SOPAC's Integrated Approach in Facilitating Adaptation to Climate by yaoyufang


									                             SOPAC’s Integrated Approach in
                         Facilitating Adaptation to Climate Change
                                      within the Pacific

                      Adaptation / CDM
                     12-14 October 2004,
                        Apia, Samoa

                   Presented by:
                   Paul L. Fairbairn, Manager Community Lifelines
                   South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC)

                          This presentation provides a range of snippets from
                          recent presentations in particular from the 33rd
                          SOPAC Annual Session and associated Science,
                          Technology and Resources Network (STAR) 21st
                          Therefore a very big thank you (vinaka vakalevu) to
                          all those that have openly offered and contributed
                          their papers to be part of this presentation on
                          SOPAC’s role in facilitating adaptation – indeed one
                          of assisting in bridging research, policy, science
                          and implementation.

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                                       SOPAC at a GLANCE
                           The South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission [SOPAC] is
                           an intergovernmental, regional organisation with 20 member
                           countries, including 18 Pacific island countries and territories,
                           as well as Australia and New Zealand.
                           SOPAC’ s work is carried out through its Secretariat, based in
                           Suva, Republic of the Fiji Islands.

                     The three key (3) Work Programme areas within SOPAC are:
                     •     Ocean and Islands
                     •     Community Lifelines
                     •     Community Risk
                           Including the cross-cutting / linking project of the EDF8&9 –
                           “Reducing Vulnerabilities of Pacific ACP States”.

                     The Programmes are supported by the Corporate Services Division.

                                     SOPAC - Vision & Mandate
                                                   OVERALL VISION
                           Natural resources, principally non-living resources,
                           developed in a sustainable manner and resilience of Pacific
                           peoples strengthened.

                           SOPAC is mandated to:
                           contribute to sustainable development, reduce poverty and enhance
                           resilience for the peoples of the Pacific
                         by supporting
                           the development of natural resources, in particular non-living resources,
                           investigating natural systems and the management of vulnerability
                           applied environmental geosciences, appropriate technologies, knowledge
                           management, technical and policy advice, human resource development
                           and advocacy of Pacific issues.

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                                       Ocean and Islands
                          Overall Goal – To improve technical knowledge of
                          ocean and island eco systems for the sustainable
                          management of natural resources

                      Component 1 – Resource use solutions (Develop for SOPAC
                          island members technical and scientific solutions for the assessment,
                          development and management of natural resources)
                      Component 2 – Monitoring Physical and Chemical Change in
                          Ecosystems (Assist SOPAC island members in developing appropriate
                          strategies for the management of island ecosystems based upon
                          information from long-term sustained monitoring)
                      Component 3 – Ocean Governance (Support SOPAC Island
                          members in meeting their obligations for the effective management of
                          non-living resources, as articulated in relevant international and regional

                                     Community Lifelines
                         Overall Goal – Improve community access to energy,
                         water and sanitation, and information and communication
                         technologies for sustainable livelihoods

                      Component 1 – Resource assessment, development and
                         management (Strengthen SOPAC Island members in resources
                         assessment, development and management for energy, water,
                         wastewater and, information and communication technologies)
                      Component 2 – Asset management (Strengthen SOPAC Island
                         members in asset management for energy, water, wastewater and,
                         information and communication technologies)
                      Component 3 – Advocacy and governance within
                         Community Lifelines (Support SOPAC Island members to develop,
                         promote and implement appropriate policy, planning, regulatory
                         frameworks and community awareness)

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                                            Community Risk
                            Overall Goal – Improve community access to energy,
                            water and sanitation, and information and communication
                            technologies for sustainable livelihoods

                     Component 1 – Strengthening Resilience to Disasters
                            (Strengthen SOPAC Island members disaster management capabilities)

                     Component 2 – Mitigating the Effects of Hazards
                            (Develop, for SOPAC island members, scientific solutions that provide a
                            knowledge base for the mitigation of hazards and reduction of vulnerability)

                     Component 3 – Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management
                            (Assist SOPAC Island members in the process of mainstreaming risk
                            management practices into national development planning)

                        ANNEX – to SOPAC Presentation

                    ?   Interventions
                        –    Support to WSSD / CSD processes both regionally and to the
                             Missions in NY
                        –    Participate in the Round Table on CC,CV & SLR
                        –    Participate in the Ad Hoc WG on CC,CV & SLR
                        –    Management of the Matrix – Adaptation/Mitigation
                        –    Contribute to the development of the Funding Facility for
                        –    Contribute to the review of the Framework for CC

                        –    Regional / National Support (See examples that follow)

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                                Examples of SOPAC’s
                            interventions with respect to
                                   adaptation in:

                            • Ocean & Islands Programme
                            • Community Lifelines
                            • Community Risk

                                  Applications for Islands
                                   Systems Management

                              Manihiki Lagoon – A Cook
                                Islands Case Study

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                                        Data Acquisition
                        ?   Multibeam mapping
                        ?   Long term temperature logging – CTD profiles
                        ?   Water level measurements, ADCP and lagoon
                            wave climate
                        ?   Mapping of farm boundaries – GCP for image

                                  Farm Boundary Mapping
                                                       Farm locations 2003
                     Farms locations 1997

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                         Beneficial Outputs From Mapping
                                     Farm Plots
                         ?   Knowing the farm boundaries more additional
                             information on line density can be estimated
                             from the sidescan data
                         ?   To benefit farmers individual bathymetry plots
                             can be generated
                         ?   Identification of point source pollution in the
                         ?   For Island Council permitting of new farms
                             extensions or closing off can be better managed.
                         ?   Introduce some degree of order in farm layout

                                        Manihiki and Penrhyn Atoll
                                     Oceanographic Monitoring Buoys
                                      - An application of Coastal GOOS -

                      Penrhyn lagoon as viewed from the north

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                        The Implementation of Real-time
                               Monitoring Buoys
                         ?   Temperature - for preparing the shells
                         ?   Water quality – dissolved oxygen, turbidity, PAR
                         ?   Atmospheric data sun, wind, rain

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                                                         Data uplink via Iridium satellite
                                                         phone to base station once a day

                                                         Data received and archived
                                                         at SOPAC

                                                         Daily data then is emailed
                                                         out to a recipient mailing list

                                                        Hard copy graphs, reporting of
                                                        monitored parameters produced
                                                        and sent weekly/monthly to Island

                       ?   Improved community interaction - a better informed Island
                       ?   Real-time monitoring for evaluation of potential risks
                       ?   Reduce stocking – therefore improved management of
                           resource and environment
                       ?   New maps at scale large enough to be used at Island
                           council administration centre
                       ?   Updates easily achieved using GPS
                       ?   Individual issue of pearl farm detail in permit procedures
                           renewals and new issue
                       ?   Circulation and pearl farm layouts improved
                       ?   Baseline data for permitting new pearl farms
                       ?   Safe diving practice, real-time monitoring
                       ?   Maps of individual farms bathymetry circulation patterns
                       ?   Greater profile of where individual pearl farms are located

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                        Republic of the Marshall Islands -
                                  Majuro Atoll
                          Sand and Gravel Resources

                                                           No Image data area

                                           Ikonos image of Majuro Atoll

                     The bathymetry and morphology of the east of Majuro lagoon was
                     mapped using multibeam. The field work was completed in July 2002.
                     The map shown below summaries all the work completed in Majuro
                     in the assessment of sand and gravel resources.

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                         The location of the resource areas are shown in the image
                         below. The data shown includes a shaded relief map of the
                         bathymetry with bathymetric contours.

                                   Resource areas 1,2

                                                                 Plan view showing
                                                                 bathymetry of potential
                                                                 resource area 2

                                                                For an area of 83,500 m2
                                                                   contains a potential
                                                                       resource of
                                                                 approximately 1 million
                                                                  m3, within a 10 - 24 m
                                                                      depth range.

                                                           3D view of resource area
                                                           2 looking along the
                                                           lagoon slope to the east.

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                                  Other Linkages to O&I
                        • Coastal Erosion in Tonga – Tongatapu                  and
                        on Atata Island (the question was it human impact, natural
                        process or both?) included a combination of historic aerial
                        photographs, satellite images at different dates and local
                        survey and levelling.

                        • South Pacific Sea Level Monitoring
                        Project – Aligns with activities within the O&I
                        Programme where data and information collected provides
                        and builds on earlier baseline data and assists in providing
                        continuity of information for planning and modelling.

                        • Tools – Use of GIS, Remote Sensing, aerial
                        photographs, satellite images combined with swath mapping
                        data and information for modelling.

                                Examples of SOPAC’s
                            interventions with respect to
                                   adaptation in:

                           • Ocean & Islands
                           • Community Lifelines Programme
                           • Community Risk

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                       20 kW Wind Turbine Installed & Post Graduate
                          Education Programme Developed with USP

                                                                     Vergnet, Clay
                                                                     UNEP, French

                             Biomass Resource Assessments
                         (Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu)

                                  Partner: Imperial College London
                                  Funding: NZAID / Perez Guerrero

Type II Partnership Initiatives                                                      13
                         Coconut Oil as a Bio-fuel – Feasibility Study

                                            Funding: Japanese Government /   NZAID

                        Site Specific Wave Energy Monitoring (FJ/CK)

                    Partner: US Wave Energy Inc.
                    Funding: US Wave Energy, Taiwan(ROC)

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                                Scope of Pacific Dialogue
                                  on Water and Climate
                      ?   Water in Small Island Countries” theme Kyoto

                      ?   Poverty of opportunity, economies of scale, limited
                          resource base (economic, human, natural)

                      ?   ADB / SOPAC led regional consultation for the 3rd
                          World Water Forum from “Vision to Action”

                      ?   Special theme on “Island Vulnerability” includes
                          Pacific Dialogue on Water and Climate

                             Pacific Dialogue Objectives

                            ?   Enhancing public awareness

                            ?   Exchanging views and experiences

                            ?   Developing political commitment

                            ?   Building capacity

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                                Links to DWC White Paper

                            ?   Status of current scientific knowledge

                            ?   Political & decision making framework

                            ?   Assessment of strategies

                            ?   Identification of ‘hot spots’

                            ?   Framework for communicating results

                    Status of current scientific knowledge
                       ?   Climate
                            – Climate observation well established
                            – Forecasting capacity available

                       ?   Water resources
                           – Lack of water resources data
                           – Lack of capacity
                           – Limited use of science in water resources

                       ?   Needs
                            – Integration of climate information and local
                              water resources management
                            – Capacity building

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                                      Policy analysis

                     ?   Need to develop and implement water policies,
                         legislation and master plans

                     ?   Emphasis on disaster response rather than

                     ?   Pacific Island High Level Adaptation Seminar (WB,
                         ADB, UNEP, SPREP, SOPAC) Fiji May 2002

                     ?   Develop and improve drought and flood forecasting
                         to support coping mechanisms

                     ?   Information on water and climate integrated in
                         disaster preparedness and mitigation plans

                     ?   Integration into Pacific Community Hazard
                         Assessment and Risk Management programme

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                                         Priority areas

                              ?   High volcanic islands
                              ?   Raised coral islands
                              ?   Low lying atoll islands
                                   – Saltwater intrusion
                                   – Floods
                                   – Droughts
                                   – Coastal erosion
                                   – Cyclones

                   Framework for communicating results
                     ?   Recommendations on policies and strategies to
                         SOPAC member countries

                     ?   Knowledge transfer to technical counterparts
                          – Pilot projects
                          – Hydrology training
                          – Pacific HYCOS / Linked GCOS & PI-GCOS

                     ?   Linkages with international and regional
                         programmes related to Water and Climate
                          – Climate adaptation facility
                          – WSSD Water and Climate partnership initiatives

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                       Pacific Dialogue Synthesis Report
                       ?   Introduction (Pacific Islands, People, Climate)
                       ?   Island Vulnerability
                       ?   Water Resources and Water Use
                       ?   Managing Vulnerability
                       ?   Pacific Regional Action Plan

                       ?   Joint Programme of Action with Caribbean
                               ?   Exchange on Climate Adaptation
                               ?   Exchange on IWRM and Capacity Building
                               ?   Exchange on Water Resources Assessment
                               ?   Exchange on Applied Research

                                     Island Climate Update (ICU)
                                                  End Users and Beneficiaries:
                                                  - Hydrologists
                                                  - Meteorologists
                                                  - Disaster Managers
                                                  - Natural Resource Managers
                                                  - Utility Managers (Water / Power)
                                                  - Regional / International Organisations

                                                       Publication Issues 2004-2006

                                                     Partners: PIC Met Offices, NIWA,
                                                                SOPAC, SPREP
                                                     Funding: NZAID (current)

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                          Year 1 of Hydrological Training - 2004
                                     3 year programme at SOPAC Secretariat Suva
                                     1st year 2004 Surface Water (2004)
                                     2nd year 2005 Surface Water + Groundwater
                                     3rd year 2006 Surface Water + Groundwater

                                  Partners: NIWA/UNESCO/WMO
                                  Funding: NZAID

                         Rainwater Harvesting Project - Vava’u,
                                            Participants at “Training of Trainers
                                            Workshop” involved in operation
                                            and maintenance matrix
                                            development activity (guidelines)

                                            Community member from Utungake
                                            with newly constructed rainwater
                                            tank (May 2004)

                                             Partners: TCDT / UNEP
                                                  Funding: SIDA

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                                 Examples of SOPAC’s
                             interventions with respect to
                                    adaptation in:

                            • Ocean & Islands
                            • Community Lifelines
                            • Community Risk Programme

                               Comprehensive Hazard and Risk
                                    Management Tool
                      ?   The development and adoption of CHARM as a tool
                          has provided a basis for strengthening PICs ability
                          to plan and better manage extreme events.

                      ?   The tool primarily focuses on mitigation actions so
                          as to be able to reduce the impact of events but
                          hand in hand also provides a strong link to include
                          adaptation measures.

                      ?   The CHARM process is detailed in the following

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                            Community Risk Management Process
                       C                   ESTABLISH THE CONTEXT
                       O                                                                    M
                       M                                                                    O
                       M                         IDENTIFY RISK                              N
                       U                                                                    I
                       I                                                                    T
                                                 ANALYSE RISK
                       C                                                                    O
                       A                                                                    R
                       T                        EVALUATE RISK
                       E                                                                    A
                                                    Accept risks?                           N
                       D                                    No
                                                  REDUCE RISKS
                       C                                                                    E
                       O                    (MITIGATION STRATEGIES)                         V
                       N                                                                    I
                                           MANAGE RESIDUAL RISKS                            E
                       L                                                                    W
                                            (DISASTER MANAGEMENT
                       T                        ARRANGEMENTS)

                           Activities in the Community Risk Programme
                      Implement the Pacific Regional Disaster Risk Reduction Action
                      Plan 2005-2015
                      This will be based on the outcomes of the Kobe World Conference, and build on
                      the lessons learnt from the past decade, which were highlighted in the
                      Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action.

                      Development and application of an “Integrated Risk Reduction
                      Planning Guide”
                      To assist the process of implementing CHARM as an effective risk reduction
                      decision making tool in support of national development planning in member
                      countries the Community.

                      Application of the “Regional Disaster Management Planning
                      Development of a “CHARM Implementation Guide and Training

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                                  Additional Programme Activities

                     There has been a significant amount of survey and modelling work
                     carried out that directly links the oceans and hazards to adaptation
                     issues within the region. This includes extensive work to-date in
                     Vanuatu and Niue following recent extreme weather events and in
                     the Cook Islands in relation to the pearl industry.
                     These along with other SOPAC work activities are supported
                     through the use of GPS and Remote Sensing including the use of
                     aerial photographs as base (historic) information provide a
                     reference point for and for overlaying currently available satellite
                     This work linking in particular into the EDF8/9 work on aggregates,
                     the potential sources and impacts on mining these.

                                  An Integrated Approach

                      SOPAC as detailed in this presentation has carried out a wide
                      range of work within it’s 3 key Work Programme areas including
                      the more recent interlinked and in parallel work through the
                      EDF8/9 Project focusing on Reducing the Vulnerability of Pacific
                      ACP States.
                      In delivering this support it is obvious that whilst addressing
                      adaptation there a significant number of areas where mitigation
                      and reducing vulnerability also appear. Hence there are linkages
                      not only within the scope of SOPAC’s Work Programmes but also
                      with the activities of other regional organisations and agencies in
                      their mandated areas of work.

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                                                                An Example

                                The following slide provides an excellent and very
                                clear example of the in parallel and complementary
                                activities that currently exist within the region.
                                Obviously if the page was bigger there are also
                                other regional organisations and agencies within the
                                Pacific that could add a piece to the picture.

                                     Disaster Management and Climate Change
                                               Disaster Management                1990            Climate Change
                                                                       Yokohama                                          Kyoto
                                    SPDRP I & II        IDNDR                            PICCAP       UNFCCC            Protocol

                                   S            National Disaster                                 National Climate
                                               Management Council                                 Change Country
                                   O                                                                   Team                         P
                                   P                                                                                                R
                                               NDMO & Red Cross &                               Environment &
                                   A             Disaster Response                            Meteorology Dep. &                    E
                                                     Agencies                                 Environmental NGOs
                                   C                                                                                                P
                                                    Man-Made &                                 Changing Climate &
                                                   Natural Disasters                          Extreme Weather Events

                  Figure 4: Parallel         CHARM & Vulnerability &                          Community Vulnerability
                  development of               Capacity Assessments                               & Assessment
                  Disaster Management
                  activities by SOPAC
                  and Climate Change
                                                   PREPAREDNESS                                                                    Source – Draft -
                  activities by SPREP                 & RISK                      2003                                             Disaster Risk
                  (Source: Nakalevu, T             MANAGEMENT                                                                      Management
                  (2003))                                                                                                          Report Rev.1.

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                                  Thank You

Type II Partnership Initiatives               25

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