intent by stariya


									                                  INTENT AND USE GUIDE
                                     Updated 10/09/03

Many work items require a map showing the location of the included work, and a road listing
showing other features like road length, pay items which apply, and scheduling priority. The
sections requiring the map and the road listing are shown here to avoid repetitive information:
811, 813, 814, 815, 816, 832, 833, 834, 835, 837, 838, 841, 842, 851, 861, 862, and 872.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   1
                             Section 807 - Equipment Rental (2/02)

INTENT: This Section provides a way to obtain the Contractor's personnel and equipment to
perform emergency work that is not covered under existing bid items. It is not to be used as a
replacement for force account crews or competitive bidding of routine work. The key word is
emergency. This Section is not to be used to take care of omissions in the contract nor
additional work discovered afterward.

Emergency work is generally classed as: 1) storm or flood emergency having a substantial
threat of loss of investment in roads, or 2) immediate threat to public life due to accident
damage or similar problems.

The Contractor is required to make any equipment used on the contract at the time of
emergency available. The Contractor may offer equipment that is available but not in the
contract work area, but is not required to offer it.

Explanation of Subsections:

807.03 - EQUIPMENT: Equipment not actively working on the contract is considered
unavailable under the contract unless the Contractor determines to make it available for work.
Equipment of this type is to be checked for compliance with fire and safety requirements
established in the contract.

The Work Order should normally allow time for straightening up existing work under other
Sections prior to starting Delivery of Equipment to Site.

807.04 - DELIVERY OF EQUIPMENT TO SITE: In determining transport or roading option
with the Contractor, the COR should keep in mind that equipment transportation should be the
Contractor's responsibility. Transport on a noncontractor truck transport should only be done
in recognition of potential claims in case of equipment damage. The work order should
establish a starting point for measuring time (or kilometers) for transport and the location of the
equipment to be moved.

807.05 - HOURS OF OPERATION: The Contractor's regular working shift may include
overtime or be restricted to less than eight (8) actual operating hours. If the established work
hours do not fit the situation, the Work Order must outline those that are appropriate.
Operations should normally be limited to daylight hours in consideration of operator safety and
additional lighting needs that are not otherwise required in the contract.

807.06 - TIMEKEEPING AND COMPENSATION: The COR is responsible for keeping track of
the time for emergency equipment rental. Deduction will not be made for time when the
equipment is being held on standby against the possibility of more work. The Contractor's
time will terminate with the Work Order which releases the equipment at it original location.

                               INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)    2
                                   Section 807 - Continued

WORK ORDERS: Work Orders are extremely important under this Section. They provide the
basis for all payments. Inadvertently delaying an ending Work Order, for example, makes a
greater payment obligation than would have been necessary.

Work Orders under this Section should provide a brief description of what end result, or
function, the Contractor is to provide upon arrival at the site and establish the basis of the
contractor's move. For example:

     "Gradall to keep debris from jamming against bridge.
     Equipment to be roaded during normal work hours."

Subsequent Work Orders are to be used to terminate work under this Section and should
include delivery for the equipment at the "point of hire" and ending point for the transporting

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   3
                        Section 808 - Work Area Management (2/02)

INTENT: Each contract involves some occupancy of the traveled way which requires use of
standard warning methods for motorist safety.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: All contracts unless work is entirely limited to work contained under
                         Sections 835 or 839 without end haul (Section 832) involving other

            Requires use of: None, this is self supported.

Explanation of Subsections:

808.02B: Most work will interfere with motorists use of the traveled way. A basic plan for this
work is to be agreed on for each Section under the contract before work commences. The
adherence to the plan is helpful in protecting Contractor and the Government in case of
accidents by casual motorists as will as providing reasonable worker protection.

808.02C: All signs and barricades are to be reflectorized. Use of plain cardboard or plywood
with freehand brush, or spray lettering for signs is not acceptable.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   4
                                  Section 811 - Blading (2/02

INTENT: For the timely ordered performance of routine blading on Level 3-5 roads. May be
used on native and aggregate travelways, turnouts, and abutting shoulders of the same
materials as the travelway.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: 812-813 when processing is required

            Requires use of: 891 for water

Explanation of Subsections

The contract is to outline a schedule of work in adequate detail to allow the Contractor's
preparation of a Work Schedule under Section F-5. Change in work sequence outlined in the
approved Work Schedule can be ordered by the Governments Representative when needed
to provide timely maintenance for public safety and surface drainage. The contract is to
include a Road Listing which established the intended timing (Scheduling Priority) for the work
to be performed and includes needed information such as requirements to inslope, outslope,
or crown segments.

811.02A - Work ordered for routine blading will not include compaction unless additionally
ordered and included in Special Project Specifications. The contractor may elect to do minor
scarification without compensation. When scarification is known to be necessary to rip dust
abate areas or for other Government reasons, a Special Project Specification should be
developed for that purpose. Care will be needed to keep cutting to bottom of chuckholes
incidental on other roads.

811.02B(2) - Section 891 must be included in the contract or watering cannot be required.

811.02B(3) - Maintenance of lead-off ditches is under Section 831. Maintenance of drainage
dips at times not coincident with blading is under Section 837.

811.02D - Roads requiring compaction will be included in the Road Listing.
If compaction method A is specified, trucks or other equipment being used in conjunction with
the work may be used . Single-lane roads generally cannot be compacted full width by trucks
or similar equipment. Compaction on single-lane roads should normally be Method B which
requires Pay Item 811(5) in the Schedule of Items and inclusion of the Road Listing.

Turnouts are considered an integral part of the traveled way and turnout compaction is to be

811.02G - The number of intersections to be bladed are to be estimated and included in the
estimated quantities.

811.02H - Applies only to materials resulting from the Contractor's work.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   5
                              Section 811 - Blading (Continued)

811.02I - The placement of new berms is not appropriate under the Standard Section, but may
be provided for by adding a Special Project Specification.

811.03A(1) - The definition of Lane shall control in measuring and ordering work. The use of
calibrated survey odometers or measurements between accurate established kilometer (mile)
posts provides a sufficiently accurate measurement of single lane kilometers (miles) along
road centerline.

Measurements are to be based on the work ordered and accepted. In cases where the Order
is not specific or subject to misunderstanding, measurement shall normally be based on the
limits of the contractor's operations on that road or segment. It is therefore necessary for all
Work Orders involving spot work to be specific on location and extent of work; field marking of
spot areas may be necessary to avoid misunderstanding.

811.03A(2) - The allowance of 0.1 kilometer (mile) for each intersection is established in
recognition that the work involves a number of equipment shifts and widths. If differing lengths
are established the allowance should be reevaluated for increased work but allowed at 0.1 for
any lesser lengths.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   6
                         Section 812 - Dust Palliative Treatment (2/02)

INTENT: This section is for use to abate dust. It includes standard materials specifications for
applying petroleum and non-petroleum products. It is not intended to use this Section for
providing a bituminous running surface.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: No other sections.

             Requires use of: 811, when blading is required and 891, when water is

Explanation of Subsections:

A decision needs to be made as to what type of abatement material and the application rate
will best work on the existing road surfacing; consider rainfall, temperature and humidity, the
availability of water, past performance, the road surface material type and surface condition,
and the product cost.

The following specifications may be needed: Water 891 and Blading 811. Water 891 will
normally be needed prior to and possibly during product application.

812.02 - Contract should require LIGS, MG CL2, Ca CL2B, CA CL2F, or a Bituminous Dust
Palliative unless abatement is only for contractors hauling. If nonpersonal service contract
shows OPT on the road listing, the Contractor may use water to abate dust for contract haul or
one of the commercial products, but payment for such will not be made. Use of OPT in
nonpersonal service contracts requires care in Road Listing and Schedule of Items quantities
to avoid confusion. If bituminous dust palliative products are specified, Section 892 is required
and possibly Special Project Specifications.

NOTES: Materials may be delivered at a differing percent solids then that stated in this
Section. Adjustments in application rates, measurements and payment will be necessary
when this occurs.

812.05(B) - Desired application and/or dilution rates for bituminous dust palliative treatments
must be shown on the Drawings and/or described in Special Project Specifications. See the
table below for some typical guidelines. Very good references include "Guidelines For Cost
Effective Use and Application of Dust Palliatives" by Roads and Transportation Assocication of
Canada, 1987 and various R6 informational write-ups by R6 Regional Pavement Engineer.
When water is planned for diluting emulsified bituminous products prior to application, the
water will normally be incidental.

                               INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   7
            Typical 1st                       Ideal
            Total               Typical       Percent
            Application         Percent       P 75micro     Recommended
Product     Rate                Solids        (P#200)       Surface Condition
Lignin      4.53 L/sm           50%           10-30%        Need an open or loose
Sulfonate   (diluted 50/50)                                 surface to get optimum
                                                            penetration, best to loosen
                                                            upper portion of surface

Mg Cl       2.27 L/sm           30%           10-20%        Penetrates reasonably well,
Brine                                                       might not need to loosen the

Ca Cl       1.58 L/sm           38%           10-20%        Penetrates reasonably well,
Brine                                                       might not need to loosen the

Ca Cl       1.0 kg/sm           77%           10-20%        As the flakes absorb water
Flake                           pure                        the CaCl penetrates into the

Bit.        Varies              Varies        5-20%         There are a number of emulsion
Dust                                                        and non-emulsion products
Palliatives                                                 available, some will
                                                            penetrate into the surface
                                                            without the upper portion of
                                                            the surface loosened by

Blotter material or any other corrective action needed as a result of Contractor's improper
application of materials may be ordered and is considered incidental.

812.05(D) - Section 811 (Blading) should be included in the contract when needed. Ideally
one wants the road properly shaded (reestablish crown, inslope, or outslope) and the road
surface permeable so that it can absorb the dust palliative. Some dust palliatives permeate
more readily than others, see the above table for suggested surface conditions.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   8
                               Section 813 - Spot Surfacing - (2/02)

INTENT: To provide minor spot surfacing. Any more than this should be included in a
construction contract.

Crushing is not intended; material should be available in stockpile or from commercial

Areas "designated by the Government" are allowed for additional work not identified by
location when the contract is prepared.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: No other sections.

            Requires use of:      Special Project Specifications if Government furnishes
                                  material, 811 if processing is required,
                                  893 if commercially supplied material.

Explanation of Subsections:

813.02 - Unless material is Government furnished, Section 893 (Aggregates) is to be included
in the contract, and a gradation must be provided in Special Project Specifications. Aggregate
gradation should be selected to approximate materials existing on the road.

813.03A - Scarification is optional with the contractor and incidental unless prescribed in
Special Project Specifications.

813.03B - Any "additives" required must be designated in the Special Project Specifications.
When other than breaking track compaction method is required, Method B will be specified in
the schedule of items.

813.05 - When more than one gradation is required, additional Pay Items are to be
established in Special Project Specifications.

DRAWINGS: Each contract is to include a MAP (or maps) which shows the location of all
roads listed in the contract and Government-furnished sources.

                                INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   9
                        Section 814 - Asphalt Pavement Patching (2/02

INTENT: To be used to repair asphalt traveled way and shoulders. Patching under the
Service contract is meant to include normal pothole patching and smaller skin patches which
can be accomplished with the same equipment. More extensive work should be completed by
a construction contract.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: No other section.

            Requires use of: Special Project Specifications 815

Explanation of Subsections:

814.02 - When bituminous mixtures from established sources are used, standard state
specifications will be allowed. If contractor elects to mix materials on site, the contractor is to
provide a mix design for the materials intended. This mix design must be approved by the
Government prior to use.

A Special Project Specification is mandatory and must include the mix Gradation and type (hot
or cold) authorized.

Tests for conformity are the Contractor's responsibility, however, the Government
Representative should perform additional checks as needed.

814.03B(3) - Special Project Specifications or drawings must include emulsified asphalt grade
and dilution rate to be used and indicate the approximate spread rate of application for pothole
and skin patching, priming and tacking.

814.03D - Designated disposal areas must be included in the contract. If special treatment of
disposal areas is needed, requirements must be described.

Designation of disposal areas under Section 832 can be used when included in the contract in
lieu of designating under this Section.

                               INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   10
                          Section 815 - Paved Surface Cleaning (2/02)

INTENT: The use of this Section is to clean the pavement surface and/or bridge decks. The
extent of cleaning necessary should be able to be accomplished by conventional method such
as power broom or blowers.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: 814, 816, 817

            Requires use of: 891 if flushing is allowed.

Explanation of Subsections:

815.02B - If Contractor elects to use hydraulic flushing, water will be incidental.

815.03 - Bridge deck cleaning will normally require all materials to be moved off the deck

815.04 - Partial passes are defined as those less than 1.5 m (5 feet) in width. The use of a
calibrated survey odometer or measurements between established mileposts provides a
sufficiently accurate measurement of length.

815.05 - An estimate of quantities is to be included in the Schedule of Items.

Pass Kilometers: 1.5 m (5 feet) for sweeping paved edge or shoulder to clean fog lines.

Lane Kilometers: Sweeping and cleaning full width or paved surfaces, including turnouts.

                               INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)    11
                   Section 816 - Maintenance of Unpaved Shoulders (2/02)

INTENT: To be used to reshape aggregate shoulders on paved roads to their original
configuration. Generally all work required in this Section can be accomplished by a grader
with attachments.

Work is to be identified prior to the contract. Any additional work will be ordered by a Work
Order and staked on the ground when necessary to identify location.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: No other section.

            Requires use of: 813, 815, 891 if water is required.

Explanation of Subsections:

816.02 - Existing shoulder materials would only be reshaped under this Section. Shoulder
material can be added when Section 813 (Spot Surfacing) is included in the contract
scheduled at the same time on the road(s).

It is expected that vegetative and other unsuitable materials will typically be of insignificant
amounts that may be bladed on to the adjacent slopes. If significant quantities are expected,
Special Project Specifications must be included.

If water for compaction is needed, Section 891 (Water Supply and Watering) must be included
in the contract.

This Subsection requires materials be removed so the pavement edge and any markings are
defined. Cleaning is to be accordance with Section 815 (Paved Surface Cleaning) and is

816.03 - The use of calibrated survey odometers or measurements between accurate
established mileposts provides a sufficiently accurate measurement of single lane kilometers
(miles) along road centerline.

Measurements are to be based on the quantity staked or ordered and accepted. All orders
involving spot work need to be specific on location and extent of work; field marking of spot
areas may be necessary to avoid misunderstanding.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   12
                 Section 818 - Asphalt Crack Cleaning and Sealing (2/02)

INTENT: This section provides for cleaning and sealing of cracks that are 7 mm (1/4 inch)
wide and wider.

                            INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   13
                           Section 831 - Ditch Maintenance (2/02)

INTENT: To clean and reshape all types of drainage ditches and provide a uniform cross
section, but not add ditches. Cleaning is intended to mean removal of cutbank slough, rocks,
limbs, and concentrations of sediment and other debris from within the ditch.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: 832 for ditched slide areas.

            Requires use of: 832 for end haul, 815 paved surface cleaning.

Explanation of Subsections:

831.02A - Basic control for ditchline cross-section is established by the existing ditchline
before and after the staked limits of work. The basic purpose is to restore ditch functions,
however, Special Project Specifications may be established to flatten the foreslope ratio of the
ditch and define the road for subsequent blading under Section 811. Material above the
elevation of the near traveled way shoulder is classed as slough or slide material removable
under Section 832.

831.02D - Suitable material should be unsaturated soil and small rock to benefit the native
road surfacing. Other materials including woody debris is to be hauled or disposed of per
Special Project Specifications.

831.02E - Materials from ditch cleaning operations are not intended to be bladed across
aggregate or bituminous surfaced roads at any time. Temporary storage is not to obstruct the
waterway during runoff and may require special safety markings under Section 808. If
material is to remain as designated berms after the contract is complete, Special Project
Specifications should include that as a disposal requirement.

831.02F - When haul is required, Section 832 must be included in the contract. "Designated
Waste Area" could be a slump identified for filling with selected materials under Section 832.

831.02G - Contractor may elect to haul in lieu of scattering, however, quantities would not be
counted for haul under Section 832 unless ordered.

831.02H - For paved surfaced roads, Section 815 must be included in the contract.

831.03 - Measurement of each roadside ditch maintained may be by survey odometer or
taped measurement between accurate kilometer (mile) posts. If both sides of the road are
ditched, cleaning will be counted as two ditches.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   14
                    Section 832 - Remove and End Haul Materials (2/02)

INTENT: For removing and disposing of slides, of excess and unsuitable materials. These
materials may be disposed of by filling slumps or in designated waster areas. Maintenance of
the haul road should be ordered and paid under other Sections of the Contract. Section 841,
Vegetation Establishment, must be included when revegetation of disposal sites are required.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: 831, 834, 835, 838, 839, 842, 851, 854, and 861. Required by any
                         Section requiring end haul to a disposal site.

           Requires use of:     831 for ditch shaping, 813, 814 for Repairs, and            D
designated Disposal site.

Explanation of Subsections:

832.02A - Slide removal is limited to that accessible by equipment operating from the roadbed.

Slides which extend greater distance above the roadbed should usually be corrected under a
Public Works Contract. Trees and brush carried onto the roadway are considered excess
material unless merchantable. Undermined trees, stumps, or rocks are classed as a hazard to
be handled under Section 854 (Hazard Removal and Cleanup).

Designated Disposal Sites must be identified in the Special Project Specifications, and should
be shown on the Map.

832.02C - Material for filling slumps is intended to be selected from slide materials or other
excess materials being removed. Depressions are normally less than 0.6 m (2 feet) in depth.
Placement must be designated.

832.02D - Placement by any other method than provided in this Section is to be handled by
Special Project Specifications. Compaction requirements apply only to Method (2) layer

832.02E&F - If it is anticipated that surfacing damage will be unavoidable, Section 813 (Spot
Surfacing Aggregate) or Section 814 (Asphalt Pavement Patching) must be a part of this
contract or work cannot be ordered. Damage due to contractor's negligence will be repaired
according to Section 813 or 814 at contractor expense.

All materials loaded for hauling are measured by the cubic meter (cubic yard). Sections
832(2), (3), and (4) are for placement measurement only. Thus, materials loaded, hauled, and
placed in a slump would be measured under Pay Item 832(1), 832(2), and 832(4).

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   15
                         Section 833 - Culvert Replacement (2/02)

INTENT: For removing and replacing existing culverts 1 m (3 feet) and less in diameter.
Should be restricted to locations where depth to bottom of culvert averages no more than 1.5
m (five feet).

Coordinating of Documents:

           Required by: None

           Requires use of: None

Explanation of Subsections:

833(2) - The location and times that material are available should be included in Special
Project specifications.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   16
                     Section 834 - Drainage Structure Maintenance (2/02)

INTENT: To provide the cleaning and reconditioning of culverts and associated facilities.
Cleaning of catchbasins, inlet and outlet channels, and ditchline transition areas are also
included in this item. Work does not include cleaning totally plugged culverts or replacing all
or part of the drainage structure.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: No other sections.

            Requires use of: 832, Drawing 834-1.

Explanation of Subsections:

834.02A - Cleaning may be repeated on any drainage structure that develops problems during
the season. Cleaning is to be done on receipt of a Work Order. Removal of materials from
catch basins will be limited to that shown in the drawing. It is not the intent to clean culverts
beyond 1.2 m (4 feet) from inlet or outlet.

834.02B - Debris and vegetation removed will be considered incidental as long as it can be
placed (tossed) within a reasonable distance. Section 832 must be included with all contracts
involving drainage structure maintenance if haul will be required. Typically the soil and rock
removed from the drainage structure could be placed as a ditch dam below grade from the
culvert inlet.

834.02D - Reconditioning of the structure is limited to that reachable from the outside of the
structure. Reconditioning intends the use of materials available at the site.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   17
                    Section 835 - Roadway Drainage Maintenance (2/02)

INTENT: To provide drainage on roads closed to traffic (Level I roads). It is intended to
provide drainage maintenance during periods of road storage between commercial entries or
until the road can be inactivated or obliterated. It is not intended to inactivate roads unless a
special project specification is included in contract.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: No other sections.

            Requires use of: 841 for any revegetating, Special Project
                                 Specification or Staking.

Explanation of Subsections:

835.02A(1) - If special tools are required to dismantle fabricated barricades, they will be
furnished by the Government.

835.02A(2) - Temporary barricades should be used to control access.

835.02B(2) - Spot blading to outslope or inslope the roadbed may be necessary to provide
drainage. Continuous blading is not the intent of this Section.

835.02B(4) - If methods other than A, B, or C are required, they must be identified in Special
Project Specifications. All methods should be staked on the ground with the method written
on each stake.

835.02C(1) - It is not the intent of this Section to remove slides and slumps unless they are
creating a drainage problem.

835.02D - If other than the original entrance device is required to close the road, a Special
Project Specification must be included identifying the type of closure.

835.03 - Estimated quantities are to be included in the Schedule of Items.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   18
                                 836 - Road Obliteration (2/02)

INTENT: Obliterate existing roads including removal of designated structures and entrance

Coordinating of Documents:
           Required by: No other sections.

            Requires use of:     No other sections.

Explanation of Subsections:

836.02B(2) - Complete seed mix application rate and date for seeding - N/A if none required.

836.02A - Disposal sites will have to be shown on attached map.

836.02J - Native tree transplanting can be expensive at this time due to shortage of
equipment. Trees may need to be watered - this section does not include that work.

836.02C(2)&(3) - Complete fertilizer requirements - N/A if none required.

                               INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)    19
                        Section 837 - Drainage Dip Maintenance (2/02)

INTENT: Clean and reshape drainage dips to provide for a smooth flow of water from the
traveled way. This Section is to be used for maintenance of existing drainage dips and
associated outlet structures when this work is not coincident with Section 811 Blading. This
Section is not to be used to construct new or additional dips nor is it to be used to provide new
or additional special outlet structures.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: No other section.

            Requires use of: (813, 814, 891, and 893 as needed), Drawing 837-1.

Explanation of Subsections:

837.02 - When additional materials are to be incorporated into the work the applicable Section
must be included in the contract (Section 813, 814, 891, 892, and 893).

837.03C - It is not the intent of this Section to require the removal of roadbed boulders
encountered in the shaping and cleaning of drainage dips. When large boulders that protrude
more than 50 mm (2 inches) are encountered, material from the adjacent roadway may be
used to provide cover.

837.03D - When additional aggregate is required the gradation should be selected to
approximate existing material in the dip and appropriate Section 813, 832, and 893 must be

837.03E - If hydraulic cleaning is prohibited, Special Project Specifications will be required.

                               INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   20
                       Section 838 - Maintenance for Limited Use (2/02)

INTENT: To maintain the roadway for passage by high clearance vehicles.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: 839

            Requires use of: 832 for end haul, Drawings 838-1 though 5.

Explanation of Subsections:

838.02A - A contractor may be required to maintain a road more than once when ordered in
writing. The written order should specify the time of return.

838.02B(1) - This Subsection is to provide for cleaning of all existing drainage structures.

838.02B(2) - Addition of cross ditches requires that locations be staked on the ground and
should discharge on natural ground or points of low stable fill.

838.02C - Intersections requiring cross ditching (level 2 roads) will be shown in the Road
Listing. Culverts at intersections will not be removed unless provided for in Special Project

838.02D(1) - The intent of this Section is to provide a 3 m (10 feet) passageway as near the
center of the roadbed as practical. This may be accomplished by repositioning objects such
as rocks, logs, and trees.

838.02D(2) - This Section is to be used to remove trees from across the road. All trees are not
considered merchantable under the wording of this Subsection. If timber is to be salvaged, it
must be identified in Special Project Specification.

838.02E - This Section is to provide a stable ten 3 m (10 feet) wide passageway for vehicle
travel by repositioning or ramping over slough or slides on the roadbed. If haul is required,
Section 832 must be included.

838.02F(1) - The "upgrade" cross ditches will prevent water from entering slumps and cracks.

838.02F(2) - Berms will prevent water from entering slumps or longitudinal cracks.

838.02F(3) - Provides for vehicle passage by ramping in and out of slumps. If a slump is to be
filled with waste material, Section 832 must be included and the slump area identified as a
disposal site in Special Project Specifications. The decision to fill a slump should only be
made after evaluating the structural stability of the slumped area and is NOT an option of the

                               INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   21
                      Section 838 - Maintenance for Limited Use (Cont.)

838.02G - Provides a relatively low speed passageway unencumbered by trees, brush, and
limbs. It is not intended to provide sight distance for high speed travel. Cutting within 150 mm
(6 inches) of the trunk is required to avoid light trimming of limb ends with resulting grow back.

                               INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   22
                        Section 841 - Vegetation Establishment (2/02

INTENT: To prescribe treatments for vegetating areas that have been disturbed by
maintenance activities. Also used for inactivated roadbeds and barriers.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: Recommended with 832, 835, 838, 839, 851, 854, or other Sections
                         causing ground disturbance.

            Requires use of: Special Project Specification 841-1 and/or 841-2

Explanation of Subsections:

841.02 - Application timing is to be provided to assure germination and growth prior to hot, dry

841.02A - Fill in all blanks including application rate. If differing percentages or rates are
required for differing areas, the locations must be identifiable.

841.02A - The designated spacing is to be entered. When spacing is staked on the ground
enter: "As staked."

841.02B - Seed type is to show mixture of species required. Legume seed inoculated within
24 hours of application is normally acceptable unless the directions of the supplier stipulate

841.02C - Complete fill-ins and show kilograms/hectare (pounds/acre) or other basis you use.
Attach specifications for the material.

841.02D - If seed and fertilizer are to be applied separately from mulch, it must be shown
under this Subsection. Timing may be season of year or within a specified number of days
after ground disturbance.

841.02E - Establishes the inspection method to determine if plants are firmly imbedded in the
soil. The point is not to break the plant, but to detect soil movement on a reasonable

841.03A - Requires the contractor provide a schedule for this work.

841.03A - Complete blanks. Show X under containerized or bare root.

841.03B - If the Government is going to furnish the plants, the type and number of plants will
be listed here. The material will be provided to the Contractor upon a 10-day written notice
from the Contractor. The location of the delivery is to be included in this Subsection.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   23
                       Section 841 - Vegetation Establishment (Cont.)

841.03B(1) - Special Project Specifications are needed if special preparation of the roadside
will be required.

841.03B(3) - The operation of self-propelled equipment, although allowed, is discourage
beyond the defined roadbed. If such operation will be specifically prohibited, it must be stated
in the Special Project Specifications.

841.03C(1) - The roadbed is normally compacted and must be loosened to provide a seedbed.

841.03D - Mulching application timing must be separately described in 841.02C &D unless it
can be applied concurrent with seed and fertilizer.

841.03E - When plantings are to be used, they will be specified in 841.03E

In the event planting and mulching are to be performed in the same area, a Special Project
Specification must include mulch placement limitations adjacent to plantings. Normally, the
SPS should require that mulch will not be placed within 150 mm (6 inches) of plantings.

841.04 - This clarifies length to be used in computing acreage. See Quantity Measurement

841.05B - Pay Items indicated can be changed as needed to better describe the intended
work provided, the new description is provided in Special Project Specifications.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   24
                      Section 842 - Cutting Roadside Vegetation (2/02)

INTENT: This Section is to be used to cut and remove vegetation in order to improve sight
distance and provide overhead clearance.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: No other Section requires.

             Requires use of: 808, 832 for end haul, 854 for removal of trees over 100 mm (4
inches) in diameter.

Explanation of Subsections:

used in this specification.

842.01 - All vegetation includes material such as blackberries, grass, and ferns. Note that 100
mm (4 inches) is measured at 150 mm (6 inches) above ground, NOT DBH.

842.02A(1) - Vegetative growth in excess of 100 mm (4 inches) cannot be removed unless
Section 854 is included in the contract. Drawing 842-1 must be included in the contract to
show which limbs must be removed.

Brushing need not be continuous throughout the road. Spot brushing may be ordered,
however, areas must be identified on the ground at start and stop locations.

842.02A(4) - If either hand or mechanical is acceptable, one of the standard Pay Items is to be
used. If only one method is acceptable, it is established by a Special Project Specification.

If both hand and mechanical are required on differing segments, separate Pay Items should
be established by Special Project Specification and the method must be identified for segment
on the Road listing.

842.02B(1) - Pass kilometers (miles) allows for variable width brushing (cutting) along the road
or on differing road segments. Since measurement is from the edge of the traveled way, the
first pass will basically cut to the back of an existing ditch.

842.02B(2) - Differing widths shall NOT be required unless Pay Item is established for each
differing width requirement.

842.02B(3)(a) - No cutting is required between the starting points and the road centerline.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   25
                       Section 842 - Cutting Roadside Vegetation (Con't.)

842.02B(3)(b) - The method of marking shall be described in a Special Project Specification
accompanied by a Drawing illustrating the measurements from the marks. Marking must be in
place in the field prior to bidding. It is usually preferable to establish the traveled way including
turnouts by reshaping (blading) the road prior to contracting brushing.

842.02B(4) - Transitions are to provide a smooth outer edge of the cutting when work is
ordered by the pass kilometer (miles). Transitions are automatically provided by uniform width
side kilometer work, but this Subsection should remain in the contract.

842.02C - Hand brushing usually results in larger debris materials than is left by mechanical
cutting. A Special Project Specification may be needed to reduce brush and small trees by
limbing and bucking prior to scattering. Scattering may not be acceptable on private lands or
adjacent to campgrounds. Needed hauling is under Section 832 and a disposal site must be
designated and quantities estimated under Pay Items 832(1) and 832(2).

842.03 - NOTE: As previously discussed under 842.02A(4), 842.02B(1), and 842.02B(2), Pay
Items must be established for differing characters of work.

842.03A - When a continuous pass is ordered for the length of the road, its length is the road
measurement. When additional passes are ordered for a limited length, each pass is
measured to the 0.1 kilometer (mile). Passes less than 0.1 kilometer (mile) are counted as 0.1
kilometer (mile).

842.03B -Variable cutting widths are NOT TO BE USED unless separate Pay Items are
established for each required width. The feasibility of cutting to the required width should be
field verified prior to inclusion of side kilometer (mile) work.

                               INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)     26
                               Section 851 - Logging Out (2/02)

INTENT: To open roads closed by windstorm or other natural occurrences which toppled
trees into the roadway. It is intended to be used for unmerchantable material. Larger volumes
of merchantable volume should be handled through a salvage sale or green sheet sales.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: N/A

            Requires use of:     808, 854 if removal required more than 1.5 m (5 feet) beyond
                                 top of cut or toe of fill, 832 if debris is to be hauled.

Explanation of Subsections:

851.02A - This section requires that an estimate of quantity be included in the Road Listing.
Actual work will be as ordered by the Government. Paint marking is to be used to denote
Standard (merchantable) Timber only.

Merchantable materials must be marked in advance of contractor's operation or the contractor
will treat them as unmarked materials. "Designated Decking Areas" are intended to be the
closest possible location that allows safe use of the road (not in turnouts) and does not
obstruct drainage facilities. Piling of slash or debris applies within the roadway and drainage
channels, other slash materials may be scattered.

851.02E - If hand piling is to be required, a SPS is necessary. If haul of debris is required, a
disposal area and estimates of quantity under Pay Items 832(1) need to be included,
Diameters may be estimated as if cut at the outer limit of the roadside. Bucking, skidding,
decking, and disposal are all incidental, except ordered haul to disposal sites is paid under

                               INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   27
                     Section 854 - Hazard Removal and Cleanup (2/02)

INTENT: Use to reduce Forest Service designated hazards to the road, structures and users.
Hazards may consist of unstable rocks or stumps which could topple into the roadway, or trees
that appear to be rotten or unstable and could hit a structure or road user if toppled by wind.
The key is to be reasonable in removing true hazards that will create traffic safety problems.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: 842 for removal of trees 100 mm (4 inches) or over, 851 for removal
of down trees beyond roadside limit.

            Requires use of: Marking hazards, Section 808.

Explanation of Subsections:

854.02A(1) - Advance designation of material to be removed is mandatory under this Section.
Danger trees should be identified by field evaluation of the contract work area. Generally,
trees are those which lean towards the road or could fall into it.

Trees to be removed shall be individually marked so that remaining stumps are identifiable.
The marking shall be outlined in Special Project Specifications and should differ from markings
(such as for Section 851) that may otherwise exist in the area. All trees are considered
unmerchantable, unless specified in Special Project Specifications.

854.02A(4) - Contractor cleanup is limited to danger trees felled under this Section. Slash
concentrations are expected to be minor. When concentrations will be significant, a Special
Project Specification should be included to allow for other disposal methods unless hauling is
to be ordered and paid under Section 832.

854.02B(1) - This Section is NOT intended to remove rocks or stumps imbedded in the
roadbed, nor in fill slopes.

854.02B(2) - Hauling to disposal sites shall be ordered paid under Section 832.

854.03 - Measurement is the number of individual hazards removed. Example: An
undermined danger tree and its stump are both to be ordered removed. Measurement will be
for both the one danger tree removed and the one stump removed.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   28
                      Section 861 - Maintenance of Cattle guards (2/02)

INTENT: This work consists of cleaning and repairing cattle guards. This Section does not
include those "cattle guards" painted on paved surfaces, which will be cleaned under Section

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: No other section.

            Requires use of: 832 if end haul is to be required. .

Explanation of Subsections:

861.02A - Wings and deck grids are usually removed to make the cleaning job easier. When
replacement components or decks are furnished, the contractor is not required to repair
removed wings or decks.

861.02A(1) - Complete all blanks or revise wording as needed.

861.02A(3) - List components that will be provided, such as wings and fastening bolts for wing.

861-2 for decks)

861.03B - Scheduling notice of the contractor's work under this Section is critical to allow time
for providing public notice or for issuance of CFR closure orders when needed. Contractor
scheduling (F-5) and Work Area Management (Section 808) are important factors.

861.03C - Cleaning is all that is intended with this section. Work cannot include painting,
foundation repair, raising or realigning of the cattleguard.

861.03D - If material cannot be disposed of within 60 m of the cattleguard, Section 832 must
be included in the contract and payment made under Pay Items 832(1) and 832(2).

861.03F - Welding under this Section is intended to be spot welding or short beads. Longer
beads would normally require shop repairs and a replacement wing or deck should be
provided by the Government.

861.03G - Replacement of posts or other fence materials not disturbed by contractors work
NOT intended.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   29
                     Section 862 - Maintenance of Traffic Gates (2/02)

INTENT: To clean and restore traffic gates.

Coordinating of Documents:

           Required by: None

           Requires use of: None.

Explanation of Subsections:

Colors of paint, type and location of Government-furnished materials, need to be shown in the
Special Project Specifications.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   30
                            Section 872 - Sign Maintenance (2/02)

INTENT: Standard warning, guide, regulatory signs, and various markers such as Type 2 and
3 object markers or barricade markers can be cleaned or replaced provided they use
reflectorized sheeting or stick on numerals or alpha characters. Routed wood signs may be
cleaned or replaced, however, refurbishing of legend or painted backgrounds is NOT included
or allowed. New signs can be installed under this Section. May be scheduled concurrent with
other Sections. As written this work would be considered construction work.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: No other Sections reference this specification.

Explanation of Subsections:

872.02 - Contractor is only required to provide common tools, cleaning materials and crew
transportation. If special devices are required for removing signs with anti-theft devices,
Forest Service is to provide the special device.

872.02 - A special project specification could be written to add:

The following wording can be added when edge taping of sign faces will be required as part of
Pay Item 872(5), Apply New Sign Face

     "Add the following under (4)(c):

     4.     After the sign face is applied to the backing blank, the top edges shall be sealed
            with Government-furnished tape. The tape shall be placed in contact with the new
            sign face and folded to the rear and secured on the backing blank. Where taping
            cannot be continuous, the tape shall be overlapped at least one 25 mm (1) inch
            with the uppermost tape extending over the lower portion. Taping shall be
            incidental to Pay Item 872(5), Apply New Sign Face.

872.03 - Exclusion is to avoid delamination and stripping of faces from blanks. If other
methods will be excluded, a SPS is needed.

872.04A - Include estimated number under Pay Item 872(1) unless sign is to be reconditioned
under Pay Item 872(2).

872.04B - Include estimated number under Pay Item 872(2).

872.04B(1) - Cleaning is incidental to Pay item 872(2). Limitation on number of patches is
established to ensure sign legibility.

                               INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)      31
                           Section 872 - Sign Maintenance (Cont.)

872.04B(2) - Four inch requirement and reporting requirement allows COR decision to
"Remount" new sign (Pay Item 872(4)) or "Apply New Sign Face" (Pay Item 872(5)) when
included as a bid item.

872.04B(3&4) - Deals with workmanship for B(1) and B(2).

872.04B(5) - Can only be required where replacement characters are provided by Government
and Pay Item 872(2) is included as a bid item.

872.04C - Estimate number of signs to receive new faces on signs existing in the field under
Pay Item 872(5). Necessary cleaning, straightening of sign blanks and patching is incidental
when work is ordered for a specific location for any contractor's work. If work is ordered
subsequent to initial cleaning (Pay Item 872(1)) or reconditioning (Pay Item 872(2)) payment is
made for each item in the ordered sequence.

If edge taping of the new sign face onto the sign blank is to be required, a Forest developed
Special Project Specification must be added.

872.04D - In addition to replacing damaged posts, the COR may order reinstalling to gain
proper height or orientation of otherwise sound posts and signs. New installations should be
shown in the Road Listing by road number and kilometer (mile) point but may be subsequently
ordered when Pay Item 872(3) is included and bid.

If the post is proper height and orientation but a new sign blank with mounted face is needed,
the work should be estimated under Pay Item 872(4).

872.04E - This recognizes that conditions may change subsequent to inclusion in the Road
Listing or issuance of a Work Order. Deficiencies not ordered under an established Pay Item
should be documented for subsequent Forest Service correction.

872.05 - Some installations may require more than one Pay Item. An example where
contractor performs basic work and is subsequently ordered for additional work is described in
Use under 872(4)(c). Where the same installation is redone in accordance with the Schedule
(Road Listing) or Work Order, each action is counted separately.

872.06B - An estimate of quantities must be provided and shown in the Road Listing and
Schedule for each Pay Item where work will be subsequently ordered.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   32
                               Section 881 - Mobilization (2/02)

INTENT: The Mobilization Section is to compensate the Contractor for movement of
personnel, equipment, supplies, and incidentals to the project site, or sites. Mobilization is not
intended to be used in conjunction with Section 807 Equipment Rental).

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: Not required but recommended for contracts involving grader,
                         backhoe, loader, brush cutters, or other heavy equipment with
                         substantial contractor investment in ownership, rental, and initial
                         transport to the contract area.

            Requires use of: Inclusion of Pay Item for bidding with period state
                in the Schedule of Items.

Explanation of Subsections:

881.02 - When contract work is expected (as indicated by Road Listing scheduling priorities) to
be continuous, include only one mobilization and insert:

                                From Start Work to Completion.

When an interruption in work is planned by fall work include mobilization for each new work
period based on dates of priority scheduling contained in the Road Listing.

881.03A - This limits amount contractor can bid based on the total contract amount of the
specified work period.

The estimated number of Mobilization is to be included in the Schedule of Items.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)    33
                           Section 882 - Equipment Moving (2/02)

INTENT: Contractors can be reasonably expected to anticipate and bid normal costs of
fulfilling the Work Schedule moves based on Scheduling Priorities in the Road Listing or
modified by Work Order prior to the contractor preparing the Work Schedule for the coming
month. If changes in Government priorities can be consistently foreseen and ordered before
the contractors monthly Work Schedule is prepared, use of this Section is not needed.
Situations can, however, change suddenly due to impacts of traffic or emergencies and should
be reflected in changed priorities for work bid under the contract. This Section therefore
provides for payment to the contractor when the Government interrupts the contractor's Work
Schedule to do contract work of a higher immediate Government priority. A Pay Item should
be established for only those Section(s) where it is likely that a change in scheduling might be
suddenly needed.

This Section is the proper Section for doing work when a bid Pay Item is available instead of
using Section 807 (Emergency Equipment Rental) on an hourly rate. It is also properly used
for ordered changes in Pay Item work locations (from the accepted Work Schedule) for the
convenience of the Government.

This Section is NOT to be used as a substitute for Section 881 (Mobilization for contract

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: Not required but strongly recommended for Sections involving public
                         safety or high environmental risk if occurrences are not rapidly

            Requires use of:     Road Listing scheduling priorities and Work Orders.

Explanation of Subsections:

882.02B - When the Contractor proposes equipment movement to accomplish work or
increase efficiency, the Government may agree to the movement but no additional
compensation will be provided.

882.04 -    Insert Section number(s) in the Schedule of Items where it is likely that work may
            be needed that was not scheduled over a month in advance. Separate Pay Items
            should be established for each Section, or combination of Sections, involving
            differing types of equipment. For example:

                   882(1) Equipment Moving for Sections 811 and 812
                   882(2) Equipment Moving for Section 832

Orders for equipment to move should be given at least 48 hours from date of order to start the
move. Add Pay items as needed for each Items included in the contract where moving may
be required.

                               INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   34
                       Section 891 - Water Supply and Watering (2/02)

INTENT: The Contractor needs to know what water sources will be available for contract
work. Common requirements associated with water sources and use are outlined.

This Section is NOT TO BE USED for developing permanent water sources the contractor will
not use nor for purposes other than maintenance of roads.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: Sections 811, 812, 813, 815 when flushing, 816 and 841 if
                         hydromulching required.

            Requires use of:     None

Explanation of Subsections:

891.01 - Contractor may elect use of "other sources" which are not on Forest Service lands
when the Contractor secures all necessary approvals and any royalties involved are paid by
the Contractor. The use of "other source" does not establish any relationship between the
Forest Service and the owner of the water source.

891-1(2) - Complete all blanks for each water source listed (see Intent and Use Guide Section
891.02 - Materials). Location is the road and milepost of the water source that is listed.

891.02 - Listing of sources constitutes a guarantee that the contractor may use the source(s)
under the stated constraints (restrictions) which could include not decreasing flow to less than
a stated volume. The Government is responsible for obtaining all clearances (Watermaster,
Fish and Game etc.) for use of listed sources.

891.03A - Requirement for known capacity is aimed at determining quantities and establishing
dilution rates.

891.03B - Unless otherwise required in another Section, the Contractor may use any device
that achieves the stated result. If the stated result cannot be obtained, the COR should reject
equipment that does not perform properly.

891.03C - Air gap means the filler pipe or hose cannot come into contact with the water in the
tank so a siphoning effect could occur.

891.03D - The key to improvements is that they are approved by COR. If the type of
improvement is limited to one type, the contract should include a specific Drawing prescribing
the temporary or permanent improvement.

                               INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   35
                       Section 891 - Water Supply and Watering (Con't.)

This Subsection applies when Pay Item 891(1) is included in the Schedule of Items for
bidding, but should not be deleted if Pay Item 891(1) is not included since it provides basic
information if the contractor proposes temporary improvements facilitating contract use at no
added cost.

891.04 - Several options are available depending on how water is dealt with in the contact:

If this Section is not included in the contract by listing with another Section (such as 811,
Blading) in the Road Listing, water will not be required.

If water will be incidental to work of the other Section, do not list an estimated quantity for that
Section in the Schedule of Items for bidding.

If water will be required and paid for one type work (Blading) but not for another, list quantity
estimate for only the Section to be paid (i.e., Pay item 891(2), Water for Section 811) and
show estimated quantity on the Road Listing. List the other Section with 891 incidental only on
the Road Listing.

891.05 - See Intent and Use discussion under 891.04 also. Pay Item 891(1) may be used
even though water is incidental but temporary improvements are known to be needed,
particularly to make joint contractor and force account use of the source feasible.

A Pay Item is to be established whenever water will be required; for example for Section 811
or 813.

The established pay unit of M-liters should not be modified to hours since the size tanker is not
prescribed. We might anticipate a 20,000 liter (5,000 gal) water truck, but only get a 4,000 liter
(1,000 gal) unit and end up paying more than the value received.

If the water supply sites differ substantially, additional Pay Items may be established, provided
we clearly identify which sites go with each Pay Item.

When water supply sites and water are incidental, the estimated range of quantities should be
included in the Road Listing to allow contractor to include costs in the Section(s) that will be

                               INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)    36
                          Section 892 - Bituminous Products (2/02)

INTENT: Bituminous products are to meet established criteria.

Coordinating of Documents:

            Required by: 812 for Bituminous dust palliatives

            Requires use of: None.

Explanation of Subsections:

892.02 If a non-standard bituminous dust palliative not listed in Table 892-1 is desired then a
SPECIAL PROJECT SPECIFICATION needs to be issued that addresses the products
material requirements. The product should be manufactured for dust abatement purposes.
One will find that the amount of solids and dilution ratio of these products varies from
manufacture to manufacture. Collect information on the product such as; past performance,
location of use, and amount of traffic the product was subjected to during its use.

                              INTENT AND USE GUIDE (10/09/03)   37

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