Mexico by jizhen1947


 Sophie Hodges, Veronica Trujillo,
Cyrus Myrzazedeh, Momi Quereto,
       Anisa Norris, Sarah Wolley
    Explicit Rights
Women were granted suffrage in steps. (1934-
 Tabasco only, 1947- municipal govts)
1953- women are granted the rights of full
 citizenship on a national scale (vote and hold
 political office).
First female house member in 1954.
First female Senator in 1964.
First woman governor in 1981.
A little over 20% of the seats in congress are
 held by women
Mexico is ranked 52nd on the list of countries
 attempting to close the gender gap (U.S.A. is
From the early 80s to about 2000 Mexico went
 through neoliberal reform (following trend set by
 the U.S. and Britain)
Women have are at an advantage due to
 Mexico‘s lesser developed economy. [they are
 expected to work in order to support a family (in
 a different capacity of course)]
This reform + second wave feminism lead to
 economic opportunities for women in more
 corporate/ professional settings.
Abortion and Reproductive Rights

  Abortion is controversial in Mexico
  It is offered to women in Mexico City up
     to 12 weeks into pregnancy
    Abortion is forbidden in 18 out of 31
     state constitutions
    More than 12 women have been
     sentenced up to 30 years in prison in
     more conservative states
Abortion and Reproductive Rights Continued

    The Mexico City Policy is also known as the ―Mexico City Gag
    It was a United States gonverment policy that required non-
     governmental organizations to refrain from promoting and also
     performing abortions
    Mexico performs about 297,000 per year
    The US performs about 1.37 million per year
Birth Control and Family Planning

        Government sponsored family planning
         program is called Mexfam
        Women in Mexico with no formal education are
         around half as likely to use birth control
         compared to educated women
        Around 70% of women use birth control
        Planned Parenthood and The Mexican
         Federation of Private Health and Community
         Development Associations are trying to
         increase birth control education
        At local drug stores, most birth control is
         offered for free
Status of Homosexuals in Mexico
2001 Amendment (vaguely prohibits
 discrimination based on sexual orientation)
2003: federal anti-discrimination law
 (second LA country, pretty broad
 coverage) & CONAPRED, recognition civil
 unions in MC&Coahuila
March 2010: Same-sex marriage/adoption
 legal in MC (recognized in all states)(also
 only place right to change legal gender)
Rights for/attitudes about homosexuals

decriminalized 1871 (French Rev)  used
 laws against public indecency/immorality
influence progressive Mexico City +
 foreign cultures  changing attitudes, esp.
 metro areas (backlashes)
early 1970s: groups emerge, big
 marches/parades since ‗79
legal gains made through PRD, PT,
 occasionally PRI (cuz party of the
BUT police discrimination/lack of
 punishment, violence (about 3 murdered
 per month), hate crimes, gays not allowed
 in military
BUT it‘s being talked about
Turning Points in History
 1821 right to vote and own property but:
 Lives consisted of family life, marriage and
  Catholic Church.
   In 1844 (pre-revolution) Mexican Civil Code, restrict
    women‘s rights at home and work. Inequality
 During the revolution involved in politics and
  supported causes
   Prominent political activists, thinkers, writers, figures,
    role models
   Their fearlessness often resulted in jail terms
Turning Points in History
 Despite the inequalities, highly ranking women
  gained the respect of men and women alike
  They even set the precedent for generations to come in
   their thinking and political tactics
 Solderadas (caregivers) and female soldiers
  joined men on the frontlines
  Historians portray them as sexual beings rather than
Turning Points in History
 Zapatista women
  Aid soldiers from their homes
  Revenge for dead family members or to perform raids
  Wore men‘s clothing and carried pistols long after
 Machismo: Any role attempted by women that is
  outside traditional subversive role of wife and
  mother considered unusual, if not rebellious
 Important and diverse roles during the Mexican
  Revolution, gave rise to post-Revolutionary
  feminist organizing.
Turning Points in History
 Women‘s contribution to the Zapatista rebellion:
  Intellectuals - conventions to discuss local, national and
   international issues of democracy, justice and liberty
  Supporters – active as soldiers and also within
   indigenous communities, communication and security of
   the EZLN (Zapatista Army of National Liberation)
  Combatants - defense against the local Guardias
   Blancas, self-defense against forced marriage and
   physical abuse
Turning Points in History

harassment and rape of activist women
 uninvestigated and unpunished
creates a culture of fear
           Men vs. Women in Society & Politics
  Male-male relationships: extreme aggressiveness
  and stubbornness.
  Male-female relationships: sexual aggression and
 Family settings:
  Women expected to give the ultimate sacrifice for
  the family while men expected to earn the income.
In 32 Mexican states, there are only 2
 women governors
Only 2 women in the federal government's
By 2007, only 19 of the country‘s 2435
 municipalities were headed by women.
López (PAN) and González (PRD)
  Running in the next elections, dropped from the
   ballot and replaced by businessmen.
 Some changes Needed—
 Traditional Gender Roles Broken. Women should not be only expected in
  the home, and given more opportunities in the work place
         -Change? Possible, but not probable. The country‘s strong religious
  background will make it difficult for the government not only to enact laws,
  but enforce those laws, especially in its present state.
 Homosexual rights—Laws against hate crimes, more specific at least in
  homosexual rights.
         -Change? Possible, but slow going (Same as U.S.)
 Protection of Women who are activists
         -Change? Possible, not probable.
 Political rights—Women should have a greater chance to participate
  politically in the government, more than the 19/2435 women in charge of
         -Change? Possible, but slow going
"LGBT Rights in Mexico."
 23 Feb. 2011. 26 Mar. 2011.
"Special Report on Homophobia and Hate
 Crimes." Human Rights Commission of
 Mexico City, 27 July 2007. 26 Mar. 2011.
 Diefenthaler, Sarah, and Kim Schmitz. ―An Examination
  of Traditional Gender Roles Among Men and Women
  in Mexico and the United States‖. nd. pg 40. March
  25, 2011.
 Cevallows, Diego. ―Mexican Indigenous Women
  Challenge ‗Machismo‗‖. May 4, 2009.
  indigenous-women-break-machismo > March 25, 2011.
 Gonzalez, Barbara. ―Mocking Affirmative Action in the
  Mexican Congress.‖ September 4.
  ng-affirmative-action-in-the-mexican-congress/ > March
  25, 2011.
 Summary
 Wikipedia
 Gender gap
 Book

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