         97/205 of 7 December 1997 on the organization of the Government). The new Ministry had its powers of intervention
                                         reinforced and a general secretariat, a general inspectorate, specialized technical directorates and local departments in
                                         the provinces were placed under its authority. The Ministry of Agriculture (MINAGRI) (Community Development
                                         Directorate and the women‘s agricultural activities service) is one of three public institutions for the advancement of
                                         women.
CEDAW/C/CMR/1 of 9 May 1999
Congo
                       WID machinery     In 1990, the Directorate for Women‘s Integration in Development (DIFD) was established and the Ministry delegated to
                                         deal with the integration of women in development in 1992. The Ministry responsible for women‘s integration in
                                         development was created in 1997. In January 1999, for economic reasons, the Department for the Advancement of
                                         Women was attached to the Ministry for Civil Service Affairs and Administrative Reform. DIFD was set up within the
                                         Ministry of Planning and Economy with the support of UNPD. Its responsibilities are to formulate and execute the
                                         policy of integration of women in development and to coordinate assistance projects. The Ministry responsible for the
                                         women holds a transversal position that brings it into contact with all other ministerial departments, which in their day-
                                         to-day activities offer various services to women. The Department for the advancement of women ensures that the
                                         gender factor is always taken into consideration in the other ministries‘ plans and programmes.

                   National machinery    For the first time in the history of the Congo, a fully-fledged ministerial department was set up to deal with women‘s
                                         issues. The Department for the Advancement of Women is part of the Ministry for Civil Service Affairs and
                                         Administrative Reform (Decree No. 99-212 of 31 October 1999). Within that Ministry, the General Directorate for the
                                         Advancement of Women (DGPF) is the organ responsible for implementing the national policy in matters pertaining to
                                         the advancement of women (Decree No. 99-211 of 31 October 1999). Regional directorates facilitate the taking into
                                         consideration of the specific needs of women in the hinterland, and particularly of rural women.

            Political parties and NGOs   Before 1990, the advancement of women was the responsibility of the Revolutionary Union of Congo Women (URFC)
                                         and of the General Directorate for Social Affairs (DGAS) within the Ministry of Social Affairs. Within the State Party,
                                         the body principally responsible for representing women and furthering their rights was the Revolutionary Union of
                                         Congo Women (URFC). Later, this institution became the women‘s organization of the Congolese Labour Party (PCT).
                                         Since 1986 it has been structured in category unions, divided into four sections with a view to mobilizing different
                                         groups of women on the basis of their interests, Union of Women Workers (UFT) , Union of Women Peasants (UFP),
                                         Union of Women Shopkeepers, Shop Assistants and Craftswomen (UFCVA) and Union of Women in the Home and
                                         Women Members of Mutual Funds (UFMM).. The adoption of a multi-party system in 1990 opened the way to the
                                         establishment of a number of women‘s non-governmental organizations and associations. (more than 400 NGOs).
CEDAW/C/COG/1-5 of 8 April 2002




                                                                              108
Democratic Republic of Congo
               National machinery         In July 1998, the Democratic Republic of the Congo established a Government advisory body — the National Women‘s
                                          Council — for the promotion, protection and defence of the specific rights of women (Ministerial Decree No.
                                          CAB/V/M/AFF.SO.F.015/98 of 10 July 1998). The National Council is composed of representatives of public
                                          institutions, religious and lay non-governmental organizations, trade unions and representatives of United Nations
                                          bodies, who attend its meetings as observers. Provincial Women‘s Councils were also set up to serve as advisory bodies
                                          for the provincial authorities. Since the war resulted in the occupation of the eastern part of the country, only seven out
                                          of 11 provinces have established Provincial Women‘s Councils. In addition to the establishment of the National and
                                          Provincial Women‘s Councils and the Ministry for Human Rights, it is worth noting that the national mechanism dealing
                                          with women has been raised to the rank of a ministry.
                National plan of action   The elaboration of a National Programme for the Advancement of Congolese Women was begun with the support of the
                                          United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Implementation of this Programme is scheduled for the period
                                          1999-2004. It covers the 12 critical areas of concern of the Beijing Platform for Action and covers women, men,
                                          children, families and the entire nation. Priority objectives and practicable action include ―women, agriculture and food
CEDAW/C/COD/1 of 18 June 1999             security
Egypt                                     A number of effective mechanisms exist to support and monitor the advancement of women: The National Committee
                   National machinery     for Women, established in 1978 and reorganized in 1994 as the national agency responsible for Egyptian women‘s
                                          issues at the international and local levels; The National Council for the Mother and Child, established in 1988 as the
                                          official agency responsible for child-related issues, including, of course, issues relating to women as mothers; The
                                          Ministry of Population and Family Affairs responsible for family planning, mother and child health and health
                                          education, and the National Population Council; Departments concerned with women‘s issues, established or
                                          strengthened at various times in the Ministries of Social Affairs, Health, Agriculture and Foreign Affairs and in the
                                          Central Statistical Organization, given expanded functions and encouraged to exchange international experts with
                                          counterpart agencies.
                                          The National Council for Women (Republican Decree No. 90 of 2000) replaces the National Committee for Women
                                          established in 1978. An independent national body, the Council has responsibility for promoting the advancement of
                                          women and designing the necessary policies and programmes for their effective participation in society and the
                                          overcoming of negative attitudes and problems which hamper the movement in society. It is also responsible for
                                          developing appropriate solutions to the obstacles that women continue to face, particularly in rural areas.
                                          The Women‘s Department of the Ministry of Social Affairs (established 1977) has undertaken local projects, including
        Women’s agricultural activities   on rural girl scouts and women‘s clubs, and projects on income-generating skills and training in small-scale production.
                                          In cooperation with international organizations and agencies, the Ministry of Agriculture has set up a policy and
                                          coordination unit for women‘s agricultural activities. Activities include the dissemination of agricultural information,
                                          the improvement of livestock, the provision of loans and the promotion of child-nutrition programmes with a view to
CEDAW/C/EGY/3 of 25 July 1996,            raising health standards in rural communities.
CEDAW/C/EGY/4-5 of 30 March 2000




                                                                               109
Guinea
                   National machinery     In 1992, the Government established the Secretariat of State for the Promotion of Women. In 1994, the Secretariat of
                                          State was elevated to the status of Ministry for the Promotion of Women and Childhood. In July 1996, its remit was
                                          extended to include social affairs under its new title, Ministry of Social Affairs and the Promotion of Women and
                                          Childhood (Decree No. 96/111/PRG/SGG of 29 August 1996). The Ministry of Social Affairs and the Promotion of
                                          Women and Childhood have focal points in all ministerial departments.
                        National policy   The Government has adopted a national policy for the advancement of women, based on four strategic objectives:
                                          improve the legal framework, support the economic advancement of women, strengthen the family, social and cultural
                                          role of women and improve their status in society and reinforce institutional support for the advancement of women.
                                          The policy was translated into the 1997-2001 Plan of Action, consisting of six priority areas covering the 12 areas of
                                          concern identified in the Beijing Platform for Action, and taking account of disabled and marginalized women.
               National Plan of Action    The Plan of Action was in turn incorporated into the Gender and Development Framework Programme for Guinea, a
                                          programme inspired by the National Human Development Programme which seeks to reduce inequality between men
                                          and women by broadening the range of opportunities and options offered to every citizen.
CEDAW/C/GINB/1-3 of 6 March 2001
Kenya
                   National machinery     The Women‘s Bureau has been established as the National Women‘s Machinery for the advancement of women in
                                          1976. It is a division in the Department of Social Services in the Ministry of Culture and Social Services. The
                                          Government proposes to establish a National Council for Gender and Development. Upgrading the status of the
                                          National Women‘s Machinery will improve its efficiency fro effective integration of gender dimensions in future policy
                                          formulation, planning and implementation.
                        National policy   A Draft National Policy on Gender and Development was tabled in 1998 to the stakeholders. It stipulates the gender
                                          issues and concerns which currently affect the lives of women and men and proposes strategies and actions needed. The
                                          policy also underlines the need for the establishment of a strong National Women‘s Machinery to facilitate effective
                                          implementation of the policy.
CEDAW/C/KEN/3-4 of 14 February 2000




                                                                              110
Morocco
                   National machinery    As part of the Ministry of Social Development, Solidarity, Employment and Vocational Training, a Secretariat of State
                                         has been established with responsibility for social protection, the family and children. Its mandate includes the
                                         advancement of the family, women and children, the improvement of social living conditions for elderly persons, the
                                         provision of support to groups involved in the field of social work and the promotion of social partnership with local
                                         groups and non-governmental organizations through effective communication with the relevant ministries.

               National plan of action   The Secretariat of State in charge of Social Protection, Family and Children, in coordination with the World Bank, has
                                         prepared a short- and medium-term National Strategy for integrating women into development. The Strategy is aimed at
                                         enhancing the social, economic, political and legal status of women in Morocco by providing those who are active in
                                         these various areas with a meaningful, effective work tool that they can use to attain that end. The National Strategy for
                                         the Advancement of Women to the Year 2000 has made rural women a top priority and has carried out special
                                         programmes in every Government sector.
          Programmes on rural women      The Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Maritime Fishing allocated a special budget to regional
                                         development programmes for rural women.
CEDAW/C/MOR/2 of 29 February 2002
Namibia
                   National machinery    The Department of Women Affairs (DWA) was established in the office of the President shortly after independence to
                                         play a co-ordinating role in respect to gender issues, to facilitate liaison between women and the Government and to
                                         help identify priorities for action on issues relating to equality. Since independence, the DWA has placed CEDAW at the
                                         center of its programmes for a development of a strong gender-sensitization and capacity-building strategy. The Law
                                         Reform and Development Commission was established as a statutory body in 1992.
               Gender Mainstreaming      In 1992, the DWA and the National Planning Commission established an interministerial Gender network charged with
                                         the task of monitoring gender issues in government policies. Nine gender sectoral committees were established which
                                         attempt to bring together government representatives and NGOs to coordinate action in the respective fields, including
                                         in rural community programmes and the environment.
          Programmes for rural women     The Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Rural Development has established a Steering Committee on Gender
                                         Sensitization to ensure that the needs of women farmers are adequately incorporated into agriculture policies and
                                         programmes at all levels.
                                         The Draft National Agriculture Policy for Public Consultation prepared by the Ministerial Policy Task Force and the
                                         Directorate of Planning accepts that women‘s access to and control over household resources remains marginal and
                                         states that the Government will ensure that this vulnerable group is not left behind by means of a strategy that will
                                         provide for the basic needs of all Namibians. A detailed gender analysis of farming households will be undertaken to
                                         facilitate the development of gender differentiated strategies for increased household food security.
CEDAW/C/NAM/1 of 10 February 1997




                                                                              111
Nigeria
                   National machinery     The National Committee on Women and Children has been set up in 1989 by the Attorney-General with the aim of a
                                          comprehensive review of all the laws in force and recommend appropriate amendment in line with the rights guaranteed
                                          by the Convention. It is headed by judge. A National Committee on the Convention on the Elimination of
                                          Discrimination Against Women has been set up to monitor implementation of the provisions of the convention.

          Programmes on rural women       A new Agricultural Policy has been adopted. ―Women in Agriculture‖ (WIA) was established in the Federal
                                          Agricultural Coordinating Unit (FACU), under the Department of Agriculture of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture to
                                          integrate women into agricultural development
CEDAW/C/NGA/2-3 of 26 February1997
South Africa
                   National machinery     Structures in Government include the Department of Public Service and Administration, the Office on the Status of
                                          Women located in the office of the Executive Deputy President; and gender desks in departments to formulate policy,
                                          budget plans, implement programmes and projects and deliver goods and services to the public. The Office on the
                                          Status of Women (OSW) has been established in the Deputy President‘s Office. Provincial OSWs have been established
                                          in the offices of most premiers. These structures coordinate gender units in all government departments at national and
                                          provincial level. The OSW is currently overseeing the development of a National Gender Policy. Some departments
                                          and provinces have already started drafting their own gender policies.
                          Commissions     The Constitution provides for an independent Commission on Gender Equality which reports to Parliament and is
                                          responsible for advocating and overseeing the advancement of gender equality in both public and private sectors. The
                                          Commission also faces the enormous challenge of mobilising public opinion around the many aspects of gender
                                          discrimination which stem from custom, tradition and religion. The Commission began work in April.
                                          The Commission for Restitution of Land Rights and the Land Claims Court are concerned with the restitution and
                                          redistribution of land. Both are committed to upholding the constitutional rights of women to land. A newly
                                          established sub-directorate, ―Women‘s Land Rights‖ within Land Affairs is developing policy guidelines to facilitate
                                          women‘s participation in land reform. The policy framework was approved by the Minister in April 1997 and the sub-
                                          directorate has been renamed the Land Reform Gender Policy.
          Programmes for rural women      The Department for Agriculture has launched an ―Award for Women in Agriculture‖ as a stimulus for recognizing the
                                          contribution which women make. The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry has identified that women have
CEDAW/C/ZAF/1 of 25 February 1998         traditionally been discouraged from studying technical courses.
Tanzania                                  In 1990, the women's national machinery in Tanzania was elevated to a full-fledged ministry with a woman minister and
                   National machinery     a woman chief executive. The creation of the ministry led to a lot of restructuring, not only of the Government national
                                          machinery, but also of various programmes geared towards elevating the status of women.
                                          With the creation of the ministry, a women's policy was produced reiterating, among other things, support for women's
                                          rights and access to various resources in the country. The policy provides guidelines on ensuring women's full
                        National policy   participation in various spheres of national life, encouraging women to participate in various activities geared towards
                                          improving their living standards and economic improvement through the implementation of various programmes.
CEDAW/C/TZA/2-3 of 30 September 1996




                                                                              112
Tunisia
                   National machinery     The Ministry for Women and Family Affairs (MAFF) was initially a State Secretariat attached to the Prime Minister
                                          (1992). It then became a Ministry with special responsibility to the Prime Minister (1993) and ultimately a full Ministry
                                          (November 1999). The role of MAFF is to coordinate the activities of government institutions. MAFF has the capacity
                                          to initiate both draft laws and development programmes. It is assisted by three main organizations: the National
                                          Council for Women and the Family, which is its consultative body, the Centre for Research, Documentation and
                                          Information on Women (CREDIF), which is its scientific body, and the National Women and Development
                                          Commission, a planning and assessment body which is part of the national planning framework.
                National plan of action   The national plan of action for the family, which encompasses a range of activities for which resources and other inputs
                                          are provided by a number of governmental and non-governmental institutions with the aim of strengthening the
                                          educational and social functions of the family, as well as its productive capacities and resources, in particular through
                                          the establishment of a mechanism, started in February 1999, that offers technical and financial support to micro
                                          enterprises run by women and families.
          Programmes for rural women      Formulated in 1998, the national plan of action for rural women begun with the establishment of regional commissions
                                          and regional counselling and rural activity centres for women and is based on the six core issues of: Improving the
                                          living conditions of rural women; Developing their capabilities and skills; Achieving integration into the economic
                                          mainstream, particularly in the agricultural sector; Improving social and cultural training; Triggering the energy and
                                          drive of the community; Recognizing and promoting the contribution of rural women to development by devising
                                          statistical tools and suitable methodologies. The implementation of the plan of action is based on a participatory
                                          approach which integrates goal-driven planning into the framework of a regional and national consultation of national
                                          experts, officers of ministerial departments and non-government organizations and representatives of rural women (such
                                          as women leaders and female students from rural areas).
CEDAW/C/TUN/3-4 of 2 August 2000
Uganda                                    The Ministry of Gender, Labour and Social Development is the national machinery for the advancement of women and
                   National machinery     gender mainstreaming.
                    Women’s Councils      The National Women‘s Councils Statute (1993) established the women‘s councils which is a six-tier structure beginning
                                          at the village level, through the district up to the national level. The Councils have provided exposure for women to gain
                                          self confidence and leadership skills.
                                          The Directorate of Mass Mobilization, Gender and Interest Groups in the Movement Secretariat, established in 1998, is
                                          actively involved in politicization, conscientization and sensitization on gender issues. The Secretary for Women at the
                                          village, parish, sub-county and district level mobilizes women and acts as their mouth piece whenever necessary.
                                          Currently there is at least one women‘s development group in every district.
                        National policy   The National Gender Policy was approved by the Government in 1997 as part of its policy of mainstreaming gender
                                          concerns in the national development process.
                National plan of action   The National Action Plan on Women was adopted in December 1999. It provides a framework for implementing
CEDAW/C/UGA/3 of 3 July 2000              initiatives under priority areas at community, district and national levels (1999-2004)




                                                                               113
Zambia
                   National machinery      The Women in Development Department (WIDD) was integrated into the Cabinet Office, under the Office of the
                                           President in 1996 and renamed Women in Development Department (GIDD), one of four divisions of the Cabinet
                                           Office. It is headed by a Permanent Secretary and has its own vote in the national budget. Gender Focal Points at fairly
                                           senior level have been established in all government ministries, provincial administration and other organs of
                                           government. The Gender Focal Point persons in ministries have been trained in gender analysis.

                       National policy     The Government through GIDD has developed the Draft National Gender Policy. Once adopted, the policy will
                                           strengthen the existing Gender Focal Points in line ministries who are better placed to address legal-related and women‘s
                                           and gender related issues within Ministries and other Government institutions.
                                    NGOs   There is a fairly strong women‘s movement in the country. In 1985, the Non-Governmental Organisation Coordinating
                                           Committee (NGOCC) which is the main link between NGOs and Government, was formed.
CEDAW/C/ZAM/3-4 of 12 August 1999

Zimbabwe
                   National machinery      Upon the independence in 1980, the Government established a Ministry of Community Development and Women‘s
                                           Affairs as the national machinery for the advancement of women. This department later fell under the Ministry of
                                           Political Affairs and is now a unit in the Ministry of National Affairs, Employment Creation and Cooperatives. . A
                                           minister of State in the office of the President is responsible for women‘s affairs (until fairly recently). There is also the
                                           Ombudsman‘s Office. The most common cases women have complained about are the delay in the payment of
                                           maintenance, those pertaining to inheritance rights, sexual harassment and division of property on divorce.
      Non-governmental organizations       There are over 670 registered NGOs, carrying out specific programmes for women such as the Women‘s Action Group,
                                           Women and Law in Southern Africa, Women in Law and Development in Africa and Zimbabwe Association of
                                           University Women.
CEDAW/C/ZWE/1 of 20 July 1996


ASIA AND PACIFIC
Armenia
             National machinery            An Office for Women's and Children's Issues has been established under the Ministry of Social Security. The National
                                           Assembly has a permanent Committee on Public Health and Social Issues, and a Social Policy Department has been
                                           established in the Government. A gender commission has been established and is made up of both members of the
                                           Government and representatives of public organizations (Government regulation No. 360 of 6 August 1997).

                National plan of action    A gender policy development programme was implemented jointly with UNDP in Armenia, but this has been frozen
                                           since December 1998.
CEDAW/C/ARM/2 of 9 September 1999




                                                                                 114
Azerbaijan
                                          n/a
CEDAW/C/AZE/1 of 16 September 1996
Bangladesh
                   National machinery     The Women‘s Affairs Division was created in 1976, upgraded to Ministry of Women‘s Affairs in 1978; today it is the
                                          Ministry of Women and Children Affairs. The National Council for Women‘s Development (NCWD) has been
                                          established and consists of Ministers and Secretaries from several line Ministries, public representatives and eminent
                                          individuals with the Prime Minister as Head of the Council; there are WID Focal points in 33 ministries and agencies
                                          responsible for overseeing the concerns of women in the programmes of their respective ministries. The National
                                          Women‘s Advancement Policy envisages the establishment of an Interministerial Coordination and Evaluation
                                          Committee

             National development plan    The Directorate of Women‘s Affairs was established in 1976 and up-graded in 1990 to the Department of Women‘s
                                          Affairs; it functions as the implementing arm of the Ministry of Women and Children Affairs.
                                          The Fourth Five Year Plan (1990-1995 included integration of sector based planning with group based planning and
                                          mainstreaming of women to reduce gender disparities Objectives of WID during the Firth Five Year Plan (1997-2002)
                                          include: Mainstream women‘s concerns in agriculture and rural development, industry and commerce, basic services
                                          e.g. Health, education, drinking water supply and sanitation and in the informal sector.

                National plan of action   The Draft Participatory Perspective Plan (1995-2010) sets the goal of eliminating all forms of discrimination against
                                          women by empowering women and men as equal partners; targets include access to all forms of productive activities
                                          and resources, involvement in environmental protection and conservation
CEDAW/C/BGD/3-4 of 1 April 1997
China
                        Mainstreaming     The Women's Act, adopted by the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China in April 1992,
                                          stipulates that government agencies, social organizations, enterprises, institutions and grass-roots organizations in urban
                                          and rural areas shall ensure that women are able to exercise their rights under the law, and that the State shall create the
                                          conditions necessary for them to do so. It stipulates that women's organizations, such as the All-China Women's
                                          Federation, may hear complaints from women whose rights and interests have been violated and demand that their cases
                                          be investigated and dealt with by the relevant authorities. The Act stipulates that all levels of the Government are
                                          responsible for coordinating, examining and supervising the work of the relevant departments in protecting women's
                                          rights and interests.
                National plan of action   The Programme for the Development of Chinese Women, approved by the State Council on 27 July 1995, is the first
                                          comprehensive programme ever promulgated by the Chinese Government. It sets out 11 objectives to be met by the
                                          end of the twentieth century with respect to women's political participation, employment, labour protection, education,
CEDAW/C/CHN/3-4 of 10 June 1997           health care, poverty alleviation and rights of the person, as well as related policies and measures for their achievement.




                                                                                115
Georgia
    National machinery or equivalent      The principal State institutions that deal, within the scope of their competence, with the areas covered by the Convention
                                          are: the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Social
                                          Protection, Labour and Employment, the Ministry of Education and the Ministry for Refugee and Resettlement Issues.
                                          In October 1997, the first People's Defence Counsel (Ombudsman) was elected. Under the Constitution, he is entrusted
                                          with overseeing the protection of human rights and freedoms in the territory of Georgia. There are plans to set up a unit
                                          dealing with women's and children's issues in the People's Defence Counsel's office.
CEDAW/C/GEO/1 of10 March 1998
India
                   National machinery     The national machinery is a set of structures at the centre of which lies the Department of Women & Child Development
                                          under the overall charge of a Cabinet Minister who is accountable to Parliament. In addition, the National Commission
                                          for Women acts as a statutory ombudsperson for women whose annual report containing recommendations is to be
                                          placed in Parliament by the Government of India with a detailed compliance report and in the absence of compliance,
                                          the reasons thereof. The Central Social Welfare Board networks with NGOs working for women welfare in the country.
                                          At the State level, there are the State Departments of Women & Child Development and the State Commissions for
                                          Women which also form part of this set of institutional systems. On of the core mandates of the National Machinery has
                                          is to advocate change of attitudes and values of the entire governmental machinery from within and of society at large.
                                          The Government has enacted the National Commission for Women Act 1990 as an Act of Parliament creating a
                                          statutory National Commission to oversee the working of constitutional and legal safeguards for women. Several states
                                          of India have set up similar State Commissions for Women to act as ombudsmen for women in the States.
                National plan of action   The Ninth plan (1997-2003) on Women‘s Development declares empowerment of women as an objective, calls for
                                          reliance on women‘s self help groups.
            Women in decision-making      The73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts of 993 ensure 1/3 of seats for women in all elected office of local
                                          bodies, in rural areas and urban area. About 1 million women emerge as leaders in rural areas.
CEDAW/C/IND/1 of 10 March 1999

Indonesia                                 The Office of the Minister of State for the Role of Women (MRW) was first set up in 1978, MRW acts as the
                   National machinery     coordinating agency for the implementation of the enhancement of the role of women within sectoral Departments; at
                                          the provincial level, Management teams for the Advancement of Women have been set up in 27 provinces and these
                                          permanent secretaries are headed by provincial governments; however, the effectiveness of the office remains limited
                                          and office is relatively small
                                          Policies and measures for the enhancement of the role of women are designated in the Development Mandate in each
            National development plan     Five Year Development Plan (Repelia)
                                          The Family Welfare Movement (PKK), officially recognized as a national movement in 1975, is a voluntary movement
                                 NGOs     mainly of women and focused mainly in village neighbourhoods, around 2 million PKK volunteers are actively involved
                                          in village development programmes in more than 66.000 villages.
CEDAW/C/IDN/2-3 0f 12 February 1997




                                                                               116
Iraq
                    National machinery    The High-level National Committee for the Advancement of Iraqi Women was linked with the supreme executive
                                          authority in Iraq in 1997. The agency was created by the adoption of the National Strategy for the Advancement of Iraqi
                                          Women and consists of representatives of the many ministries involved in activities of relevance to women and of the
                                          General Federation of Iraqi Women, a non-governmental organization, and it promotes cooperation and coordination in
                                          implementing the goals of the Strategy.
       Non-governmental organizations     The other institution concerned with women‘s rights is the General Federation of Iraqi Women, established by Law
                                          139/1972. In accordance with this Law, the Federation is a public-interest institution that is a legal entity having full
                                          legal capacity and enjoying administrative and financial independence. It is a mass, democratic organization
CEDAW/C/IRQ/2-3 of 19 October 1998        representing all the women of Iraq without discrimination.
Jordan
                    National machinery    The Government created a directorate for women in the Ministry of Labour, which was transferred in 1981 to the
                                          Ministry of Social Development. The Jordanian National Committee for Women was established by decree of the
                                          Council of Ministers of 12 March 1992, and is chaired by Her Royal Highness Princess Basma Bint Talal and composed
                                          of representatives of the competent public bodies and the main private institutions. This strategic partnership between
                                          the public and private sectors in pursuing common objectives has provided the country with a body that is formally
                                          empowered to recommend policies for giving women equal opportunities with men in the areas of political participation,
                                          social services, health and medical care, education and land ownership.
                National plan of action   In 1993, the National Committee designed the first National Strategy for Women, with the participation of all public and
                                          private institutions throughout the country concerned with women's issues. The strategy, which is based primarily on
                                          the Jordanian Constitution and National Charter and founded on the principles of the Islamic shariah and the values of
                                          Jordanian society, focuses on six major areas: legislation, politics, economics, social development, education and
                                          health. The Jordanian National Committee for Women has developed a national programme of action for the
                                          development of Jordanian women as part of the follow-up to the implementation of the Platform for Action and the
                                          recommendations of the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995).
       Non-governmental organizations     In the voluntary field, the Women's Union, established in 1980, is a national body composed of women's social
                                          organizations and associations, in addition to individual members. One of its aims is to increase the participation of
                                          women in the country's economic, social and political development. There are also some 600 voluntary associations on
                                          the East Bank of Jordan which provide services in various fields.
         Programmes for rural women       Non-governmental organizations have set up programmes in rural areas for organizing self-help groups to improve the
                                          situation of rural women, providing them with the skills required to create income-generating projects such as carpet
                                          making, dressmaking, production of dairy products or porcelain goods; helping them identify sources of funding for
CEDAW/C/JOR/1 of 27 October 1997          their projects; and helping families increase their incomes at fairs and exhibitions where they can sell their products.
CEDAW/C/JOR/2 of 26 October 1999




                                                                               117
Kazakhstan
                   National machinery    By an Order of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, N. A. Nazarbaev, of 22 December 1998, the National
                                         Commission for Women and the Family, an advisory consultative body attached to the Office of the President of the
                                         Republic of Kazakhstan was established to protect the interests of the family and ensure the necessary conditions for the
                                         participation of women in the political, social, economic and cultural life of the country. It is composed of 28 members
                                         representing scientific and cultural circles, industrial enterprises, small- and medium-sized businesses and office
                                         employees. The Commission is headed by A. B. Samakova, a Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan and a member of
                                         the Government and is attached to the Office of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan
                                         Similar commissions have been established under the akims of the regions and the towns of Astana and Almaty. They
                                         are headed by deputy akims. This system makes it possible for active work to be done in resolving problems relating to
                                         the family and women throughout the country.
                                         The main objectives of the Commission are to formulate priorities and introduce proposals on problems relating to the
                                         family, women and children in State programmes developed on the basis of the Strategy ―Kazakhstan — 2030‖; to
                                         develop a system of complex measures on economic, social, psychological and legal support for families, women and
                                         children and assist in their implementation; to analyse the situation with regard to maternal and child welfare, the
                                         economic and social conditions of the family and the health of the people; to create an information base on the status of
                                         women in society and on their political, social, economic and cultural level; to expand the representation of women in
                                         the organs of State government; to cooperate with international organizations and participate in conferences, meetings
                                         and seminars on questions relating to the situation of the family, women and children held at the international level, and
                                         so on. The Commission has been given wide power and has the right to hear at its meetings the leaders of State organs
                                         directly subordinate and accountable to the Head of State and the leaders of central and local executive organs on
                                         questions relating to the protection of the rights of the family, women and children.
               National Plan of action   The Commission developed a national plan of action for the improvement of the status of women; after being approved
                                         by the Government, the plan of action was submitted to the United Nations as an official document.
CEDAW/C/KAZ/1 of 12 October 2000




                                                                              118
Kyrgyzstan
                   National machinery     By Presidential Order No. 96 of 27 February 2001, the National Council on Women, Family and Gender Development
                                          reporting to the President of the Kyrgyz Republic was established and comprises heads of the main ministries,
                                          departments, institutions of higher education and non-governmental organizations. In order to enhance the status of the
                                          National Council, a Secretary of State of the Kyrgyz Republic has been appointed as its chairperson.

               National plan of action    In 1996, the President approved the national programme "Ayalzat", modelled on the Beijing Platform for Action. The
                                          Government of the Kyrgyz Republic has adopted a comprehensive plan of measures to carry out the national programme
                                          in the years 1997 to 2000. A special section on rural women has been incorporated in the national programme "Ayalzat"
                                          and includes measures to provide small loans so that women can start up income-generating activities, to cope with
                                          unemployment, to train women farmers and to improve women's economic and legal knowledge. The new National
                                          Plan of Action for Achieving Gender Equality for the Period 2002-2006, approved by Presidential decree on 2 March
                                          2002, attaches priority to integrating gender perspectives into all spheres of activity of the State and society. The
                                          measures called for under the National Plan of Action have also been incorporated in the National Poverty Reduction
                                          Strategy in Kyrgyzstan for the Period 2003-2005.
                Ministry of Agriculture   The Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources is taking the necessary steps to ensure that the Convention is applied
                                          to women living in rural areas.
                              Training    On the initiative of the State Committee on the Family, Women and Youth, regional Centres for Women's Initiatives
                                          have been set up and are operating in all six regions. Schools for women farmers have been opened in all the regional
                                          women's initiatives centres.
CEDAW/C/KGZ/1 of 28 August 1998
Maldives
                  National machinery      A special machinery has been set up to promote and protect the rights of women
               National plan of action    The National policy on Women is being finalized.

CEDAW/C/MDV/1 of 28 January 1999
Mongolia
               National plan of action    National Programme on Improving the Status of Women (1996-2000) focuses, inter alia, on ―Living conditions of rural
                                          women. The secretariats of the provincial Governors have been preparing and implementing subprogrammes on
                                          improving the status of women. At the local level, staff in charge of women, youth and family issues are employed in
                                          the Social Policy Departments in the secretariats of 21 provincial Governors.

                   National machinery     The National Council for Women‘s Affairs, headed by a Cabinet member, the Minister for Health and Social Welfare,
                                          was established at the end of 1996, and is made up of MPs, officials of ministries concerned, representatives of women‘s
                                          non-governmental organizations, voluntary movements, mass organizations, owners of private companies, business and
CEDAW/C/MNG/3-4 of 15 March 1999          cooperative entities.




                                                                              119
Nepal                                     The Ministry of Women and Social Welfare was established in September 1995; the national council for Women and
                    National machinery    Children Development was established in 1995 with the Prime Minister as its chairperson; ministries have women and
                                          development units, sections or divisions, for instance the Ministry of Agriculture, the Water and Energy Commission
                                          Secretariat under the Ministry of Water Resources
CEDAW/C/NPL/1of 23 November 1998
Philippines                               In compliance with Republic Act 7192, the Philippine Plan for Gender-responsive Development, 1995-2025, is a
                National plan of action   30-year perspective framework for pursuing full equality and development for women and men (Executive Order 273)
                                          which, inter alia, prescribes that all government entities at the national, subnational and local levels implement the Plan;
                                          incorporate gender and development concerns in their agency performance commitment contracts indicating key result
                                          areas for such concerns as well as in their annual performance report to the President; and incorporate gender and
                                          development concerns in agency budget proposals and work and financial plans. The chapters on agrarian reform,
                                          agriculture, indigenous people and environment and natural resources in the Plan explicitly recognize the role of rural
                                          women in the development process.
                                          The National Nutrition Council (NCC) has drafted the Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition, 1993-1998.
           Plan of Action for Nutrition   All the programmes are being carried out through the assistance of the local government units, the Department of
                                          Education, Culture and Sports, the Department of Health, the Department of Agriculture, Rural Improvement Clubs, the
                                          Nutrition Center of the Philippines (NCP), the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) and various private and
                                          non-government sectors.
                                          The Department of Agriculture has drawn up the Medium-term Agricultural Development Plan which seeks to enable
        Agricultural Development Plan     both women and men farmers and fisherfolk, to raise their incomes and improve their standards of living.
                                          Aside from the Medium-term Agricultural Development Plan, the Department of Agriculture issued Special Order No.
                Gender mainstreaming      21, series of 1994, directing all agency units to reorganize their respective focal points - to facilitate the mainstreaming
                                          of gender concerns and make them more responsive to recent developments in government policies. A Technical
                                          Working Group was created within the Department to formulate a strategic plan for mainstreaming gender concerns
                                          through data generation of selected agricultural information and data. Agricultural mainstreaming is further
                                          implemented through gender-sensitivity training and other related courses among the agency's top officials, middle
                                          management and rank and file employees. The Department of Agrarian Reform has also established women in
                                          development focal points at the national down to the municipal levels. Agencies which reach out to women in rural
                                          areas, such as the Office for Muslim Affairs and the Office of the Southern Cultural Communities have likewise created
                                          focal points and have trained their staff on gender sensitivity. Among other measures, supportive policies and
                                          mechanisms that have been enacted or established in pursuit of the mainstreaming of rural women's concerns is the
                                          Republic Act 7884, or the National Dairy Authority, which encourages the participation of women in dairy and dairy-
                                          related projects, including diary animal health care, village nutrition schemes, community-based processing and
                                          marketing of milk;
                  Specific programmes     Other programmes which adopted a special focus on women are (a) A post-harvest project, which aims to improve the
                                          role and efficiency of farm household members in post-harvest activities and train rural women in harvest loss
CEDAW/C/PHI/4 of 25 July 1996             prevention; (b) Development of small engineering technologies for women; (c) A pilot community for fisherfolk.




                                                                                120
Sri Lanka
               National plan of action   In 1993, the Government adopted the Charter, a declaratory document containing the policy aimed at the realisation of
                                         gender equality in all areas of life which also provides for the establishment of the National Committee on Women
                                         (NCW). The National Plan of Action for the Women in Sri Lanka was adopted in 1996.
                                         A separate Ministry responsible for Women‘s affairs was established in 1997.

                   National machinery    To improve the socio-economic status of rural women, the women‘s Bureah has engaged in the establishment of
                                         women‘s societies. There are 3,200 such organizations know as ―Kantha Karya Sanvidanaya‖ (KKS) established at
                                         village level each operating within a Divisional Secretariat area. At a higher level ―pradeshiya Bala Mandalaya‘s (PPM)
                                         have been established for a wider territorial area.
CEDAW/C/LKA/3-4 of 18 October 1999
Uzbekistan
                   National machinery    The Women‘s Committee of Uzbekistan, a public organization founded on 1991, is engaged in developing legislation
                                         concerning women in the social and occupational spheres, as well as in many other areas. It has legal status and is
                                         registered with the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Uzbekistan. One of the first and largest national women‘s
                                         organizations in Uzbekistan, it is. Women‘s Committee sections are being established locally in various regions of
                                         Uzbekistan to bring judicial and legal assistance to the public.
                                         A Secretariat for the Social Protection of the Family, Motherhood and Childhood has been created in the Cabinet of
                                         Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan and equivalent secretariats also operate at the local level.

               National plan of action   A National Platform for Action to Improve the Situation of Women in Uzbekistan and to Enhance their Role in Society
                                         (1998-2000) was ratified on 3 March 1999. It defines the general strategy and priority aims of state policy toward
                                         women and anticipates combining the efforts of the Government, of parliamentarians, of state and public organizations
                                         and of the civilian sector in order to increase the involvement of women in the creation and development of democratic
                                         society.
CEDAW/C/UZB/1 of 2 February 2000
Viet Nam                                 The Viet Nam Women‘s Union is a political-social organization representing all Vietnamese women at the central,
                       Women’s Union     provincial, district and commune in all localities throughout the country with a membership of 10.1 million, making up
                                         62.8 per cent of all women 18 years old and older. There is also the Committee on Women‘s Work under the Viet Nam
                                         General Confederation of Labour operating from the central to grass-roots levels. The local women union is the
                                         representative of rural women in their community.
                                         The National Committee for the Advancement of Vietnamese Women is an interbranch agency established by the Prime
                   National machinery    Minister by decision 72/TTg of 25 February 1993. By June 1998, a 61 provinces and cities under the Central
                                         Government and 47 ministries, branches and mass organizations at the central level had established Committees for the
                                         Advancement of Women belonging to the National Committee. Branches and administrations at all levels are continuing
CEDAW/C/VNM/2 of 15 March 1999           to establish committees for the advancement of women at the grass-roots level.
CEDAW/C/VNM/3-4 of 20 October 2000       The action plan for the advancement of women up to 2000 is being further implemented.




                                                                             121
Yemen
                   National machinery    The General Directorate for the Development of Rural Women was established in 1988 as a directorate under the Crop
                                         Production General Directorate. Subsequently, it became a directorate directly under the responsibility of the Deputy
                                         Minister for Agricultural Affairs in 1996, and then was given its present title in March 2000.

         Rural women’s co-operatives     The Agency for the Development of Rural Women‘s Co-operatives was founded in January 1999 as an offshoot of the
                                         Federation of Agricultural Co-operatives. Its objectives are to encourage the formation of rural women‘s co-operatives
                                         and to provide training for the members of rural women‘s co-operatives as a means of making employment opportunities
                                         available to them, and to conduct economic feasibility studies relating to such co-operatives.
                                         The task of these institutions, which are concerned with women‘s issues and the promotion of their welfare, is, inter
                                         alia, to extend their programmes and services at the local level, thereby ensuring that projects are more broadly based
                                         and reach rural and remote areas, where services are sorely lacking; also to associate the Chamber of Deputies, local
                                         assemblies, the judiciary and the private sector, all of which have come to play an effective and influential role in
                                         advancing the status of women in Yemen, with the tasks of surveying and recording progress achieved at the national
                                         level and monitoring the implementation of the obligations assumed by the Government pursuant to the Beijing Plan of
                                         Action and the International Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, in respect
                                         of balanced representation for women and men in all fields.

               National plan of action   A number of policies and special programmes have been adopted in recent years with a view to meeting the needs of
                                         rural women, and in 1998, the Government, represented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, embarked on the
                                         development of a national gender strategy in the area of agriculture and food security.
CEDAW/C/YEM/4 of 15 March 2000,
CEDAW/C/YEM/5 of 15 February 2002




                                                                             122
LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN
Brazil                                           The National Council of Women‘s Rights (CNDM), established by Law 7,353 of 1985, for the purpose of
                   National machinery    promoting, at national level, policies to eliminate discrimination against women, ensure them conditions of freedom and
                                         equality of rights, as well as guaranteeing their full participation in the country‘s political, economic, and cultural
                                         activities. Provisional Measure nº 37 of 8 May 2002 provided for the creation, within the Ministry of Justice, of a State
                                         Secretariat for Women‘s Rights, which acts more effectively within other Federal Government agencies by proposing
                                         and monitoring public and governmental policies that promote gender equity. The Executive Secretariat was set up as a
                                         more appropriate institutional arrangement in order to propose, implement and evaluate public policies aimed at
                                         promoting gender equity.
                                         At present there are 97 Women‘s Councils in operation in the country – 19 at state level and 78 at municipal level – in
                                         addition to 307 DEAMs. Periodic meetings of Women‘s Councils convened by the National Council for Women‘s
                                         Rights have been held throughout the years, for the purpose of strengthening their political actions and discussing joint
                                         strategic activities.
                                         The chairwomen of State and Municipal Councils have set up a National Forum of Chairwomen of State and Municipal
                                         Councils for Women‘s Rights, in an effort to consolidate the various policies that were being discussed within the scope
                                         of the National Council.
                                         In 1996, the CNDM/MJ signed cooperation protocols with the Ministries of Labor, Health, and Education which were
               National Plan of Action   renewed on 8 March 2000. In 1997, CNDM prepared and delivered to the President of the Republic a document entitled
                                         ―Equity Strategies – Plan of Action to implement the commitments undertaken by Brazil in the Fourth World
                                         Conference on Women‖. In 1998 the President of the Republic sanctioned the National Program for the Promotion of
                                         Equity in the Public Sector (Report to the President nº 119 of 5 March 1998). Also in 1998, CNDM and the former
                                         Ministry of Administration and State Reform entered a partnership to implement the Program. In 2000, the CNDM/MJ
                                         signed a protocol of intention with the then recently-established Ministry for Agrarian Reform, with the objective of
                                         gradually increasing the number of positions held by women at all hierarchical levels.
                                         The establishment of Women‘s Coordinating Committees, Programs and Commissions in several Ministries was an
         Programmes for rural women      important step to include the gender perspective into universal governmental public policies. The Program for Support to
                                         Rural Women was established in the Ministry of Agriculture in December 1985. The Committee for Support to Rural
                                         Female Workers was established in the Ministry of Agrarian Reform in February 1986.
CEDAW/C/BRA/1-5 of 7 November 2002




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Chile
                    National machinery   The National Office for Women‘s Affairs (SERNAM) was established by Act No. 19,023 of 3 January 1991. Its mission
                                         is to collaborate with the executive branch in studying and proposing general plans and measures to ensure that women
                                         enjoy equality of rights and opportunities with men in the country‘s political, social, economic and cultural development
                                         process.
                                         The officials of SERNAM, namely, the Director-Minister, the Deputy Director and 13 regional directors, are appointed
                                         directly by the President of the Republic. The regional directors are the Minister‘s representatives in each region; they
                                         participate in the cabinet of the regional government and serve as advisers to the regional governor. Municipal offices
                                         for women are being established to encourage them to participate in political life and to train municipal, judicial, health,
                                         education and police officials throughout the country. In some communes, a pilot programme is being run to incorporate
                                         equal opportunity policies at the municipal level.
                                         The Equal Opportunity Plan for Women, 1994–1999, has been incorporated into the Chilean Government‘s programme.
                                         It covers the areas of legislation, family, education, culture and communications, employment, health, participation and
                                         institution-building. The Plan involves not only SERNAM, but also, and to a significant degree, the various Ministries
                                         and departments responsible for social, economic and political issues related to equality of opportunity between women
                                         and men, as well as to civil society as a whole.
                Gender mainstreaming     The Minister-Director of SERNAM participates in two interministerial committees: the Committee of Ministers in the
                                         Social Field and the Productive Development Committee. There are also technical counterparts and work agendas with
                                         SERNAM in various services and Ministries (Labour, Education, Health, National Assets, Justice, Economy, Planning
                                         and Cooperation, Agriculture and Housing) to incorporate equal opportunity into sectoral policies.
                                         All of the country‘s regions have set up commissions for the implementation of the Regional Equal Opportunity Plan.
                                         These commissions have become an essential political and technical tool for the regional management activities of
                                         SERNAM. In seeking specific measures to ensure women‘s full development and advancement, the Sectoral
         Programmes for rural women      Department has signed a total of 23 agreements with various State entities, including in the agricultural sector: National
                                         Institute for Agricultural Development (INDAP), Foundation for Agricultural Information, Training and Culture
                                         (FUCOA), Foundation for Agrarian Innovation (FIA), National Forestry Corporation (CONAF), Crop Farming and
                                         Livestock Service (SAG).
                                         Since 1995, INDAP has explicitly mainstreamed a gender perspective in its regular institutional activities. In 1995, a
                                         Rural Division was created within the National Office for Women‘s Affairs to ensure that the Ministry of Agriculture
                                         and its affiliated offices, decentralized agencies and other public and private entities associated with rural women‘s
                                         issues incorporate measures and actions guaranteeing equal opportunity for rural women into their planning and regular
                                         activities. In order to improve coordination among the services of the Ministry of Agriculture and assist the Ministry in
                                         such matters, a Women‘s Equal Opportunity Commission was created in 1998.
                                          In April 1995 the Rural Women‘s Task Force was established, in which women leaders of peasant organizations,
                                         representatives of public agencies, non-governmental organizations and representatives of relevant international
CEDAW/C/CHI/3 of 27 January 1999         agencies participate.




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Cuba
                   National machinery   FMC, the national machinery for the advancement of women, has a National Committee and 14 provincial and 169
                                        municipal committees. At the grass-roots level there are today more than 3.7 million women members in 76,000
                                        branches. The National Plan of Action for Follow-up of the Fourth World Conference on Women entered into force
                                        (decision of the Council of State on 7 April 1997).
CEDAW/C/CUB/4 of 25 September 1999
Ecuador
                   National machinery   Executive Decree 764, of 28 October 1997, created the National Council for Women (CONAMU), an autonomous body
                                        under public law, with social objectives, attached to the Office of the President of the Republic. CONAMU has
                                        implemented the Equal Opportunities Plan (PIO) 1996-2000.
          Programmes for rural women    The Literacy and Productive Training Programme for Women in the Rural Sector (PROCALMUC), started by the
                                        National Women‘s Department (now CONAMU), has been operating since 1993. The National Economic Development
                                        Plan (PRONADER) gave a high priority to rural development (1989-1992). The Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock
                                        has been working since the 1980s with programmes aimed at improving the situation of peasant women. These promote
                                        a concept of rural development that views women as active development subjects, highlighting their key role in the
                                        productive process, and enhancing skills in agricultural and livestock activities, as well as in agri-business, agricultural
                                        craft work and environmental conservation.
CEDAW/C/ECU/4-5 of 25 January 2002




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Guatemala
                  National action plan   The Government, through the First Lady‘s Social Work Secretariat (SOSEM) and the National Office for Women‘s
                                         Affairs (ONAM), with support from UNICEF, drafted the bill entitled ―National Policy for the Advancement and
                                         Development of Guatemalan Women: Equal Opportunity Plan 1997-2001‖.
         Programmes for rural women      The First Lady‘s Social Work Secretariat (SOSEP) set up the Programme for the Advancement of Rural Women
                                         (Governmental Agreement No. 356-96 of 6 September 1996), which is receiving support from UNICEF, governmental
                                         institutions and non-governmental organizations for activities in the areas of health, education, basic services and
                                         income generation, as well as technical and financial support for improving the socio-economic situation of rural women
                                         and their families living in poverty and extreme poverty. Since 1993, based on the agenda for the reactivation and
                                         modernization of agriculture, the Ministry of Agriculture and Food has been promoting policies and programmes of
                                         work in support of rural women through its bilateral inter-institutional committee for rural women (MAGA-Mujer
                                         Rural) set up by Ministerial Agreement 650-94 as the lead agency for the overall strengthening of the agricultural sector,
                                         creating new opportunities for consultation at the national and international levels with a view to complying with
                                         national and international agreements such as the Agreement on Identity and Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the
                                         Beijing Platform for Action. The bilateral committee is made up of 30 non-governmental organizations which are
                                         carrying out programmes for rural women. The bilateral committee set up the Rural Women‘s Foundation in order to
                                         have better access to services and programmes with other governmental and international cooperation institutions. It is
                                         currently a member of the Board of Directors of the Rural Development Bank (BANRURAL).
                                         The Ministry of Agriculture and Food has coordinated with the rural women‘s cooperation network of FAO in order to
                                         work with the programme for the integration of rural women in business production chains, democratization and the
                                         social economy.
                                         By Agreement No. 175-96, the Ministry of Agriculture and Food set up the Consultative Group on Gender, comprising
CEDAW/C/GUA/2-4 of 20 March 2001,        the various institutions and projects in the sector, with the overall aim, in the context of the peace process, of
CEDAW/C/GUA/5 of 17 January 2002         contributing to the development process by promoting the participation of men and women.




                                                                              126
Nicaragua
                   National machinery     On 8 March 1993, the Advisory Council of the Nicaraguan Institute for Women was created (Decree No. 20-93). INIM
                                          was reactivated in 1991, and strengthened under organic law, in the form of Decree No. 36-93, signed on 6 July and
                                          published in Gaceta No. 128 of 7 July 1993. The Inter-institutional Committee for Women and Rural Development
                                          (CIMYDR) was established (Decree No. 57-97 published in Official Gazette No. 198 of 17 October 1997). The
                                          Government considered there was a need to create a co-ordinating body on which all the governmental and non-
                                          governmental organizations implementing programmes to assist rural women could be represented. INIM supervises the
                                          Committee's activities. The First Lady of the Republic is an honorary member.
                Gender mainstreaming      The Nicaraguan Institute for Agricultural Technology (INTA) has established a Gender Unit, whose mission is to
                                          orientate, coordinate and systematize the process of introducing a gender-oriented approach in the development and
                                          transfer of agricultural technologies. The Gender Unit also works hand in hand with the National Gender Team, whose
                                          task is to support the systematization of experiments in this area carried out in various parts of the country. The Gender
                                          Unit has drawn up a complete plan aimed at benefiting rural women which supports specific policies and programmes,
CEDAW/C/NIC/4 of 28 August 1998           and is based on two strategies
CEDAW/C/NIC/5 of 9 September 1999
Peru
                   National machinery     The Ministry for the Advancement of Women and Human Development (PROMUDEH) was established by Legislative
                                          Decree No. 866 (amended by Legislative Decree No. 893) of October 1996. In addition to the Ministry for the
                                          Advancement of Women and Human Development, in 1996 other mechanisms for the protection of women were
                                          created, such as Office of the Public Defender Specializing in Women‘s Rights within the Public Defender‘s Office.
                                          Moreover, in the Congress of the Republic, the Commission on Women and Human Development was created in 1997
                                          to scrutinize legislation in the area of women‘s rights and to propose the repeal of statutes that may be harming the
                                          interests of women.
                                          At PROMUDEH‘s initiative, a Multisectoral Committee was formed in May 1999 both to draft the fifth national
                                          CEDAW report and to serve as a mechanism for monitoring the provisions of this international instrument. This
                                          committee has successfully established linkages among the various sectors of government, such as Health, Justice,
                                          Foreign Relations, Education, Energy and Mining, Transportation and Communications, Housing, Construction,
                                          Tourism, Integration, Industry, Judiciary, Attorney General‘s Office, Legislature, Public Defender‘s Office, and others.
                National plan of action   The Ministry for the Advancement of Women and Human Development —PROMUDEH — is currently engaged in
                                          reformulating the National Equal Opportunity Plan for women for the period 2000-2005.
                Gender mainstreaming      Since mid-1998, the Ministry for the Advancement of Women and Human Development and its decentralized agencies
                                          have been carrying out training and monitoring programmes to promote the incorporation of a gender approach into
                                          programmes, projects and activities.
CEDAW/C/PER/5 of 6 March 2001




                                                                               127
Suriname
                   National machinery    The National Gender Bureau is established in the Ministry of Home Affairs, which is responsible for the formulation
                                         and execution of a government policy on gender.
                                         The National Institute for the promotion and protection of fundamental human rights and obligations in general was
                                         founded by Decree A-18 of 10 January 1985. It has an advisory role and the authority to investigate complaints with
                                         regard to violations of human rights.
      Non-governmental organizations     There are some 50 different nation-wide non-governmental organizations, volunteer and professional organizations
                                         which work for women‘s rights and interests.
CEDAW/C/SUR/1-2 of 5 March 2002


EUROPE
Albania
                   National machinery    The national mechanism for the protection and promotion of women's rights underwent substantial changes since its
                                         birth in 1992. In July 1998 the Council of Ministers upgraded the Department Women and Family to the Council of
                                         Ministers level; the Chairperson of the Committee report directly to the Deputy- Prime Minister and the Committee's
                                         budget is part of the budget of the Council of Ministers.

                                         The responsibilities of the Committee Woman and Family (Council of Ministers decision 415 of 01.07.1998) are the
               National plan of action   implementation of governmental policies for women and family issues, the co-ordination of programs for the promotion
                                         of equality between men and women in the central and local level, the implementation and evaluation of governmental
                                         programs on women and family, the proposal of new legislation and/or amendments to existing legislation on children's
                                         and women's rights in compliance with international standards, the support and coordination of NGO activities in the
                                         field of women's and family's rights.
                                         .
CEDAW/C/ALB/1-2 of 23 May 2002




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