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					Global Broadcasting
Update
DAB / DAB+/ DMB
September 2011
Message from the President
The world of digital radio broadcasting is evolving. Digital radio has always offered the listener increased choice; now
it also provides interactivity, data, images and exciting multimedia content. The Eureka 147 family of standards, DAB,
DAB+ and DMB, is the only truly multimedia digital broadcasting standard to deliver both digital radio and mobile TV.
In many parts of the world where the availability of spectrum is an issue, Eureka 147 technology solves the problem
by providing a wealth of content on just one frequency. This has made it a popular choice of technology in Europe,
South East Asia and Australasia.

Governments, regulators, broadcasters and manufacturers understand that today's listener is looking for more than
just the classic radio experience and DAB and DAB+ are able to deliver this. Each market is different with specific needs,
but Eureka 147 is adaptable and can support this diversity. Some countries, such as the UK and Denmark, use DAB.
Australia and Malta have successfully launched DAB+. Other countries, like Switzerland, have a combination of DAB
and DAB+ services on air. And yet other countries have left the choice of DAB, DAB+ or DMB open to broadcasters.

This diversity is supported by the availability of a wide selection of products around the world including basic radios,
high end audio systems, in-car devices, mobile phones, PMPs and much more. Multi-standard chips are being developed
that will allow devices to work anywhere, irrespective of whether a broadcast is in DAB, DAB+ or DMB. This is especially
important for areas like Europe with its highly transient population and large radio markets. WorldDMB has been working
closely with broadcasters and manufacturing groups to make certain that multi-standard receivers are available across
Europe, thus ensuring economies of scale in evolving sectors such as the car market. New applications such as data
services, the use of WiFi and bluetooth, slideshow and interactivity all present the industry with opportunities to deepen
the listener/station connection, grow brand loyalty and increase revenue.

This Global Update gives the latest information on DAB, DAB+ and DMB from around the world. It shows which countries
currently have commercial digital radio and mobile TV services in operation and gives information on markets which
are currently testing or trialling the standard with a view to rolling out. Within this analysis there is information on regulation,
services on-air, population coverage, receiver penetration, devices currently available and other general information.
This Update is accessible to decision makers and the digital radio industry and gives a clear overview of the success
of DAB/DAB+ digital radio and DMB mobile TV.

The information contained in this document can be found on the WorldDMB website which is updated on a regular
basis. Further information on standards, industry news, events and details on membership of WorldDMB can also
be found on the website www.worlddab.org

Jørn Jensen, President




                                                                                                                                       1
Contents

Message from the President                                 2
Introduction                                               3
Product Overview                                           5
Countries Information                                      6
Coverage Maps                                              31
Other countries using DAB, DAB+ and DMB                    33
Potential building blocks for legislators and regulators   39




                                                                2
Introduction
What is WorldDMB?
The WorldDMB Forum is responsible for defining the standards of the Eureka-147 family which includes DAB and DAB+
for digital radio and DMB for radio and mobile TV.
Based in Geneva and headquartered in London, WorldDMB aims to promote the awareness, adoption and implementation
of the Eureka 147 family of standards around the world. Working with sound and data broadcasters, network providers,
manufacturers, governments and official bodies, WorldDMB encourages international co-operation and a smooth,
coordinated roll-out of services.
WorldDMB is funded by members from over 80 companies and organisations around the world which have a stake
in seeing digital radio grow to an international mass market medium. They include public and private broadcasters,
receiver and electronic equipment manufacturers, car manufacturers, data providers, transmission providers, regulators
and government bodies.

Why radio needs to be digital.
The world of broadcasting is very different today than it was just ten years ago. Digital television, digital phones and
digital radio bring more diversity and communication power than ever before in human history. In the age of Twitter,
social networking, Internet radio, YouTube, iPhone and mobile applications, radio needs to stay relevant. Digital radio
can greatly improve the listener's experience, at the same time delivering added revenue streams, brand extension
and station loyalty to the broadcasters.

What are the Eureka 147 standards?
WorldDMB and its members work together to ensure its family of standards, including DAB, DAB+ and DMB, remain
at the sharp edge of digital audio broadcasting, shaping the future of digital radio and mobile TV around the world.

DAB: When DAB was first developed it was based on MPEG Audio Layer II coding, which was then state of the art
and remains a widely used coding technology in radio today. The original DAB standard is used in the UK.
DAB+: The digital world is fluid, ever changing, always pushing the boundaries of what it can achieve, and this very
flexibility presents its own challenges. Following MPEG-2 came MPEG-3 and MPEG-4 (AAC). Rising to the challenge,
DAB+ was developed. An advanced version of DAB, DAB+ allows for even more efficiency at lower bitrates lower
per-station transmission costs and offer listeners an even greater choice of services. New receivers, which include
both types of audio codecs, will work in any country. DAB+ is the technology of choice for many countries newly entering
the world of digital radio. DAB+ is used in Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore and Malta, and many other countries are
making the transition from DAB to DAB+ services.
DMB: Another important innovation is the addition of video/multimedia capabilities to allow DAB to become a digital
mobile television platform as well as a multimedia digital radio platform. While handheld devices are proving to be
an attractive market for mobile telecom operators, the cost of using 3G networks to deliver video streaming to mobiles
is prohibitive. A broadcast technology is far more cost effectrive and DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) fulfils this
advancement. The range of products receiving video and multimedia services via DMB such as mobile phones, PC,
in-car, PDA-like devices is now well over 150 with many manufacturers producing cutting-edge designs at affordable
prices. DMB is the technology of choice in France, and trials are currently running in many other countries across
Europe.
All three technologies, DAB, DAB+ and DMB, can be used alongside each other on the same multiplex, using the
same infrastructure, resulting in a wide range of possible multiplex scenarios.

Where is the technology broadcasting?
More than half a billion people around the world can receive DAB services from over 1,000 radio stations. Regular
services using one or more of the Eureka 147 standards are available across Europe, the Far East and Australia. Trials




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continue in countries as diverse as Israel, South Africa, Ghana, Lithuania, Kuwait and Sweden. Every year, more and
more countries are bringing listeners the added choice, clarity and data services digital radio provides.

Common regulation.
The digitalisation of radio and multimedia services continues to progress rapidly across the world. Over 500 million
people can now receive more than 1,000 DAB based multimedia services and these numbers are increasing rapidly
as more licences are awarded and more countries adopt the Eureka 147 Family of Standards. Outside Europe, the
key areas of development are seen in China, Korea and the majority of the Asia Pacific Region, including Australia.New
media tends to progress rapidly while governments traditionally move more slowly. This means that in many cases
regulation has not yet caught up with the technology. Thus, where DAB based services have been introduced, existing
radio broadcasting legislation and regulation has been generally applied whilst further consideration is given to what
regulation will best allow these services to achieve their full potential.

It is impossible and potentially dangerous to attempt to impose common regulation, or to suggest that one country's
regulatory regime would work in any other. However, it does make sense that within any collection of separate regulatory
regimes there should be some common threads. WorldDMB attempts to identify those common threads, and to
illustrate the "best practice" experiences of countries with an established DAB based network. We also look at how
countries without specific DAB based legislation can still roll out services. And, finally, we look at countries taking their
first steps into DAB Digital Radio and DMB Multimedia broadcasting.

The Regional Radio Conference in Geneva in 2006 paved the way for the structured development of terrestrial broadcasting
towards an all-digital future. Frequency plans that allow full exploitation of the benefits of digital transmission were
established for T-DAB and DVB-T in Band III and DVB-T in Bands IV and V with a transition period from 2006 to 2015.

The digital dividend is currently influencing countries thoughts on the future use of spectrum. The Geneva 2006 (GE06)
conference specified that each country should establish the scale of its own digital dividend. The digital dividend is
the spectrum made available over and above that required to accommodate the existing analogue television services
in a digital form, in VHF (Band III: 174-230 MHz) and UHF bands (bands IV and V: 470-862 MHz). The 'Envelope' concept,
identified and evolved during GE06, has been widely accepted and facilitates the introduction and harmonisation
of alternative technologies without destabilising the GE06 agreement and frequency plans adopted by all countries
in the area covered by European Conference for Postal & Telecommunications (CEPT). The European Commission
has mandated the CEPT find the best way to explore the digital dividend. Among other things, the task is to try to
find a harmonised frequency in the UHF band for Europe.

As a membership organisation, WorldDMB strives to be a valuable information hub, connecting key players from every
sector of the digital radio industry. WorldDMB is proud to continue to support our global members in this exciting period
of the increasing international roll out of the DAB family of standards.




                                                                                                                                4
Product Overview
Long gone are the days when digital radio manufacturing was limited to a handful of products from a small number
of receiver manufacturers. Today, in the markets where DAB, DAB+ and/or DMB has been adopted and is promoted,
you'll find a product range that is impressive, diverse and affordable.

Different markets have different needs and product availability reflects this. The success of DMB in Korea leads to
a high proportion of multimedia devices in Asian countries. Whereas in Europe, audio remains the priority and so radio
products are most popular. Throughout these markets, new product launches occur on a regular basis and keeping
up with them is quite a challenge. This brochure can therefore only give a brief overview of the most popular types.


In-home receivers
This category encompasses traditional radio devices: kitchen radios, tuner separates,
mini/midi hifi systems, clock radios and boom boxes. Overall these products are
sold at competitive prices and consequently are rapidly gaining market share. Whilst
they focus mainly on audio, new features such as rewind/pause, timer record, and
the availability of an EPG (Electronic Programme Guide) mean that consumers find
their radio listening enriched and improved in ways they could previously only imagine.


In-car receivers
The Eureka 147 family of technologies was designed to improve radio reception
on the move, and this forms a natural alliance with the in-car radio market. Although
developments in this area have been slower than in others, the in-car market is now
firmly back on the agenda. PURE Digital launched the Highway, an adaptor product
which converts an existing FM car stereo to enable it to receive DAB digital radio.
This product has been well received and is currently selling very strongly in the UK.
Additionally, in 2011 UK car manufacturer Ford announced the planned introduction
of DAB digital radio as standard into all of its car ranges across Europe.


Multimedia devices
Dominated by Korean and Chinese manufacturers making products for their domestic
markets, this category includes mobile phones, MP4 players, portable media players
and pocket TVs. In China, the market was boosted by special content being offered
for the Summer 2008 Olympics.


Handheld devices
In addition to multimedia devices, audio based handheld products are also widely
available. As silicon technology has developed, these products have become ever
smaller in size and with longer lasting batteries, ensuring that they are ideal for listening
on the move. The rise of the iPod has also led to the introduction of DAB enabled
docking devices.




                                                                                                                         5
Australia
Population: 20.6 million                                                         Coverage:                                   60%
Current situation
As the radio industry marks two years on air of full power digital radio services, official data relating to digital radio broadcasts
in Australia was released by Commercial Radio Australia (CRA) , showing there are 940,000* people listening to digital
radio in the five state metropolitan capitals of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide and 508,462 ** digital
radios have been sold.
Each market boasts up to 20 new, digital only stations on air. All services have text and slideshow data included in
the broadcasts - with many stations having track now playing, news and weather information, as well as advertisements
in their slideshow broadcasts. At least one ensemble in each city is broadcasting an EPG - with the other ensembles
expected to follow within the next twelve months. In addition DAB+ regional trials have commenced in Canberra and
Darwin and a trial is planned for a retransmission of the Canberra services inside Parliament House.
The Australian Government passed legislation on 10th May 2007 to enable the launch of digital radio in Australia. The
legislation enables incumbent commercial, national and wide-coverage community radio broadcasters to provide
digital radio services on DAB+. The Australian commercial radio industry has pledged to invest up to $400 million over
the coming years to roll out digital radio across the country. To date, broadcasters have invested more than $50 million
dollars on the DAB+ infrastructure and in excess of $24m in on air promotion
.The Australian radio industry has implemented digital radio using the DAB+ standard in five major cities and intends
to roll put DAB+ to all population centres outside of the metropolitan areas. In the future, after full planning has been
completed for national Band III DAB+ rollout, the industry is anticipating reviewing the use of DRM for wide and isolated
area digital radio coverage. The industry's first priority is the roll out of DAB+ nationally using Band III spectrum.
Australia has hosted a number of study tours for regional neighbours to encourage the take up of DAB+ in the Asia
Pacific region.

Coverage
Australia's DAB+ broadcasts currently cover its major state capital cities with all commercial and national public radio
stations and their associated multi-channels in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth on air.
Coverage is currently at 60% of the population, or around 12 million people. Low power DAB+ trials were launched
in Canberra in July and Darwin in August 2010. Planning is based on achieving robust indoor and outdoor coverage
using VHF Band III spectrum.
On 5th August 2011, there was an announcement by the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA)
that the DAB+ digital radio trial licences in Canberra and Darwin have been extended for a further 12 months.
The scientific licences issued have been extended to allow for further coverage measurement, testing of local terrain
impairments, receiver analysis, staff training and continued trials in different climatic conditions.
Commercial Radio Australia chief executive, Joan Warner said: "The DAB+ trials in Canberra and Darwin are providing
imperative information to regional broadcasters and assisting the radio industry to develop digital radio channel plans
for all regional areas."

Services on Air
In this country there are 13 Regular and 2 Trial Regional multiplexes                        Simulcast     Exclusive       Total
on air.
                                                                                    DAB+        45             0            45
CRA reports 65 stations broadcasting on DAB+ in Australia, with up
to 20 DAB+ only. There are currently 13 metropolitan multiplexes and two trial regional muxes on air broadcasting
nearly 170 services between them, with each multiplex delivering up to 15 services.
Some stations in Australia are using slideshow and EPG, and all deliver dynamic scrolling text.
What are Event or Pop Up digital radio stations?
Event or Pop Up stations are digital stations that exist for a short period of time or that change into another concept.
Like the station - The Main Stage which celebrates artists' like Lady Gaga and Kylie Minogue during their tours of Australia,
or Elf Radio playing Christmas songs throughout the festive season. Digital radio allows for flexible niche programming
that can highlight an event, a festival or artist - the possibilities are endless.
DAB+ Radio Stations
Sydney - 2GB, 2CH, 2UE, 2DAY, TRIPLE M, Sky Sports Radio, WSFM, MIX 106.5, 2SM, NOVA, CLASSIC ROCK, Radar,




                                                                                                                                        6
The Main Stage, Barry, NovaNation, Koffee, The EDGE, WSFM Plus, Classic Hits Live, The Crack, Gorilla, Zoo Super
Digi, Sky Sports Radio Digital, ABC, SBS and some community stations.
Melbourne - MIX, GOLD, SEN, 3AW, MTR, FOX, MAGIC, TRIPLE M, NOVA, CLASSIC ROCK, Sport 927, Radar, The
Main Stage, Koffee NovaNation, The EDGE, Barry, MyMp, Aussie, The Buckle, Gold Plus, Classic Hits Live, ABC, SBS
and some community stations.
Brisbane - 4BC, 4BH, 4KQ, B105, TRIPLE M, NOVA, RADIO TAB, 97.3FM, Radar Radio, The Main Stage, Barry 4TAB
Digital Two, NovaNation, Koffee, 4KQ Plus, The EDGE, Classic Hits Live, The Buckle, ABC, SBS and some community
stations.
Adelaide - 5AA, MIX, SAFM, TRIPLE M, NOVA, CRUISE, Radar Radio, The Main Stage, Barry, Mix Plus, NovaNation,
Koffee, Classic Hits Live, The EDGE, ABC, SBS and some community stations.
Perth - 6IX, 6PR, 96FM, MIX, 92.9FM, NOVA, Radar Radio, The Main Stage, Barry, My Perth Digital, Hot Country Perth
Digital, NovaNation, The Buckle, ABC, SBS and some community stations.
Canberra trial - 2CA, 2CC, Mix 106.3, 104.7 Hit Music, Radar Radio, Mix Plus, my Canberra Digital, Hot Country Canberra
Digital and SBS Radio stations.
Darwin trial - Hot 100, Mix 104.9, Top Country Digital and Radio TAB.

Receiver Market
A wide range of DAB+ radios is available in Australia.
The figures - which cover Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide - put
the average number of weekly listeners at around 700,000 and the number of radio
receivers at 400,000.
Part of the CRM Digital Radio Industry Report 2011, the reports compares July 2009
to December 2009 listener figures with new ones for January 2010 to January 2011,
showing an increase in digital sales of 185 per cent in 2010/11 and a rise in digital
radio listening to 5.6 per cent (691,000 people) up from 3.7 per cent (449,000) in
2010.
In 2010 there are approximately 60 models in the market from 20 different manufacturers. The latest DAB+ radios
include colour touch screen, slideshow and interactivity via wifi internet connection.

Details of Trials
The first DAB+ trials started in Australia on 1st July 2007. Prior to this, Australian broadcasters had conducted DAB
trials in Sydney on L-band since 1998 and on VHF Band III since 2003. Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney
launched high powered permanent commercial and public broadcast services in August 2009. Low powered regional
trials are currently underway in Canberra and Darwin. There have, in the past, also been DMB trials in Australia but
at the present time there is no clear view on where the mobile TV market will go.

Regulation
The Australian Communications and Media Authority is the regulatory and licensing authority. There are currently no
regulations on coverage requirements, but there is a quota for Australian music and video services are prohibited.
Other key points of the digital radio legislation in Australia are that there is no cost for the spectrum for incumbent
commercial broadcasters and no new entrants are allowed for six years from the start date. First right of refusal is
given to commercial radio broadcaster consortiums to operate multiplexes. There is an entitlement to a minimum
of 128kbit/s (1/9 multiplex) and a maximum of 256kbit/s (1/5 multiplex).The legislation covering digital radio requires
a review by 2011 to consider issues such as the availability and price of receivers, the coverage characteristics of various
digital radio technologies and whether any adjustment to the regulatory framework is necessary, including the specification
of subsequent start dates for digital radio in further markets. The Government has indicated that it will reserve spectrum
for digital radio regionally after analogue television switch-off by 2013.

Further information
http://digitalradioplus.com.au
http://www.abc.net.au/radio/digital
http://www.digitalradioaustralia.com.au




                                                                                                                               7
Austria
Population: 8.3 million                                                   Coverage:                                19%
Current situation
ORS (Austrian network operator) are currently planning a field trial for DAB+ and in the process of planning the network,
and possible business models. The DAB+ field trial will take place in Vienna and will commence in the first half of 2012.
Austria continues to prepare for digital radio with a Working Group to consider the country's digital future. Meanwhile,
authorities are watching neighbours Germany and Switzerland as they re-launch services in DAB+.
Austria is committed to a digital radio future and a report to the regulator, the RTR recommended DAB+ in Band III
as the way forward. An expression of interest will be declared to the government in the near future.

Coverage
During the trial in 2008 it was estimated 19% of Austria's population was covered by the DAB Digital Radio signal.

Services on Air
In this country there are 3 Trial Regional multiplexes on air.                       Simulcast    Exclusive     Total

                                                                              DAB        4            8           12
Details of Trials
Details on the 2012 Vienna trial will be available shortly.
The trial held in 2008 included three transmitters in Vienna on Channel 12B. The multiplex featured classical music,
Radio Wien (local station), pop music and FM4 pop music.
The Austrian public broadcaster ORF, was awarded a DAB Digital Radio trial licence for the Federal States of Tyrol.
ORF set up two DAB Digital Radio transmitters in Tyrol, covering the Inn valley between Kufstein and the Brenner Mountain
(Channel 12C). 1, 3, FM4 and the regional station Radio Tyrol, wre available on the multiplex. This meant that there
was continuous DAB coverage between South Germany and Northern Italy.

Regulation
The market is regulated by the Rundfunk and Telekom Regulierungs GmbH

Further information
http://www.rtr.at/en/rtr/RTRGmbH




Belgium
Population: 11 million                                                    Coverage:                                100%
Current situation
The "Radio Télévision belge de la Communauté française de Belgique" (RTBF), the public broadcaster for the French-speaking
community, and "De Vlaamse Radio - en Televisieomroep" (VRT), the public broadcaster in the Flemish community
introduced DAB in Belgium in 1997.
VRT has one multiplex in operation with nine audio programmes (five simulcast and four DAB only). RTBF operates
one multiplex with five audio programmes and also two BRF (German speaking public broadcaster) audio programmes
(all simulcasts).
The promotion undertaken by VRT and its development of DAB-only programmes, is helping to increase DAB household
penetration. RTBF is currently testing four DAB+ audio & data programmes. The aim is to plan a roadmap for DAB+
in French speaking Belgium, together with the private broadcasters, subject to approval from the Government and
the CSA. For further information on this, please contact the Project Office.

Coverage
Both in the Flemish and the French region, DAB coverage reaches 100% of the population. Also, all motorways and
main roads are covered.

Services on Air
In this country there are 2 Regular National multiplexes on air.
- Flemish-speaking part of the country: nine audio programmes (four of which DAB only) by the public broadcaster
VRT
- French-speaking part of the country: five audio programmes (simulcast) by the public broadcaster RTBF and two




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audio programmes (simulcast) by the German speaking public broadcaster BRF . Four audio & data programmes
are also currently tested.

Receiver Market
The availability of DAB receivers in Belgium continues to grow with a range of devices now on the market, including
kitchen radios, handheld and tuners. As more DAB services launch, with marketing campaigns to support them, sales
are expected to grow significantly.

Regulation
Broadcasting legislation in Belgium differs between the Flemish, French and German speaking communities. Licences
will be granted to programme providers only in the French community, licences in the Flemish community will, most
likely, be granted to the multiplex operator and may have restrictions. Simulcasting is permitted within both French
and Flemish communities and there are no specific rules or conditions governing this. There is also no legislation governing
advertising, sponsorship and marketing on DAB digital radio broadcasting. No information is available on plans for
FM switch off or over at the present time.

Further information
http://www.dab.be
http://www.digitaleradio.be




China
Population: 1.32 billion                                                    Coverage:                                8%
Current situation
The Chinese regulator, SARFT, chose DAB for the industrial standard in May 2006. DMB/DAB is now on air in 11 cities
across the country. After the Guangzhou launch of commercial services in 2007, the Ministry of Industry and Information
(MII) decided to issue licences for DMB in mobile phones.
Chinese DMB Operator, GTM, will provide the DMB and CMMB services during the Asia Games in Guangzhou, the
biggest province in China, later in 2011. GTM also plan to order 50,000 DMB receivers for the Asia Games.
Photo of Mavis Ma, University of Hong Kong
Beijing Jolon, the biggest local broadcaster in Beijing has launch 'Push Radio' based on DAB in 2010 in Beijing. Beijing
Jolon broadcast 30 hours - or 25 program channels every day through Push Radio.16 Audio programs are broadcast
15 times per day and downloaded onto receivers. Value added services such as news, data and slideshow have been
provided into the Push Radio services. Beijing Jolon are upgrading their latest generation receivers to support DAB+.
A trial of Push Radio is being planned for Brisbane in August/September 2011.

Coverage
Coverage is currently available in the following provinces: Guangzhou, Beijing (approximate coverage: 12 million people),
Shanghai (expected coverage: 15 million people), Dalian (expected coverage: 5.4 million people), Henan, Hangzhou,
Shengyang, Jiangsu, Shenzhen, Changsha and Kunming.

Services on Air
- Beijing: 20 radio services (16 of which are simulcast), four video services, two data services by Beijing Jolon (commercial
broadcaster) on Band III.
- Dalian: Dalian Tiantu Cable Television Network received a licence for digital radio and mobile TV via DAB/DMB and
plans to launch four radio services and one video service

Receiver Market
There are various retailers in Beijing, Shanghai & Guangzhou.
Lenevo was the first Chinese manufacturer to develop a DMB mobile phone for the Chinese market (Lenovo ET980T).
To date over 80,000 devices have been sold in Beijing alone.

Details of Trials
Guangdong Province has had an ongoing Band III trial in the Pearl River Delta area, broadcasting eight video and four
radio services. Commercial services are currently available from the Guangdong Mobile TV Media.
Shanghai has had L-band trials of DAB based services with four video, four radio and three data services since 2005.
Trials of DAB/DMB based services are expected to begin shortly in other locations across China.




                                                                                                                                9
Regulation
China's State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television (SARFT) manage licences and standards in China. It was
recently announced by SARFT that no trials of digital broadcasting were permitted without a licence. Currently, Eureka
147 based services are the only European digital broadcasting technology that has been granted licences in China.
In 2007 four operators were granted trial licences and, following recent SARFT approval, there are likely to be more
DAB and mobile TV licences in the near future.

Further information
http://www.abs.ac.cn/en




Czech Republic
Population: 10.3 million                                                    Coverage:                                50%
Current situation
TELEKO has started regular digital radio broadcasting using T-DAB in the Czech Republic on the 1st April 2011. Terrestrial
digital radio transmitters operating in L-band, channel LA, in both Prague and Pribram were switched on.
TELEKO, s.r.o. switched on terrestrial digital radio transmitters operating in L-band, channel LE, in the Moravian capital
of Brno.The digital radio signal was spread to Brno just four months after a successful start in Prague and Pribram.
More technical details about the broadcasts can be found on www.teleko.cz

Coverage
Coverage maps for Prague and surrounding areas can be found here - covering 1,286,890 people
Coverage maps for Pribram can be found here - covering 465 728 people - covering 41,062 people
Coverage for Brno and surrounding areas can be found here - covering 465,728 people

Services on Air
In this country there is 1 Regular Local multiplex on air.
DAB broadcast programs in Prague and Pribram:
Public radio esk rozhlas Leonardo (science), Wave (alternative music) a D-dur (classical music), radio Proglas (religion)
and DANCE RADIO at both towns.
DAB broadcast programs in Brno:
Public radio Cesk rozhlas Leonardo (science), Cesko (news), Region (regional news programme), CRo3 (culture)
Wave (alternative music), D-dur (classical music) and private radio Proglas (religion). The remaining spare capacity
is available to carry further radio channels and accommodate dozens of other radio programs which are being prepared.
It broadcasts in DAB and DAB+.

Details of Trials
Older news
In August 2007 a trial was launch by the TELEKO Company in co-operation with the public broadcaster Zesky Rozhlas
with three DAB programmes and two programmes in DAB+. This trial used both Band III and L-Band and covered
almost 130,000 people.
A further trial began in June 2008, again as a joint project between the TELEKO Company in cooperation with the
public broadcaster Czech Radio. A 2.5Kw transmitter provided coverage of the capital city, Prague, to a population
of around 1.3 million. The goal of this non-commercial trial was the promotion of digital radio to the Czech public and
Government administrators. In early 2009 a further trial was launched in the second largest city Bruno covering approximately
0.5 million people. Further trials have also been held in other cities around the Czech Republic
In the past there have been DMB trials in the Czech Republic, however, the industry is waiting for the government
to make regulatory decisions on mobile TV in the country as there are issues with lack of spectrum.

Regulation
In April 2006 the Czech Parliament adopted a version of the media law focused on digital broadcasting. The Telecommunications
Office has also declared that their office will be technology neutral with regard to the DAB audio codec (DAB or DAB+).
In November 2009 the Czech Telecommunication Office started the DAB+/DMB tender process for digital radio and
mobile TV within the Czech Republic.




                                                                                                                                10
Further information
http://www.ctu.cz
http://www.radio.cz/en
http://www.tdab.cz




Denmark
Population: 5.5 million                                                  Coverage:                                90%
Current situation
Denmark is one of the most successful DAB markets in the world. With 33% of the population accessing digital services,
Denmark has the highest number of DAB users per capita in the world.
The public broadcaster, Danish Radio (DR) has been an enthusiastic supporter of digital radio since it began trials
in 1995. Regular services have been available since 2002.
In 2009, the Danish government agreed that commercial radio stations would be offered the opportunity, through
a beauty contest, to broadcast on the second multiplex. This was won by a Danish consortium, with stakeholders
including a newspaper group.
From 1st of November 2011 DR will only broadcast on multiplex 1, and multiplex 2 is reserved for commercial broadcasters.
Two multiplexes deliver 17 stations from DR, and there are two commercial stations represented on DAB: Pop FM
and NOVA fm.
The Danish market is now looking to the government about a decision on the futue of digital radio and a possible
FM switch off.
Over one third of the 2.5M Danish households has one or more DAB radios and around 8% of all radio listening is
to a DAB set.Cumulative set sales in 2010 are around 1.5 million.
A third multiplex is planned for regional and local stations.

Coverage
Coverage in Denmark is about 90% outdoor and 95% indoor
See here for coverage maps -
http://www.dr.dk/OmDR/digitalradio/Hjaelp/20110315104649.htm
DR operates the central headends (audio encoders and multiplexers) for the multiplexes, whereas Broadcast Service
Danmark A/S operates the actual transmitter networks

Services on Air
In this country there are 2 Regular National multiplexes on air.
There are 14 public and two commercial DAB radio services on air, all of which are broadcast nationwide. A second
multiplex is also on-air for commercial broadcasters. DR broadcasts:
DR P1 (Talk format)
DR P2 Klassisk (Classical music)
DR P3 (20-40 years)
DR P5 (60+)
DR P6 Beat (alternative adult)
DR P7 Mix (Hit music)
DR P8 Jazz (Jazz music)
DR Ramasjang (Children)
DR MAMA (12-19 years) On multiplex 2:
Voice (hit music)
Pop FM (hit music)
Radio Nova (hit music)
24/7 (new talk channel)



                                                                                                                            11
Receiver Market
There are currently 1.5 million DAB receivers in the market.
Approximately 300 specialised electrical retail stores currently sell DAB radios; supermarket and food chains are also
significant players with frequent product offerings. 1/3 of the population has a DAB Receiver in the household.

Details of Trials
Small trials are being carried out in DAB+

Regulation
DAB regulation is set by three different bodies in Denmark; The Ministry of Culture legislates for media politics and
licences, the Ministry of Science sets the political framework for frequency applications and the National IT and Telecoms
Agency maintains technical management of the frequency spectrum. Public broadcaster Denmark Radio (DR) runs
one national multiplex, and two regional multiplexes are run as one national multiplex by the commercial broadcasters,
however no commercial DAB services are currently on air.
The Parliament has decided that radio in Denmark should be digitalized on DAB. It is still uncertain when - and if - FM
should be shut off. Still under discussion is the question of establishing a regional multiplex and when or if broadcasting
should gradually change to DAB+. The Minister of Culture is currently concluding a report with recommendations
on these subjects to the politicians.

Further information
http://www.dabradio.dk
http://www.dr.dk




France
Population: 63 million
Current situation
Over the years, France has experimented with all formats in the Eureka 147 family, DAB, DAB+ and DMB, comparing
the benefits all parts of the standard offer.
At the end of 2007, France's regulator, the Conseil suprieur de l'audiovisuel (CSA) announced that the official standard
for digital radio in France would be DMB-A, to be marketed as Radio Numrique Terrestre (RNT). (It is worth noting
that DMB-A differs from the DMB in use in Korea because the audio codecs are different.)
In March 2008, the CSA published a call for tenders for terrestrial digital radio licences. It received an enthusiastic
response with approximately 300 plus applications and in 2009 the licences were allocated in three main towns: Paris,
Marseille-Aix and Nice-Cannes. Following this in January 2009 a law was passed setting out a three step programme
of integration of digital radio into all receivers including those in cars. It stated that on the 1st September 2013 all radio
receivers must be digital enabled, including those in cars.
Roll out of France's proposed digital terrestrial radio system, which was scheduled to start in December 2009, was
postponed. The move comes amid opposition from several sources - including private radio operators arguing that
the cost would be prohibitive and the expected financial returns insufficient. For that reason, the CSA asked the French
government to express a strong commitment to digitalization of radio in the country.
To answer this request from the CSA, the Prime Minister requested a further report to be written on the status of
digital radio and the views of the different players within the industry. This report was written by David Kessler, former
chief executive of Radio France.
Mr Kessler submitted a 22-page interim report on the planned launch of digital terrestrial radio in France to the government
on 23 October 2010. This is the third such report on the topic that the government has commissioned in the last year
the others coming from Mr Marc Tessier and Mr Hamlin. Mr Kessler's interim report summarized the existing position
of the main players in France (public radio, commercial radio networks, local stations, etc.), but it also outlined some
wider market issues.
The final Kessler report was published in mid 2011 it suggests that the conditions have not been met for the full scale
deployment of digital radio in France and suggested a moratorium on launching. During this moratorium, 2-3 years,
the French market will look at the deployment of digital radio in the rest of Europe. Also, CSA and the whole radio
industry will look at possible business models and all digital radio technologies. In the report it also states that the Government
approves of the CSA's decision to allow further trials to continue.
The CSA is now responsible for taking the findings of the Kessler report forward and in order to do this has set up
a 'Observatory' which includes all of the industry players.



                                                                                                                                      12
The publication of the Kessler report means the market can now move forward after a period of stagnation and to
this end various trial are either on-air (RNT Lyon) or planned a positive step towards digital radio.
The full English version of the Kessler report is available to WorldDMB members.

Coverage
The network operator (TDF) produced comprehensive coverage plans in 2009 ready for the start of national and
regional services. One of the benefits of digital to French listeners as pointed out by the CSA is that it will allow greater
coverage and more stations in many areas. This is important to the CSA and to Radio France who have a remit to
provide the best service including coverage to the widest audience possible.
In Lyon the RNT Lyon project has two multiplexes covering 85% of the population and some of the major highways.

Services on Air
In this country there are 2 Trial Regional multiplexes on air.

Receiver Market
Although the market has not yet launched French consumers have already shown that there is a demand for new
radio receiver products. Digital radio receivers capable of receiving DAB, DAB+ and DMB audio have already been
launch in the market and are selling in some of the major retailers (FNAC, DARTY, Boulanger, Auchan).
PURE digital leads the way in the market with the following models available: PURE Sensia, PURE Chorons iDock,
PURE Evoke 1S, PURE Siesta Mi, PURE One Mini, PURE One Classic. For more information on PURE products available
in France please visit - www.pure.com/fr
Other manufacturers with products in or planned for the market are REVO, Tivoli, Dual, Philips, Roberts and Sony.
For more information on products available in stores in Lyon go to www.rntlyon.fr

Details of Trials
After the findings of the Kessler report France will now run further trials of the DAB family of standards. Trials currently
on-air in the market include:
RNT Lyon - A nine month consumer trial being held in the Lyon area with 15 commercial broadcasters on two multiplexes
covering 85% of the population. This trial started in April 2011 and will be complete by December 2011. With a focus
on consumers the trial leader VDL, a French network operator, is raising awareness of digital radio through press
conferences, a consumer website (www.rntlyon.fr), in-store promotions, public events, social networking and on-air
marketing/promotional campaigns.
RENUTER - A trial by the car industry into the consumer needs from the TPEG traffic and travel services.
Further trials are currently planned in 2011 and 2012 by the network operator TDF as part of the further work of the
CSA.

Regulation
The current work of the CSA could have an affect on the previous regulation released in 2009 to launch digital radio.
At this time the current regulation stands;
Digital radio licences will be issued in France with a duration of 10 to 15 years and any broadcasters going digital will
get a five year extension of their analogue licences. Simulcasting, associated data and audiovisual communication
services will be permitted. Analogue and digital licences are both issued free of charge. There is a quota for French
music and new artists and the current analogue rules which govern advertising and sponsorship will apply to digital
radio.
The French Law on digital radio released in March 2009 can be found in the Useful Links section (French version).

Spectrum
Currently in France there is a lack of FM spectrum which means the French radio market has little opportunity to expand.
The French market in line with the GE-06 has allocated Band III for digital radio. There has been some discussion into
using the L-Band for coverage of motorways although this has not been confirmed.

Further information
http://france.digitalradiodr.com
http://legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000020352071
http://www.csa.fr
http://www.radio-numerique.fr
http://www.radionumerique.org
http://www.rntlyon.fr




                                                                                                                                13
Germany
Population: 83 million
Current situation
On the 1st of August 2011 Germany broadcast digital radio services on a DAB+nationwide multiplex. Fourteen new
stations from a football programme, to rock, pop, classical, talk and Christian radio can now be heard across Germany
and with the national multiplex being shared between both publ ic and private broadcasters it is expected that the
new stations on air will increase in number in the very near future.
The German Digital Radio project office (Deutchsland Digital Radio) was created to co-ordinate the efforts of all stakeholders
on the national multiplex, the public broadcasters (ARD) and Deutschland Radio. Five Working Groups were createdto
guide all areas of digital radio development and rollout . Areas covered include: Networks, Products, Marketing and
Advertising, Traffic & Travel and Automotive.
The network operator, Media Broadcast, has 27 transmitters on-air in the first stage covering all major cities and autobahns
(motorways) and plans for coverage of up to 99% in some areas are due by 2014.
A consumer on-air marketing campaign between broadcasters, manufacturers and retailers has been launched to
inform the public and retail staff working in high street shops about the advantages of purchasing a digital radio.
Germany's public service financing committee, the KEF provided funding to facilitate the roll out of national DAB+
digital radio in Germany. The funds, which allowed public broadcaster Deutschland Radio, to build out a national digital
radio network using DAB+ technology, were made available for the industry by the KEF.
Space on the network is shared between public and commercial broadcasters giving the whole industry the opportunity
to secure the future development of radio.

Coverage
27 transmitters covering the major towns, cities & motorways (autobahns) are now on-air in Germany.
Population coverage from the 1st August 2011 is approximately 40 million people with planned coverage reaching
99% of the population by 2014

Services on Air
In this country there is 1 Regular National multiplex on air.
National Digital Radio Multiplex
15 stations will be on air from 9 radio groups;
Deutschlandradio (Deutschlandfunk, Deutschlandradio Kultur, Dradio Wissen)
REGIOCAST DIGITAL (90elf-Das Fuballradio, Sunshine live, Radio BOB!)
Die Neue Welle, (Absolut radio)
ERF (ERF radio, ERF pop)
Entspannungsradio (Lounge FM)
NRJ (ENERGY)o Klassik Radio (Klassikradio)
NWZ/FOM (kiss fm)o Radio Horeb (Radio Horeb)
Deutschlandradio and the commercial broadcasters on the nationwide multiplex have released the following list of
audio and additional services:
Audio: 10 new live audio services (brands) with additional services. Deutschlandradio will broadcast 2 brands in DAB
(MPEG 1 Layer II), one digital only brand in DAB+ as well as one special brand/channel. A separate data channel will
be also an available on the national multiplex.
Data: Dynamic Label (DLS), Dynamic Label Plus (DLS+), TMC (TPEG), EPG, Jornaline, SLS, MPEG Surround Sound
other services being considered are Broadcast Website, RadioVis & File collecto
Media Broadcast will retain space on the multiplex for data services
Regional Multiplexes
The regional Public broadcasters in Germany are represented by the ARD group and Deutschlandradio. The ARD
group is the association of regional public broadcasters consisting of nine affiliates providing radio through the 16 German
states ("Lnder").
Deutschlandradio is the national public radio broadcaster in Germany with three radio brands.The public broadcasters
have launched or will be re-launching their regional digital radio networks in the next six to nine months.




                                                                                                                                 14
Broadcasters & Stations: There are nine regional public broadcasters in Germany represented by ARD: NDR, WDR,
BR, SWR, Radio Bremmen, HR, RBB, SR & MDR. Audio bitrates will differ in the regional muxes. Exact bitrates are
not yet specified.
Audio & Data: The ARD and its members have released the following list of stations and additional services to go on-air:
Audio; 60 FM licenses are split amongst the nine regional public broadcasters, German regulation does not allow
for more services to be assigned it is planned therefore that these 60 stations will be simulcast on regional digital muxes
Data: Public broadcasters have agreed that they will add value to their services using data services. Mandatory services
include; Dynamic Label (DLS), Dynamic Label Plus (DLS+), TMC (TPEG), EPG, Jornaline, Slideshow (SLS) other services
being considered are Broadcast Website (BWS), Catagorised Slideshow (SLS), MPEG Surround Sound and RadioTag
& File collector
Network: Public broadcasters are currently negotiating the set up of regional multiplexes with the commercial broadcasters
in their region. Mixed ensembles with MPEG1 L2 and DAB+ services are currently planned in some states. There will
be different frequency allocations in each of the 16 states (Länder) due to media laws/authorities/etc. In some states
two DAB ensembles will be operated in parallel. Service following from 'DAB to DAB' as well as 'DAB to FM' and vice
versa is a crucial requirement

Receiver Market
Receiver manufacturers have made the commitment to release the right products into the market at all price points
The release, by broadcasters, of the 'Proposed List of Services On-Air' document based on the WorldDMB Reciever
Profiles document is ensuring that manufacturers have the correct functionality in their receivers for the marke

Regulation
Licenses on the national multiplex were awarded on a beauty contest basis. Band III, 174-240MHz, the band reserved
in GE-06, is the frequency on which digital radio services are on air in Germany.
In 2009 after extensive research, discussions and trials DAB+ was the standard chosen for the future of digital radio
in Germany. A new Telecommunication Act is in discussion which includes a suggested analogue switch-off date
in 2015.
No restrictions apply on spectrum or formats to be used - for example broadcasters may chose mixed multiplexs
containing any part of the Eureka 147 standard -DAB, DAB+, DMB.
Public broadcasters receive funding for digital radio from a license fee - this funding is assigned by the KEF (the public
broadcasters funding body).
Current funding has been awarded to the public broadcasters for the build out of the new DAB+ networks and promotions
of digital radio for the next five years (2011-2015)

Spectrum
Spectrum is assigned on a regional basis by the Media Authorities of each of the 16 states (Länder). There are two
types of licences in Germany 'Telecommunication Licence & Media Licenses' the first is awarded to the network operator
to run the network the second assigns frequencies to broadcasters.

Further information
http://www.digitalradio.de




Hong Kong
Population: 6.9 million
Current situation
Broadcasting of 18 channels in DAB+ on a 24 hour basis will begin in Hong Kong in November 2011.
The Government has issued DAB+ licences to three commercial operators - DBCHK (formerly Wave Media), Metro
Broadcast and Phoenix U. The number of DAB+ channels (each of 64 kbps) being expected to be 7, 3, 3, respectively.
RTHK will get 5 channels, making a total on Mux 11C in VHF Band III of 18. The network development is in good progress,
orchestrated by a Steering Committee chaired by the Government's CTB of CEDB and assisted by a Working Group
chaired by the telecommunications regulator OFTA, looking at technical standards, etc.
In total nearly HK$1 billion will be invested in DAB+ in Hong Kong for the first six years.
The four DAB+ stakeholders have also formed a Consortium (an Industry Working Group in nature) which together




                                                                                                                              15
with its Technical Committee is looking after detailed network implementation. A Marketing Committee is planning
marketing and promotional activities. DBCHK will pilot-launch its DAB+ services from 3 hill-top sites - Mt. Gough, Beacon
Hill and Golden Hill, tentatively from March 2011. The other 3 stakeholders are expected to commence their services
after the rest of the primary network is completed by Q4, 2011 when the official DAB+ launch is expected to occur.
The primary network will use the 7 existing FM hilltop sites, for expediency. Additional gap-fillers will be implemented
later.
RTHK will operate and maintain the network on behalf of the Consortium.

Services on Air
In this country there are 2 Trial National multiplexes on air.

Regulation
Any DAB/DMB licensing development will be party to a review process by the Hong Kong regulator. Currently the
regulation in Hong Kong is divided between three different bodies: OFTA (telecommunications authority - spectrum
allocation), HKBA (broadcasting authority) and TELA (entertainment content licensing authority). The merger of these
various bodies, to form one broader regulatory authority, is ongoing.




Hungary
Population: 10.1 million                                                  Coverage:                                 30%
Current situation
Hungary has chosen DAB+ for its digital radio standard, and there is currently a test multiplex on air broadcasting 7
stations to the Budapest area. The multiplex is operated by Antenna Hungaria, which also runs national TV and radio
stations in Hungary.
Coverage is currently at 30% of the population, but this is expected to reach 94%by the end of 2014 as Antenna Hungaria
rolls out more transmitters and services.

Coverage
Coverage is currently 30% of the population in Budapest and the surrounding area.
Coverage plans suggest there will be an estimated population coverage of 94% by the end of 2014.

Services on Air
In this country there is 1 Trial National multiplex on air.

Receiver Market
DAB+ receivers are already available in Hungary from specialist audio visual and online stores. With a full commercial
launch, the number and type of available receivers will increase and a marketing campaign will support the sector.

Details of Trials
The first DAB trial was launched in 1995 by Antenna Hungria and Hungarian Radio. It ran until 2008 and covered almost
30% of the population centred around the Budapest area.
In 2008, when the National Communications Authority called for tenders to run digital TV and radio multiplexes, Antenna
Hungaria was the successful bidder. The company then closed its long running DAB trial and began testing DAB+
in the same area early in 2009.
In the past, Antenna Hungaria has also carried out DMB trials and mixed multiplex trials enabling direct comparison
of DAB, DAB+ and DMB.

Regulation
The government strategy for the implementation of digital broadcasting (both radio and television) was approved
in March 2007. The Act on the rules of broadcasting and digital switchover was published in June 2007. It gives the
legal background on the introduction of digital radio services, but specifies that more detailed regulation will be needed
on local digital radio and issues regarding switchover. Although the statutes say that the switch from analogue to
digtial should begin in 2014 this will only happen if, by then, 94% of the population and 75% of people have a digital
radio receiver.
In line with the provisions of this Act, in March 2008 the National Communications Authority (NCAH) published an invitation




                                                                                                                              16
to tender for a national multiplex. The winner was Antenna Hungaria which subsequently announced its decision to
broadcast in DAB+.

Further information
http://www.ahrt.hu
http://www.katolikusradio.hu
http://www.nhh.hu
http://www.radio.hu




Indonesia
Population: 240 million
Current situation
The Indonesian government has announced an official decree that Indonesia has chosen the Eureka-147 family, which
includes DAB and DAB+ for digital radio and DMB for radio and mobile TV as the national standard for digital radio.
Indonesia is the largest country in south-east Asia with a population of around 240 million. DMB trials have been running
in the capital, Jakarta, since 2006. There are currently four services on air. The trial is operated by the regulator and
MNC, the largest media company in Indonesia.
Further tests are planned for Bandung, Medan and Surabaya.
In 2007 the PST Indonesian electronics company, PT Agis, IPTV systems integrator, Broadband Network Systems
and Toshiba joined together to build a nationwide DMB network in Indonesia. The benefit of using DMB in Indonesia
is that a single frequency could be used to cover the whole of the country.




Ireland
Population: 4 million                                                    Coverage:                                56%
Current situation
The Republic of Ireland currently enjoys around 56% population coverage of DAB broadcasts.
In Cork, Limerick and the North East (including Dublin) RTE, the public broadcaster, operates a multiplex broadcasting
11 audio services and an EPG data channel. Some of these stations are exclusive to DAB and all are RTE channels.
In 2010 a trial multiplex was launched by Total Broadcast Consultants (Total DAB) in the south east of Ireland around
the Waterford area. It was originally licensed by Comreg for a year, but has been extended into a second year. This
multiplex broadcasts a mix of commercial stations in DAB and DAB+. Ten audio services are on air plus slideshow
data.

Coverage
As can be seen from the map, coverage is mainly focussed on the East coast, and nearby areas. There are two transmitters:
Three Rock which covers the capital, Dublin; and Clermont Cam which provides coverage around Dundalk.

Services on Air
In this country there are 1 Regular National multiplex and 1 Trial Regional multiplex on air.

Receiver Market
DAB sets from a range of manufacturers are widely available in electrical retail stores in the ROI.
Ireland has seen a steady increase in the sales of DAB radios. Industry monitor GfK reports 40% volume growth in
2009 (vs 2008) with 14% of all audio home systems including DAB.

Regulation
In March 2007 the Broadcast (Amendment) Act was passed into law. This makes provision for the licensing of sound
broadcast multiplexes to RT and to the commercial sector. In June, the 2008 Broadcast Bill was published. It proposes
the establishment of a single regulator for both public and commercial broadcasters, the B.A.I. (Broadcasting Authority
of Ireland).




                                                                                                                            17
With respect to DAB, the Bill allows the regulator to determine DAB multiplex coverage areas and makes provision
for the migration of existing broadcasters in those coverage areas to migrate to DAB through the concept of "relevant
incumbent". The multiplex operator is then obliged to carry these services. Once an existing broadcaster begins transmission
on DAB there is a provision for an extension of their FM licence for up to four years.

Further information
http://www.digitalradio.ie
http://www.rte.ie/digitalradio/index.html




Israel
Population: 7.2 million                                                     Coverage:                                85%
Current situation
DAB+ has been adopted as the official digital radio standard in Israel.
The Israeli Ministry of Communication offered a permanent DAB+ country-wide licence for tender in 2008. The licence
is for a period of 14 years and the winning bidder is expected to make provision for 36 channels and achieve a coverage
area of 80%, rising to between 90% and 98%, depending on location. There has been no response to the Ministry's
initial call for bids, and it may be that a multi-platform landscape, including DAB+, would better suit the country's needs.

Coverage
The infrastructure is currently in place for DAB services to reach about 85% of the population.

Services on Air
BEZEQ, Israel's largest telecom company, ran a trial DAB multiplex between 1996 and 2008 broadcasting seven services
to 80% of the country via six transmission sites. In 2008, these transmissions ceased as the Ministry of Communication
put out to tender a national DAB+ multiplex licence


Further information
http://www.godigital.co.il




Italy
Population: 59 million                                                      Coverage:                                75%
Current situation
After several years of test and trials, digital radio development in Italy is now happening very fast. The standard adopted
for the receivers in Italy (clarified by ARD association Associazione per la Radiofonia Digitale in Italia) as mandatory
is : FM RDS; DAB+ DMB-R band L & band III.
Late in 2009, the Council for the Authority of Communications approved regulation setting out steps for the future
roll out of digital radio across Italy. Broadcasters can opt for either DAB, DAB+ or DMB and the regulation allows for
the migration of services from analogue to digital. It provides clear regulation on coverage, networks for national services,
spectrum allocation for services, local coverage and rules on simulcasting and new content.
There will be one national network for the public broadcaster, RAI, and two national networks for commercial radio.
Space will be available for local radio stations and the network operator will be given additional capacity to provide
data services.
Around 75% of Italy's population can currently receive digital radio broadcasts via several trial multiplexes currently
on air. A joint project between the commercial and public radio stations Club DAB Italia, EuroDAB and Raiway plans
the launch of pilot services covering Rome, Torino, Naples and Cagliari in late 2010. The project will be extended to
cover 50% of the population by 2012 following the switch off of analogue TV and focus on major urban areas and
motorways.
There are currently 13 multiplexes on air in Italy with a mix of national and regional coverage. Between them, they
deliver more than 100 services, with around half being digital only.




                                                                                                                                18
Coverage
Coverage of the trial broadcasts is estimated to be around 75% of the Italian population (i.e. people in reach of DAB/DMB
transmissions for outdoor coverage).

Services on Air
In this country there are 3 Trial National multiplexes and 3 Regular and 6 Trial Regional multiplexes on air.

Details of Trials
Trials in Italy have included:
- July 2007 - Club DAB Italia launched the first DAB+ trials in Italy, broadcasting five audio channels.
- June 2007 - Vatican Radio carried out a DAB trial in the Pope's State.
- 2007 - A DMB trial by public broadcaster RAIway
- 2005 - RTL 102.5 became the first European radio station to broadcast using DMB technology.

Regulation
The Italian Media Authority has approved official regulations for Eureka 147 digital radio, bringing an experimental phase
to an end and paving the way for the creation of a successful digital radio market. Licences and authorisations will
be issued initially to existing FM licence holders, with remaining spectrum available for new entrants. National and
local multiplexes must carry at least five radio stations each, offering a wide choice of programmes and services. The
licence period for content providers is 12 years and for network operators 20 years.

Further information
http://www.dab.it
http://www.raiway.rai.it
http://www.ras.bz.it/de/tv_radio/dab.htm




Malaysia
Population: 24 million
Current situation
In June 2010, Malaysia's regulator, the MCMC awarded three blocks of L-Band spectrum to Asia Media, a broadcasting,
advertising and digital media company. Asia Media will use the spectrum to broadcast up to twelve T-DMB channels,
including radio and data services, as well as mobile TV.
Malayasia's public broadcaster, RTM, launched a DAB+ trial in Kuala Lumpur in 2010. This multiplex carries 15 audio
services, all of which are simulcasts of existing FM stations.
Commercial Radio Malaysia (a group of private broadcasters) are in discussions with the regulator about policy framework
for the adoption of this digital radio platform and the start of a trial.
A DMB trial multiplex from Malaysia DMB is also on air broadcasting two TV channels and one audio station.

Services on Air
In this country there is 1 Trial Local multiplex on air.

Details of Trials
Malaysia ran a DMB trial between January and mid-March 2008. It was a technical trial, organized with support from
the regulator: the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC). The trial involved one transmitter
on the Kuala Lumpur Tower plus a filler at the MCMC head office in Cyberjaya. It was broadcast on Band III, Channel
11B and carried two radio services and two TV channels.

Regulation
The first edition of the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission's Spectrum Plan was released on
1 January 2002. Two Digital Sound Broadcasting (DSB) systems were identified in the Spectrum Plan, Eureka 147
(DAB) and DRM, and there is spectrum allocation for both.
The Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) is the regulator for the converging communications
and multimedia industry. There are two main broadcast groups under MCMC, Digital Sound Broadcast (DSB) and
Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTT). Both DSB and DTTT have completed their standard submission for DAB and DVB




                                                                                                                             19
respectively and the standards are now under public scrutiny. DSB proposed DAB & DMB as the DSB standard to
MCMC. Due to the current development of DAB+, DSB is proposing DAB+ to the MCMC as an attachment to the
previous document. The recent DMB trial results and findings will be used to support the preparation the mobile TV
standard by the Mobile TV Working Group.




Malta
Population: 0.4 million                                                   Coverage:                                 100%
Current situation
Malta was the first European country to roll out a DAB+network and services were on-air in October 2008. There
are over 25 services on the multiplex which include unique digital only stations, MOT, EPG and DLS applications.
The multiplex is operated by Digi B Network and covers 100% of the population. By the middle of 2011, 16% of Maltese
radio listeners were tuning in via DAB+.
Malta boasts a vibrant and growing DAB+ community of services. The regulator, the Malta Broadcasting Authority,
has embraced digital radio and multi-media broadcasting and its enthusiasm has transferred to the Maltese population.
Digi B Network, which operates the island country's national mux, hopes to increase available services to around
40 channels. Among the stations already on air is an international mix including channels in Italian, French and German,
plus the BBC World Service and Voice of America. And there is plenty of choice among local stations too with genres
such as opera, pop, classical, news, religion, sport and jazz. By the end of 2011, the next national mux will be launched.
Digi B Network also designs and manufacturers DAB+ radios and has brought out the first DAB+ enabled car stereo
for both domestic use and export.

Coverage
Coverage has now reached 100% in Malta.

Receiver Market
A range of DAB+ radios from manufacturers such as PURE and Revo are available in Malta. The Digi B Network has
launched the first DAB+ in-car receiver which is currently available in Malta or online.

Details of Trials
Digi B is committed to bringing increased listening choice to its digital audience and will cotinue to run test broadcasts
of new services.

Regulation
In early 2006, the Malta Communications Authority awarded the country's four terrestrial DAB frequencies. The licence
runs for eight years, subject to review after six. The Broadcasting Authority in 2008 approved the rebroadcasting
of 36 foreign digital radio stations, the simulcasting of 12 nationwide analogue radio stations and of one community
radio.

Further information
http://www.digibnetwork.com




Netherlands
Population: 16 million                                                    Coverage:                                 70%
Current situation
National commercial stations have now obtained a multiplex license for a minimum of 16 DAB stations which can be
used as of 1 September 2011.
Regional stations (both public and commercial) had until 10 June 2011 to inform the minister if they would use a commercial
regional mux, or piggy back on an already issued mux (operated by MTVNL). Services are not to commence before
1 September 2011.
National Public radio will extend their existing DAB mux from 80% to 100% in the coming years and switch from DAB
to DAB+.




                                                                                                                              20
Local radio is assigned L-band frequencies.
By the end of 2011 DAB+ will be starting to roll-out in The Netherlands, resulting in over 50 stations to be eventually
received in any location.
The National Public Broadcaster, NPO, broadcasts audio nine stations and three data channels on a national multiplex
operated by NOS. The services are all simulcasts of existing PO stations, including pop, classical, oldies, current affairs
and news. Coverage of this multiplex is about 70% of the population.
Licences have also been issued in Band III to MTVNL which is currently testing DMB transmissions in The Hague, and
in L-band to CallMax which plans testing in the Eindhoven area.
There is no FM switch off date, but FM licences will be extended for 6 years until the end of 2017. Formal policy is
that ultimately 1-2 year before the end of the FM licences, there will be a full review regarding FM switch off.

Coverage
There is currently 70% population coverage with sites including Arnhem, Den Haag, East Amsterdam, Hilversum, Haarlem,
Lelystad, Loon op Zand, Lopik, Mierlo, Rotterdam.
,

Services on Air
In this country there are 1 Regular National multiplex and 1 Trial Regional multiplex on air.
This carries nine audio services (simulcast) and three data services (DAB only) and is broadcast by the public broadcaster
NOS.

Details of Trials
MTVNL is currently testing DMB transmissions in The Hague area.
A test of DAB+ in L-band by CallMax is scheduled for the Eindhoven area in 2010.

Regulation
The Dutch government issues DAB licences and determines the terms and conditions that apply to the use of DAB
in the Netherlands. It was announced that Band III and L-band should be used for DAB based services. Broadcasters
may choose to use DAB, DAB+ or DMB. The majority of interested parties are likely to choose DAB+.

Further information
http://www.digi-radio.nl
http://www.mtvnl.nl




Norway
Population: 4.9 million                                                     Coverage:                                 80%
Current situation
Norway began test transmissions of DAB digital radio very early, in the mid-90s. In fact, NRK Alltid Klassiskwhich launched
in 1995, was the world's first 24-hour digital station.
The Government, in their recent Digital Radio Report, (click here for report) released 4th February 2011, has set a switch-off
date for FM broadcasting. The date is January 2017, provided certain conditions have been met. These are:
1 - Coverage. The public broadcaster NRK must achieve similar coverage to the FM-coverage of their flagship channel
P1 by 2015 for the shut-down to take place in 2017. This coverage has not got an exact definition yet, but will probably
be in the +97% area. Commercial broadcasters on the national network #1 are required to reach 90% of the population.
2 - Listening. 50% of the listeners must daily use a digital platform in 2015 for the date to remain Jan 2017. This does
not specify market share of listening, contrary to the UK requirement, only reach. "Digital platform" also includes listening
via internet and via the digital tv-network.
3 - In-car sloution. There must be reasonably priced, well functioning in-car adaptors on the market by 2015 for the
switch-over date to remain Jan 2017
4 - Added value for the listeners.
5 - If the criteria are not met in 2015, the switchover date will be moved to 2019.
After 2017, small local stations may continue on FM. The criteria for exactly which stations will have this opportunity




                                                                                                                                 21
will be specified by 2013. The report leaves it to the broadcasters to choose between DAB or DAB+ transmissions

Coverage
National and regional multiplexes cover about 80% of the population.

Services on Air
In this country there are 1 Regular National multiplex and 1 Regular and 3 Trial Regional multiplexes
on air.
In Norway, there are two national DAB multiplexes on air, one of which is split into seven
regional muxes.
There are nine audio and one data services on the national multiplex. These are a mix of
stations from the public broadcaster NRK and commercial radio operators.
The seven regional multiplexes broadcast local services from NRK as well as some niche
programming such as classical and folk music.
In total the DAB networks offer 18 channels (DAB), with 2 additional ones available in central
Oslo only (DAB+). All major FM radio channels in Norway are also available via DAB.
One student radio station, Nova, also has temporary licence to broadcast in the Oslo central
area on DAB+.

Receiver Market
DAB receivers are available in Norway from a range of manufacturers.

Details of Trials
Norway's three leading broadcasters, NRK, TV2 and MTG, have jointly set up a new
company, IDAG, to launch mobile TV services via DMB. MiniTV trials began in the
Oslo area in 2009 with six live TV channels, on demand content and other related
services. These trials, which reach 30% of the Norwegian population, will continue
on air until 2011.
The DMB trial of MiniTV continues in the area around Oslo until 2011.

Regulation
Broadcasting in Norway is regulated according to the Broadcasting Act/Law. According to this Act, NRK has the right
to broadcast nationally. Licences for the commercial broadcasters have been issued up to 2014.

Further information
http://www.dabdigitalradio.no




Poland
Population: 38.5 million                                                        Coverage:                             5%
Current situation
There is currently one trial running in Poland delivering a mix of DAB+ and DMB services.
In the capital, Warsaw, Emitel operates a multiplex broadcasting 12 audio services using DAB+ and one mobile TV
service using DMB. It reaches 2.5 million people and airs a combination of public and commercial stations. This trial
multiplex launched in November 2009.

Services on Air
In this country there is 1 Trial Local multiplex on air.                                    Simulcast   Exclusive   Total

A DAB transmitter is operated in Warsaw in Block 10B. There are 5                  DAB+         12         0         12
programmes on air:
                                                                                    DMB         1          0          1
- 4 public radio's national services: Program One ("Jedynka", general
                                                                                  Total        13          0         13
programme), Program Two ("Dwojka", serious music, drama), Programme
Three ("Trojka", youth channel), Radio BIS (education, sciences)
- 1 local service by the local public radio broadcaster "Radio dla Ciebie" ("Radio for you")
DLS and SLS services are being transmitted currently.




                                                                                                                            22
Details of Trials
In May 2009, public broadcaster Radio Wroclaw and infrastructure provider Emitel launched a DAB+ and DMB trial
multiplex in the Wroclaw area. This is the biggest city in south west Poland with a population of around 640,000. Eight
audio channels broadcasting both public and commercial stations in DAB+ and one mobile TV channel in DMB were
broadcast in this region.

Regulation
There are two regulators for broadcasting media in Poland. The National Broadcasting Council manages and issues
licences, while the Office of Electronic Communications governs the frequency spectrum. The two bodies work closely
together.




Singapore
Population: 4.5 million                                                     Coverage:                                99%
Current situation
Singapore has enjoyed DAB transmissions since 1999 and was the first country in the world to reach 100% coverage.
MediaCorp Radio, the national public broadcaster, is a keen supporter of digital radio. The commercial operator, Rediffusion,
launched commercial DAB+ services on a subscription basis in 2008. It delivers a mix of 15 audio services on a subscription
basis, including stations from around the world, and commercial-free services.
MediaCorp Radio launched DAB services in 1999. Since then, the company has lauched a second national multiplex
(2002). The two muxes deliver a total of 14 audio services and four data channels. Data on offer includes EPG, BWS
and TPEG traffic services.
Singapore is a very car-orientated country with around 800,000 vehicles (approximately one for every five people).
In-car applications using DAB or DAB+ are seen as key to further developing the market.
MediaCorp and Redifussion continue to support the standard and are investigating an upgrade path to DAB+ which
will retain their access to VHF Band III spectrum.

Coverage
MediaCorp Digital Radio & Rediffusion both have 99% outdoor coverage.

Services on Air
In this country there are 3 Regular National multiplexes on air.
- 14 commercial audio and data services, free-to-air
- seven commercial audio services, subscription

Receiver Market
Retailers selling DAB receivers in Singapore include consumer electronics stores, car audio
retailers and Rediffusion's sales offices. Rediffusion has sponsored a number of radios for
use by the eldery (pictured).

Details of Trials
There is also an on-going DMB multimedia data service trial showing the local traffic road
conditions and a trial Traffic News DAB channel based on automated text-to-speech conversion.
Various operators in Singapore have announced their plans for commercial mobile TV services.

Regulation
Broadcasting in Singapore is regulated by the Media Development Authority (MDA). For DAB Digital Radio, there are
three different licences for three different categories; there is a DAB Multiplex Licence (eight years) where operators
are required to carry at least five audio services on each multiplex but can allocate 35% of the multiplex to data services.
The second category is a DAB Broadcaster Service Licence (five years) for content providers, which incorporates
programme and advertising guidelines issued in the analogue world. Finally, there is the Class Licence (no stipulated
licence period), which covers a range of data and multimedia services supported by DAB. The MDA has adopted
a self-regulatory approach, and there is no need for service operators to approach the MDA for approval to start a
data service.




                                                                                                                                23
Further information
http://www.dab.org.sg
http://www.rediffusion.com.sg




South Africa
Population: 47.9 million                                                          Coverage:                                     18%
Current situation
MobileTV has completed the technical tests of DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) in the Gauteng 'much earlier,
much robustly and equally successfully', according to its founder and chairman Dr Mothobi Mutloatse.
In August 2011, MobileTV submitted a technical report and an initial request towards formalising its application for a
permanent commercial license.

Services on Air
In this country there is 1 Trial National multiplex on air.

Details of Trials
By late 1997, test transmissions started in both Band III and L-Band covering Johannesburg with a DAB signal. This
established the first pilot trials in Africa. In November 1999 the demonstration audio services were replaced with seven
live audio programme simulcasts of licensed FM and AM services currently on air in Gauteng. Included are commercial
and public service broadcasters providing a mix of Talk Radio, Pop, Kwaito and Classical Music. Experimental PAD
slide-show and dynamic label services were included on one audio service in May 2000. A two-transmitter Band III
Single Frequency Network established in 2001 provides DAB coverage to approximately 18% of the South African
population.

Regulation
The regulatory framework for digital radio in South Africa has yet to be established. The Digital Broadcasting Advisory
Body (DBAB) established by the Minister of Communications completed its research into Digital Radio and Digital
Terrestrial Television. The recommendations made to the Minister are available via the website of SADIBA, the Southern
African Digital Broadcasting Association that actively supported the above processes, lobbied stakeholders and shared
information on systems and standards implemented world-wide.
In 2005 the Minister of Communications established a Digital Broadcasting Migration Working Group, comprising
representatives from the broadcasting industry, Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA),
government, civil society, organised labour and consumer groups. Its aim was to develop recommendations and
contribute towards the development of a national strategy for migrating from analogue to digital broadcasting. The
final report of the Working Group was presented to the Minister in November 2006 and is available at http://www.digitalmigration.gov.za.




South Korea
Population: 59 million                                                            Coverage:                                     75%
Current situation
As the first country to commercially launch mobile TV, South Korea is the most successful
DMB market in the world. More than 23 million DMB enabled devices have been
sold, of which the most popular are mobile phones. This number is expected to
rise even more with an increase in coverage; services already cover over 75% of
the country
Hundreds of DMB devices are available in this market and usage of mobile TV increases
year on year. Interactive services are also growing in popularity adding value to broadcasting
services. The Korean government has set up a digital audio project to recommend
a digital audio broadcasting standard for Korea. Following ETRI's investogation of various digital radio platforms, a
major decision is expected regarding the adoption of a digital radio technology for South Korean broadcasters.
More and more Korean companies are seeing the global potential of DMB (including DAB and DAB+) and are starting
to widen their focus to include the European markets and non-domestic Asian markets.




                                                                                                                                           24
Korea's latest innovation is an interactive mobile TV service, or DMB 2.0, launched by SK Telecom in April 2010. with
six terrestrial-DMB operators (TDMB). With DMB 2.0, mobile TV viewers are able to search the internet, receive news
or stock information updates, and even enjoy mobile shopping while watching television.

Coverage
DMB services cover approximately 75% of the country (almost all residential areas).

Services on Air
In this country there are 3 Regular National multiplexes on air.
There are six major broadcasters providing a variety of services to the South Korean market including mobile TV services.
New data applications such as BIFS have been introduced and broadcasters are anticipating an increase in revenue
as these will be subscription only.. TPEG services are also available giving the consumer traffic and travel information.
There are seven video services, 13 audio services and eight data services on air, five of them public and 23 commercial.

Receiver Market
There are a large number of retailers in Korea selling DMB devices, and there are over a hundred different models
by over thirty different manufacturers on the market. The most popular are DMB mobile phones and GPS devices.
Sales have sky-rocketed since the initial launch of DMB services.

Regulation
The Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC) and the Korean Broadcasting Commission (KBC) govern broadcasting.
The MIC is responsible for the development of broadcasting technology, spectrum management, and the licensing
of stations. The KBC is responsible for regulation of content and advertising, as well as authorising and recommending
licences. Only one licence is awarded to the multiplex operator, who can then either provide their own programmes
or can lease capacity to other programme providers. The government divided the country into six regional broadcasting
areas and 13 new nationwide broadcast licences have been granted for DMB services.

Further information
http://www.dmb-alliance.org




Spain
Population: 45 million                                                     Coverage:                                52%
Current situation
Spain first began broadcasting digital radio in April 1998 covering Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia. There have also
been trial services in the Basque country and Catalunya.
The Council of Ministers reached an agreement on Digital Radio in June 2011 and approved a Digitalization Plan for
Terrestrial Broadcasting, with the following measures:
- Flexibility for the broadcasters, in order to allow for migration to DAB+
- Study of a possible reassignment of the multiplexes
- Promotional activities throught the Spanish DAB Forum
- DAB+ trials
- Study of the necessary conditions to determine the date of possible analogue switch off
It is expected that technical trials will be carried out in September 2011.
The Spanish DAB Association (Asociacin Foro de la Radio Digital), comprising both national private and public broadcasters,
is responsible for DAB/DAB+ in Spain.

Services on Air
In this country there are 3 Regular National multiplexes and 2 Regular and 1 Trial Regional multiplexes on air.
A total of 29 DAB audio services are on air.

Receiver Market
There are a small number of electrical retailers selling DAB digital radios in Spain, and this is expected to increase after
technical trials and a roadmap for digital radio has been approved.




                                                                                                                               25
Details of Trials
.

Regulation
National station licences are issued by the central government, while local and regional licences are the responsibility
of the regional government. Licences are valid for ten years with an automatic renewal for a further ten years and
operators must commit to the promotion of DAB Digital Radio. Advertising and sponsorship are permitted under the
same rules which exist for analogue radio, and data is permitted on up to 20% of multiplex capacity.

Further information
http://www.dabbarcelona.info
http://www.radiodigitaldab.com
http://www.rtve.es/dab




Sweden
Population: 9.1 million                                                     Coverage:                                35%
Current situation
Following lengthy trials by the public broadcaster, Sveriges Radio, DAB radio in Sweden is moving to DAB+.
DAB transmissions started in 1995 and today reaches 35% of the population with 7 services from public service broadcaster
Swedish Radio.
A new Radio and TV Act came into effect in August 2010 which, for the first time, allowed commerical radio companies
to apply for digital licences. This paved the way for a radio industry united behind DAB+, something for which both
public and commercial services have been lobbying for some time.
In 2011, the national authority for radio and television stated that the licensing process for commercial digital radio
will now start. The strategy has been formed together with the Post and Telecom Agency following a public consultation.
It states that the terrestrial network is an important distribution platform for radio and that digitalisation is needed to
further develop the platform.
In 2011, the national authority for radio and television stated that the licensing process for commercial digital radio
will now start.
DAB+ is the preferred choice of technology and Swedish Radio have stated their intention to switch their current DAB-services
to DAB+..

Coverage
The DAB network (mux 1) is operated by Teracom and covers major cities Stockholm, Gothenburg, Malmo and Alvsbyn
on a single frequency 12B. DAB coverage from the the Public Service broadcaster, Sveriges Radio, currently reaches
about 35% of the population.
The DAB+ network (mux 2) today reaches 22% of the population with around 16 services from all the major broadcasters;
Swedish Radio, MTG radio and SBS radio.
Current coverage maps can be found here:
http://www.teracom.se/Sandarinformation/Tackningskartor/Tackningskarta-digitalradio/
Network operator, Teracom AB, continues work to improve network coverage to take advantage of the relaxations
allowed by the Geneva-06 international frequency plan.

Services on Air
In this country there are 1 Regular National multiplex and 1 Trial Regional multiplex on air.
Mux 1 carries 7 programmes from public service broadcaster Swedish Radio. Most of them are webbchannels only
broadcasted in DAB and not on FM.
SR Varlden (world news/music)
SR Klassiskt (classical music)
SR Knattekanalen (childrens channel)
SR Minnen (archives)
SR P1 (spoken word)
SR P3 Star (youth channel)
SR P7 Sisuradio (finnish speaking channel)
Mux 2 carries 16 programmes from all the major broadcasters; Swedish Radio, MTG radio and SBS radio, as well as
community radio channels and channels today only available on the Internet.

                                                                                                                                26
SR P2 Musik (classical music)
SR P3 (youth channel)
SR P4 Stockholm (local/regional news and sports)
SR Metropol (hiphop, soul and hits)
Mix Megapol (adult contemporary)
Rockklassiker (rock channel)
Vinyl (oldies channel)
The Voice (hip-hop and RnB)
Hitzone (various/hits music)
Skrgrdsradion (archipelago news/weather)
Radio Seven (dance/hits music)
Dansbandskanalen (dance hall channel)
Rix FM (adult contemporary)
Bandit (rock channel)
NRJ (youth channel)
Radio 1 (spoken word)
In addition to the audio services there are also a few data services available which include: SR Plus, a BWS service
which contains a condensed version of the SR web and SR EPG, a trial version for testing electronic programme guides
and SR TPEG, which is a test service for future TPEG streams.

Details of Trials
n 2009, Teracom started pilot transmissions of DAB+ with the purpose of letting commercial, community and public
service broadcasters trial the new technology.
A brief summary on the DAB+ pilot can be found here:

Regulation
In 2011, the national authority for radio and television stated that the licensing process for commercial digital radio
will now start. The strategy has been formed together with the Post and Telecom Agency following a public consultation.
Some positions in the digital strategy:.
- The licenses will be decided in the form of a beauty contest. There will be only a smaller administrative fee for application
and annual use of spectrum
- The technology T-DAB and compatible technology should be used and DAB+ could further be specified in the license
conditions.
- The entire broadcast space that the government has dedicated to digital commercial radio, two multiplexers in band
III, each divided in 34 regions, will be included in the licensing process.
- It will be possible to seek licenses for both national and regional broadcasts. How many such permits granted and
the breakdown between national and regional licenses will be determined after an overall assessment of the applications
received in each region.
- There will be no requirements in the license for an average minimum or maximum bit rate per service. Each applicant
should state their capacity needs per service knowing that the starting point of licensing is that each transmitter can
accommodate max 16 services @72 kbit/s each.
- The license holders shall cooperate in technical matters including choice of network operator. Coverage requirements
may be imposed to ensure that the digital broadcasts reach a certain proportion of the population within the broadcasting
area.

Further information
http://www.sr.se/digitalradion




Switzerland
Population: 7.5 million                                                      Coverage:                                 93%
Current situation
Switzerland first launched DAB digital radio services in 1999 when the public broadcaster, SRG SSR went on air.
Today there are five regional multiplexes covering the German, French and Italian speaking areas of the country, with
a mix of public and commercial services.




                                                                                                                                  27
There is also a mix of standards broadcasting in Switzerland with multiplexes transmitting both DAB and DAB+ services.
Swiss digital radio on DAB or DAB+ now covers over 90% indoor coverage and 99% of the population on outdoor
coverage.
The original four multiplexes are run by the public broadcaster SRG SSR, and the first commercial DAB+ multiplex
which was launched on October 13th 2009 now broadcasts 13 commercial radio stations in the German-speaking
part of Switzerland.

Coverage
Digital radio on DAB or DAB+ in Switzerland reaches over 93% of the population.
See here for more information - http://www.broadcast.ch/map.aspx
Services on Air
In this country there are 5 Regular Regional multiplexes on air.
- 29 programmes on DAB/DAB+ in the German-speaking part of Switzerland
- 12 programmes on DAB/DAB+ in the French-speaking part of Switzerland
- 12 programmes on DAB/DAB+ in the Italian-speaking part of Switzerland
- 10 programmes on DAB+ in the Romansh-speaking part of Switzerland

Receiver Market
All radio and TV retailers as well as the major chains now sell DAB+ receivers in Switzerland, and there is a huge choice
of different receivers in the market.
750,000 receivers had been sold by mid-2011 and internal forecasts expect accumulated sales to rise to 790'000
by end 2011. Currently, over 10% of all households have access to a digital radio.

Further information
http://www.digitalradio.ch
http://www.swissmediacast.ch




United Kingdom
Population: 60.6 million                                                   Coverage:                                85%
Current situation
The Government-Industry Digital Radio Action Plan, published in July 2010, sets out a detailed timetable and tasks
to build momentum and prepare for the switchover to digital radio. Switchover will be consumer-led and specific criteria
will have to be met before Government decides when it will take place.
The Digital Economy Act 2010 gave the Secretary of State the flexibility to set a date for digital radio switchover.
Before a date can be set, two criteria need to be met:
- 50% of listening must be to digital platforms.
- Digital coverage for national services must be comparable to FM and local DAB reaches 90% of the population and
major roads.
The Act also says that, in deciding whether or not to set a date, the Secretary of State must consider information
supplied by Ofcom and the BBC; consultation must be held with radio licence holders, listeners' representatives and
others. Everyone who has a stake in UK radio: listeners, the BBC, commercial operators and the regulator will have
an input into when switchover takes place.
22 million people now tune in to digital radio each week, an increase of two million from last year, according to Q2
2011 RAJAR figure. Digital now accounts for 26.9% of all listening hours, up 14.3% since last year. Of all radio listeners,
46% now listen via a digital platform each week, an increase of 2.1 million people or 10.7% year on year. Ownership
of DAB digital radios in the home has seen strong growth to almost 40% (38.9%), up from 35.3% since Q2 2010, an
increase of 2 million adults. Digital television listening has increased to 4.8% of all listening, up from 4.1% in Q2 2010.
Internet listening now stands at 3.2%, up from 2.9% in Q2 2010.




                                                                                                                              28
Coverage
Local DAB multiplexes are estimated to cover 66.2% of households; the BBC's national DAB multiplex covers 92.2%
of homes (which will increase to 93.8% by the end of this year) and the comparable figure for the national commercial
multiplex is 84.6%. Ninety-three per cent (93%) of main TV sets are connected to digital television and carry some
radio services, and 75% of homes have an internet connection.

Services on Air
In this country there are 2 Regular National multiplexes, 10 Regular Regional multiplexes and 38 Regular Local multiplexes
on air.

Receiver Market
There are hundreds of DAB products on the market in the UK being sold through
a large number of high street and online retailers as well as most of the big electrical
chains. The cheapest receivers are sold at no more than GBP20.

Details of Trials
Slide show trials via DAB are currently on-going in the London area.

Regulation
A Royal Charter and Agreement govern the public broadcaster; the BBC, with new
stations subject to Government approval and the Office of Communications (Ofcom) regulate the commercial sector.
Multiplex licences are currently awarded on a beauty contest formula rather than auctioned. Regulation controls such
things as minimum bit-rate for music stations, mandatory must carry' obligations, maintenance of service providers
stations commitments and the amount of data content. An Ofcom consultation document entitled 'The Future of
Radio requested comments from the industry on changes to the current regulation system (total% of data permissible
etc), there were around 160 responses to this document and Ofcom issued its final report at the end of 2007. Analogue
commercial broadcasters who receive a DAB licence have their existing analogue licences extended for an additional
eight years. Digital One (the national commercial multiplex operator) is required to carry the three existing commercial
analogue national radio stations, and local and regional commercial operators must carry local and regional BBC (public
radio) stations. DAB licences are awarded for 12 years. Commercial and public operators may carry broadcast data
services. The national commercial operator must invest in promoting and marketing DAB. As part of the bid for the
second multiplex DAB it was stipulated that DAB+ could not be used for radio stations though it could be used for
data services such as podcasts.
The UK Government published its final Digital Britain report on 16th June. This follows on from the governments Digital
Radio Working Group report which published its own recommendations for the digital future of radio in the UK. The
Digital Radio Working Group suggested that these criteria could be met between 2015 and 2020 and therefore a
switchover could occur as early as 2017.
The Digital Britain Report set out a five point plan for DAB to be in all new cars by 2013 is proposed and the report
called on the European Commission to lead a common Europe-wide approach to digital radio. The Digital Britain report
by Lord Carter, the British Minister for Communications, is the culmination of work by the Department of Culture, Media
and Sport (DCMS) and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (DIS).The report can be found in full at http://www.culture.gov.uk/images/publications/digitalbritain-finalreport-jun09.pdf
Details of the Digital Economy Act which sets out details of plans for migration of analogue to digital radio can be found
at http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2010/ukpga_20100024_en_1

Further information
http://www.culture.gov.uk/publications/7876.aspx
http://www.getdigitalradio.com




Vietnam
Current situation
VTV has been broadcasting T-DMB services on air in Ho Chi Minh City since Dec 2010 with 3 transmitters covering
the city area.
T-DMB Total Solution has been developed by ETRI to provide a T-DMB pay service and includes CAS (Conditional
Access System), MOS (Monitoring Operating System), CMS (Customer Management System), and BS (Billing System).
VTV plans to draft a Memorandum Of Understanding with ETRI and launch a T-DMB commercial service in Hanoi
in 2011.
At present, VTV is planning to apply for a new national licensee to carry out T-DMB services nationwide, which aims




                                                                                                                                                                                                      29
to cover 10 cities in Vietnam in the next 2 years. VTV have partnered with XONE FM, a radio station with a target focus
of young audiences, to provide digital radio content through T-DMB networks. They also plan to launch self-branded
mobile phone receivers at a retail price of approx $100 per unit. VTV has been granted a 15 year digital broadcasting
license in 2011 to provide T-DMB services and also plans to apply for a Telecom operator license in the near future
in order to converge digital broadcasting and telecom services in Vietnam to provide more diverse services including
data and traffic services.

Services on Air
VTV launched 2 TV channels and 1 Radio DAB service in Hanoi at the beginning of 2010 and by the end of 2010, VTV
had increased their services to 6 TV channels and 1 Radio.
There are currently 3 multiplexers in Hanoi.

Details of Trials
ETRI has performed a T-DMB Total Solution integration test with VTV, Broadtech SC from 1st October to 7th October
2008 in Hanoi.




                                                                                                                          30
                                                                          Countries with DAB and DAB+




                    DAB Launched and   DAB Launched and
     DAB Launched                                         DAB+ Launched
                    DAB+ Trial         DAB+ Launched


                                       DAB Trial and
     DAB Trial      DAB+ Trial                            DMB Audio
                                       DAB+ Trial




31
                                Countries with DMB




     DMB Launched   DMB Trial




32
Other countries using DAB, DAB+ and DMB
Brunei Darussalam
Current situation
In 2007 RTB (Radio Television Brunei, the public and main broadcaster) began a DAB trial, which will last for five years
and will include simulcast services. Five RTB stations currently broadcast on DAB in Brunei.
A task force has been set up within RTB, which is working closely with AITI (Authority for Info-communications Technology
Industry of Brunei) on the plans for a commercial launch.




Canada
Current situation
DAB services have been on air in Canada's major cities - Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ontario and Ottawa for around
10 years with coverage reaching about 35% of the population.
While the rest of the world has embraced DAB or DAB+ using Band III, Canada's digital output is restricted to L-Band.
This has resulted in a lack of receivers in the market, high prices and slow consumer uptake. Combined with the fact
that the US, Canada's powerful neighbour to the south, has opted for a different system of broadcast, this has led
to a complete re-think by the regulator, CRTC, and broadcasters on the future direction of digital broadcasting in
Canada.
The situation is complicated by the need for spectrum, currently occupied by dormant DAB transmitters, for new
digital TV and broadband roll out.
The CRTC has discarded its 1996 plan for DAB replacement of all AM and FM radio. Instead it proposes keeping these
stations on analogue and using L-Band for new digital multi-media services. However, stakeholders are considering
how L-Band is used in other countries before deciding how to reallocate the spectrum.
As a result, while exisitng DAB multipexes are slowly being dismantled, there is no firm plan for replacing them and
delivering digital radio services to Canada's population of 32 million potential listeners. Canada's broadcasters are
expected to lobby for a portion of the L-Band spectrum to be retained for broadcasting services.

Coverage
DAB stations operating in the five main cities Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver and Ottawa have provided services to
some 11 million potential listeners or more than 35% of the population. In the short term, these numbers will reduce
as multiplexes are closed and L-Band spectrum is reallocated. Once there is a settled digital broadcasting landscape
in Canada, it is expected that some of the spectrum will be used for a revised digital radio system, possibly using DAB+.

Details of Trials
Radio-Canada (CBC) and Communications Research Centre Canada have been carrying out demonstrations of
DMB in Montreal, Toronto and in Ottawa to raise the awareness of these DAB-based technologies among broadcasters,
regulators and Telecom (Mobile) industry.
Also, there are seven DAB stations (four commercial and three public) field-testing in Halifax, Nova Scotia. A service
was also on-air in Windsor in 2000 however this has now ceased.

Regulation
In its 1995 transitional policy, the CRTC allowed a maximum of five programmes per multiplex, which prevented broadcasters
from offering an attractive choice of programmes on DAB. In 2006 in response to requests from broadcasters the
Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) agreed to change Canada's 1995 transitional
policy to allow more freedom to provide DAB only programmes to attract more consumer interest (i.e. more services
per multiplex, use of L-Band, multimedia, subscription). There is no news on the future of regulation in this market.




                                                                                                                             33
Chinese Taipei
Current situation
The Broadcasting Corporation of China (BCC), a private network with nationwide coverage, operates three FM and
three AM channels as well as a digital audio broadcasting system.
In July 2010, the Government of Chinese Taipei announced plans for digital convergence by 2015. During the first
stage of the program, from 2010 through 2012, a number of bills will be formulated and sent to the legislature for passage,
including a radio and TV broadcast law.
Chinese Taipei has been a supporter of DAB and DAB+ broadcasting and planned for a full implementation of digital
broadcasting (both TV and radio) by 2010. Lack of marketing, promotion and consumer awareness has slowed this
digital expansion. The new laws currently being developed should set a firm timeline in place for digital conversion
of all media and telecoms.

Coverage
Previous trials undertaken by BCC (formerly the public broadcaster, now the commercial broadcaster) had a network
of transmitters to cover 90% of the population, whilst the commercial operators have, so far, mainly concentrated
on Taipei city only.




Croatia
Current situation
Trials using DAB were were launched by Croatian Radio Television (HRT), the biggest Croatian public broadcaster,
in 1997. Centred around Zagreb, the HRT multiplex broadast simulcasts of its three national radio services.
This trial has now been completed.

Coverage
DAB coverage exists in northern Croatia around the capital city of Zagreb and its suburbs. The network can potentially
reach 1.2 million people, or around 20% of the Croatian population.




Estonia
Current situation
Estonia has been carrying out experimental DAB broadcasts since 2000. There were four DAB programmes available
on the multiplex of the Eesti Rahvusringhling (ERR) the Estonian Public Broadcaster though no information is currently
available on whether these services remain on trial.




Ghana
Current situation
On 14th May 2008 FonTV, Africa's first mobile phone enabled television content service, was launched via DMB. The
network is operated by Black Star TV in collaboration with OneTouch and VDL. This launch followed on from a successful
trial that ran in Accra during 2007.
FonTV is a subscription based service costing around 2 Euros a month. Currently operating three mobile TV services,
including the BBC World News, Black Star ultimately hopes to provide up to six TV channels and four digital radio services.
While coverage is currently limited to the areas around Accra and Kumasi, the operator has plans to roll out FonTV
across the country.




                                                                                                                              34
Coverage
At the moment coverage is limited to the two cities of Accra and Kumasi, but this will be extended in due course.




Greece
Current situation
There is currently interest in the Eureka 147 platform in Greece and, although no services are on air, DAB radios are
available in many shops.
Frequency planning has allocated a national multiplex and one for each of Greece's nine regions. It is likely that when
Greece does progress its digial radio roll out it will use DAB+.

Details of Trials
There are reports of occasional DAB tests in the Athens and Thessaloniki areas.




India
Current situation
The vast country of India with its population of over one billion people, has considered several variations of digital radio
over the past decade. All India Radio (AIR), the public broadcaster, started trial DAB broadcasts in New Delhi in late
1997, but was unable to progress to permanent broadcasts due to regulatory issues.
In 2010, the Indian government approved an AIR plan to move its entire network to DRM by 2013, with a possible
FM switch off by 2015.
India has tested mobile TV broadcasts using T-DMB and S-DMB.
The challenge for India is to ensure that any new digital technologies have receiver prices at a realistic level for the
price-sensitive Indian consumer.




Kuwait
Current situation
Following a DAB trial that has been ongoing in Kuwait City since March 2007, preparations are now under way for
the second phase of the trail. This may include either DAB+ or DMB. The current trial is led by Kuwait Radio and broadcasts
eight audio programmes from Liberation Tower on Band III, covering almost the whole country. A decision regarding
commercial roll out is expected once all the trials have been completed.

Coverage
DAB trials cover about 90% of the population.




Lithuania
Current situation
In June 2001, SC LRTC (SC Lithuania Radio and Television Centre) started DAB test transmissions with 2 public radio
programmes. In 2003 four commercial services were added to the multiplex. About 20% of the population in the
Vilnius area are covered with DAB services. There is currently no information on whether these services remain on-air.




                                                                                                                               35
Coverage
A 500W transmitter is installed in Vilnius and covers an area of approximately 30km (about 20% of the population).




Mexico
Current situation
In recent years, Mexico has tested several digital radio platforms, including DAB, DRM and HD radio. While there is
support for digital radio via the Eureka 147 standard among some Mexican broadcasters, a Cofetel official says "The
primary problem for Eureka in Mexico is that here the L-band is used for maritime transmissions and space communications."
In 2010, the country's broadcast regulator, Cofetel, decided on IBOC as Mexico's primary digital radio platform, in
line with its neighbour to the north, the USA.




Monaco
Current situation
A TDMB test was carried out in VHF band III on Channel 6A between July 2009 and September 2009. Monaco and
the area around it has a transmitter, but due to some ongoing technical issues, at present Monaco is on stand-by
for digital radio broadcast.
Prior to this, the principality of Monaco has been broadcasting DAB digital radio services to 100% of its population
of 32,000 people since 2005. There are five stations on air, MFM, Radio Classique, Radio Monaco, Riviera Radio and
RMC. All are simulcasts of existing FM services.

Regulation
Due to Monaco's status as a constitutional monarchy the Government decides media policy under royal authority.




Namibia
Current situation
The Namibia Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) held a conference in early March 2002 to look into digital broadcasting
for radio and television. As a result of the conference, greater and on-going co-operation between SABA (Southern
Africa Broadcasting Association) and SADIBA (Southern African Digital Broadcasting Association) has been planned.
While the immediate emphasis has been on Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT), which was launched in Namibia in February
2005, broadcasters are equally interested in DAB Digital Radio. A number of digital radio test broadcasts have been
conducted in South Africa.




New Zealand
Current situation
New Zealand's government owned broadast and telecoms company, Kordiia, has been operating a DAB test service
in Auckland and Wellington since October 2006. The multiplex currently delivers a mix of DAB and DAB+ services,
including nine audio channels, slideshow and EPG.
Originally, New Zealand's digital radio allocation was in the L-Band, but the majority of broadcasters prefer spectrum
in Band III. Band III, however, is currently being used for terrestrial telelvision, so it is unlikely that a full roll out of services
will happen much before 2012 by which time TV will be digital in New Zealand.
Digital radio services in New Zealand are expected to be broadcast in DAB+.




                                                                                                                                          36
Details of Trials
Kordia's test transmissions in Auckland and Wellington are ongoing using a mix of DAB and DAB+ broadcasts.




Portugal
Current situation
Expansion of the DAB network awaits a decision by the Portuguese government. It is likely that future roll out will use
DAB+ or DMB.

Coverage
There are 42 transmitters in use, 27 in the mainland, nine in Azores and six in Madeira, covering more than 75% of
the population.




Russian Federation
Current situation
In 2005 and 2006 DAB was demonstrated at CSTB, Russia's largest broadcasting event. However, plans to launch
services have been delayed due to a lack of available spectrum.




Slovakia
Current situation
Slovakia currently has no digital radio broadcasts of any kind, nor are any trials known to be on air.
In 2002 a report entitled "Strategy and Technical Criteria for Implementation of Terrestrial Digital Audio Broadcating
in T-DAB System" was submitted to the government for approval.
The original intention was to start regular DAB transmissions in L-band in the western part of Slovakia in 2006, and
to later start DAB transmissions in VHF. There has been no recent update from Slovakia and therefore details of the
latest situation are unknown.




Slovenia
Current situation
Slovenia's public broadcaster, RTV Slovenia, broadcasts four DAB services on a trial multiplex covering the capital
city of Ljubljana and central Slovenia. About half a million people, or 22.5% of the population, are potentially able to
receive DAB transmissions.
.




Turkey
Current situation
TRT, the Turkish Broadcasting Corporation, has aired DAB test transmissions broadcasting four simulcast services




                                                                                                                           37
in Band III and covering the capital, Ankara. A second transmitter was also planned for Istanbul. In 2010, neither transmitter
was broadcasting and it is assumed these trials are now complete.

Details of Trials
As well as the trials mentioned above, TRT had plans to broadcast MPEG-4 video over DAB.




                                                                                                                                 38
Potential building blocks for legislators and regulators
It is impossible and potentially dangerous to attempt to impose common regulation, or to suggest that one country's
regulatory regime would work in any other. However, it does make sense that within any collection of separate regulator
regimes, there should be some common threads.


Licence Period
DAB based services require new transmitter networks. This is an expensive exercise requiring considerable capital
investment. However, this allows for a cost effective investment if one is interested in using one network for both
Digital Radio (DAB/DAB+) and Multimedia Services (DMB for mobile TV, Data Services, etc).

In a dynamic radio/multimedia market, any new venture will take between five and seven years to achieve a break-even
point. Clearly, if the multiplex licence period is shorter than this, or if renewal of shorter duration licences is not possible,
it makes little commercial sense for potential operators to launch DAB based services.

The same applies to a lesser extent, to the broadcasters (if their licences are separate from those of the multiplex
operator). What incentive is there to invest in new facilities or programming if the licence duration is restricted? Time
is also required to build up a listener base for a new service, and for commercial broadcasters this often means little
or no advertising revenue for an extended period.


Programme Content
DAB based services enable the delivery of new digital radio stations or simulcast of existing radio programmes; audio,
data and multimedia are also possible. The data services can be either "stand-alone" or related to audio content,
providing the potential for multimedia listening.

The laws regarding delivery of data services vary substantially from country to country, being completely unregulated
in some parts of the world and restricted or denied in others.


Bit-rate of Audio Services
The technology of the Eureka 147 Family of Standards packages a finite number of kilobits into audio and data services
on a multiplex. It is possible to broadcast as many as 12 audio stations on one multiplex using traditional DAB and
around 28 audio stations with DAB+. These figures may vary depending on each country's regulation.

Across the world, there are differing views as to how many kilobits per second are required to broadcast music effectively.
In some countries, the level is 256 kbit/s for traditional DAB, but if this is applied across the multiplex, then a maximum
of only four audio stations can be carried. This may not leave room for new stations, and denies DAB Digital Radio
listeners the increased choice they should expect when they invest in new receivers. DAB+, which uses a more efficient
audio codec AAC+, provides the same perceived audio quality as DAB at about one third of the sub-channel bit rate
needed by DAB.

In other countries, such as the UK, stereo music is currently broadcast using 128 kbit/s, with an acceptable result.
This was confirmed by the Ofcom ICM poll, which showed that "81% of all respondents rated sound quality as either
excellent or good, with a further 14% rating it as average. Only 3% rated it as poor or very poor, with 2% who said
they didn't know." As digital technology has progressed, new audio coding algorithms have been developed which
can deliver the same spectrum audio quality at a reduced bit-rate. As a result, regulators could look at a system of
co-regulation in which minimum bit-rates are abolished, but licensees are required to establish and apply appropriate
criteria and practices for securing quality.

With the introduction of DAB+, broadcasters now have the opportunity to reduce the cost of each audio service. Governments
and Regulators have better spectrum efficiency and consumers have a larger choice of stations. WorldDMB has successfully
standardised the inclusion of this new audio coding algorithm, which can easily be added to any DAB multiplex (ETSI
TS 102 563 V1.1.1).




                                                                                                                                    39
Analogue Switch Off
It is intended that conventional analogue FM broadcasting will eventually be replaced by digital radio, with Eureka
147 at its core. Therefore, one of the factors for the success of digital radio is the closure, at least for mainstream broadcasting,
of existing analogue stations.

It is unreasonable to expect this closure to happen overnight, but there is little incentive for broadcasters and receiver
manufacturers to take Eureka 147 Digital Radio seriously if governments continue to ignore analogue shut down in
their various legislative proposals.

To this end, governments should endeavour to make digital broadcasting available to every analogue broadcaster,
no matter how small. This means ensuring there is adequate spectrum available to accommodate all existing analogue
broadcasters; it could mean creating a plan to help smaller broadcasters to meet the cost of going digital.

Some countries have already suggested analogue switch off dates. The Norwegian public broadcaster, NRK, has
set 2017 as a switch off date. The UK has recently begun discussing possible dates also.


Spectrum Scarcity
Another key factor for success is the availability of frequencies for DAB based services. The spectrum demand was
studied by the World DAB Forum in 2000, and it was clearly demonstrated that an appropriate amount of spectrum
is needed during the migration from analogue to digital in order to accommodate all existing analogue broadcasters.

An international regional planning conference for the VHF and UHF broadcasting bands in Europe, Africa, Middle East
and the Islamic Republic of Iran held its final session in Geneva from May to June 2006 and resulted in increased spectrum
for T-DAB and DVB-T in Band III (VHF) and for DVB-T in Bands IV and V (UHF).

The increased spectrum for T-DAB is partially available now and after a transition period it will become fully available
in 2015 (except for a few countries when this will not happen until 2020). This positive result will contribute to a structured
development of digital radio.




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All information is correct to the best of our knowledge at the time of document creation 03 September 2011.
WorldDMB cannot take responsibility for any mistakes or incorrect data.
WorldDMB Forum Project Office
The RadioCentre
77 Shaftesbury Avenue
London, W1D 5DU
United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 20 7306 2531
Fax: +44 20 7306 2539
www.worlddab.org

				
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