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					Homophobia within a Single
Equality Framework

 1.    What is oppression?
 2.    What is privilege?
 3.    What is homophobia?
 4.    Where does it come from?
 5.    What are its effects?
      a.   Homosexuals
      b.   Heterosexuals
What is Oppression?
  Victimisation             Being made to feel worthless and
  Power imbalance           inferior
  Bullying                  Social control disguised as being 'for
  Lack of Rights            the good of society'
  Discrimination            Restrictions/barriers to freedom of
                            behaviour, speech
  Less eligibility          Can be overt and covert attitudes and
  Disempowerment            behaviour that stops others from being
  Low self worth            themselves
  Lack of respect           Brow-beaten into another's way of
  Alienation                living
  Being kept down           Abuse/misuse of power
  Feeling of isolation      Not being allowed to own views
  Internalised oppression   Effect of socialisation
What is Privilege?
  PRIVILEGE: The rights, advantages and
  immunities enjoyed by a small usually
  powerful group or class, especially to the
  disadvantage of others.
Unearned Privilege
  Privileges or advantages one gets just
  because one belongs to a valued group in
  society, not because of individual efforts
  which „earned‟ them, but simply because of
  involuntary membership in a privileged group
  „Being born with a silver spoon in your mouth‟
  Example: left-handed people
Table Exercise:
Heterosexual Privilege
  Heterosexual privilege questionnaire in
  Read through individually
  Discuss your responses with colleagues
  on table
Who is Oppressed? Privileged?
  Lower Class             Poor
  Women                   Learning Difficulties
  BME Groups              Size
  Disabled Groups         Travellers
  Old People              Mental Health
  Young People            Drug users
  Some religious groups   HIV + People
  LGBTs                   Unemployed
                                        External Effects of Oppression
                        PRIVILEGED                                                       OPPRESSED
                          GROUP                                                            GROUP

                        Better Education                                                 Worse Education

                         Higher & Wider                                                  Lower & Narrower
                            Horizons                                                        Horizons

                            Better                                                           Worse
                         Employment                                                       Employment
                         Opportunities                                                    Opportunities

                           More Job                                                         Less Job
                          Satisfaction                                                     Satisfaction

                           Better Pay                                                       Worse Pay

                             Less                                                             More
                         Unemployment                                                     Unemployment

 More Independent            More             Less Trouble        Less Independent             Less           More Trouble
   from Family               Status             with Law             from Family              Status           with Law

Less Homelessness            More                Better          More Homelessness            Less               Worse
 & Better Housing            Power              Legal Aid          Worse Housing              Power             Legal Aid

                             More              Less Likely                                     Less            More Likely
 Less Harassment                                                  More Harassment
                           Influence        Custodial Sentence                              Influence       Custodial Sentence

Less Likely be victim     More Social           Less Likely      More Likely be victim     Fewer Social        More Likely
  of hate incident         Outlets             to be Victim        of hate incident          Outlets           to be Victim
                                Internal Effects of Oppression
                    PRIVILEGED                                              OPPRESSED
                      GROUP                                                   GROUP
                    Greater Visibility                                          Less Visibility
                      More Positive                                             Few Positive
                      Role Models                                               Role Models
                      Few Negative                                              More Negative
                       Stereotypes                                               Stereotypes
                  More Accepance                                            Less Acceptance
                      Less Isolation                                            More Isolation
    INDIVIDUAL                            SERVICES             INDIVIDUAL                           SERVICES
  Stronger Identity                     More Likely           Weaker Identity                      Less Likely
   & Self Esteem                    to Control Services       & Self Esteem                    to Control Services
  Less Vulnerable                        More Research       More Vulnerable                       Less Research
   to Suggestion                          & Information       to Suggestion                         & Information
  More Confidence                        More Visibility     Less Confidence                       Less Visibility
  & Assertiveness                         of Issues          & Assertiveness                         of Issues
                                       More Alternatives                                          Less Alternatives
Better Mental Health                                       Worse Mental Health
                                          Available                                                  Available
  Less Need and                           More Likely        More Need and                           Less Likely
      Use of                              to Demand              Use of                              to Demand
  Alcohol & Drugs                          Services          Alcohol & Drugs                          Services
Better General Health                    Better Services   Worse General Health                   Worse Services
Pair Exercise
  External + Internal frameworks in pack
  Identify which oppressed and privileged
  groups belong to
  Share an example of oppression and an
  example of privilege you have
  2.5 minutes each
What is homophobia?

      The recognised or       Discrimination
      unrecognised fear or    against homosexuals
      hatred of               based on the belief
      homosexuals or          that heterosexuality
      homosexuality that is   is better than
      present in both         homosexuality.
      heterosexuals and
                              Heterosexism is built
                              into ALL of our
      EVERYONE is             INSTITUTIONS
      taught to be
Putting it another way…
  Similar definitions for racism, sexism,
  disablism, ageism, classism….
  Two sides to coin: oppression/privilege
  Works in similar way against all
  oppressed groups (although there are
  some important differences)
Where does homophobia come from?
lead young people astray; perverts; poof; sick; mentally Ill; dyke;
lezzie; bender; not natural; all got AIDS; promiscuous; immoral;
queer; brave; no grandchildren; mothers fault; fathers fault; can't be
trust with children; arrested development; lesbians haven't met a
real man; hormone imbalance; lesbians want to be men; lesbian
hate children; lesbians are afraid of childbirth; lesbians wear male
clothing; lesbians are all truck drivers; it's a phase; its a crime
against nature; it's caused by a genetic defect; lesbians are ugly;
gay men are limp-wristed sissies; they only live in cities; it's a
western/white disease; it's a capitalist diseases; one of them; lesley;
lemon; ginger; effeminate; indecent; that way inclined; hijra; chhaka;
battyman; eccentric; should be shot; artistic; individual; strong; flat-
heeled brigade; bent; homo's; one of those; sexual deviant; fairies;
queens; dangerous; outrageous; woolly woofters; ass poppers; shirt
lifters; sex abusers; carry disease; ...
Creation & Perpetuation of
• Similar lists for all oppressed groups
• We are not born with these ideas
• Apart from language, what are the six
  main institutions that create and
  perpetuate homophobia (sexism,
  racism, disablism, etc)
         RELIGION: It‟s a Sin

Anglicanism: „homosexual genital acts fall
short of the ideal‟ (gay priests)
Catholicism: „homosexuality is an aberrant
deviation‟ (pope)
Judaism: Late Lord Jakobovits – abortion of
foetus if homosexual
Islam: Late Dr Siddique: elimination of gays
– gays assassinated in some countries
         Medicine: It‟s a
Homosexuality classed as sickness in Britain
until 1993 – put into mental institutions
Causes: arrested development, a phase,
immature, parent‟s fault: too distant, too
We can help you change – electro shock;
lobotomy; Christian therapy
Recent research: combination including
genetic & environmental with a genetic
Little acknowledgement of effects on mental
wellbeing = lack of services
             LAW: Significant
Until recently
      Age of Consent: illegal for gay men under 18/21 (lesbians
       invisible) until 2001
      Section 28: no „promotion‟ of homosexuality repealed
      Employment (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003
      Civil partnership 2005
      Goods & Services 2007
      Criminal Justice & Immigration 2008 (incitement to hatred
       based on sexual orientation)
Still hierarchy of oppression – even with Single Equality Bill –
Duty to challenge homophobia
Allows religious homophobia
       MEDIA: It‟s
Used to be invisible or negative images
– perverts, pansies, predatory – still
Sensationalise – lipstick lesbians (or
pornography), camp gay men
Allow homophobes to spread hatred &
ignorance „in the interest of balance‟
Powerful editors
      EDUCATION: It‟s
No/few visible role models
Homophobic bullying goes unchallenged
Few books, little information
Limited content in curricula
Creating homophobes
Powerful head teachers
        FAMILY: It‟s
Brought up to be heterosexual
Brought up with parents (often
negative) views
Parents usually ignorant of effects of
homophobia on child
Some disown or don‟t want to know
Initially often preoccupied with their
own responses to be able to support
What are the effects
on LGBT Youth?
  Isolation from family, friends, society,
  Pressure to conform, family rejection,
  School: Isolation, bullying, truancy,
  drop-out, poor exam results
  Verbal, physical, mental harassment
Internalising Stigmatised
Like all minority groups, LGBT young people
  internalise negative messages
Some minority groups have the support and
  understanding of their families and friends to
  challenge internalised messages
Others might not, for example, Black and
  Minority Ethnic Adoptees, as video extract
  from Adult Adoptees shows.
What are the effects
on heterosexuals?
 Do not internalise stigmatised (inferior/bad) sexual
 identity – internalise superior/good sexual identity
 resulting in higher self esteem (but classism, racism,
 disableism, sexism)
 Not dealing with demons of homophobia during
 adolescence, not question „who am I?‟ in relation to
 sexual orientation –get on with„being straight‟ -
 developing social skills, relationship skills,
 communication skills, get on with education/exams
 Affects attitudes and behaviour
1983: 50% of adults surveyed believed
sexual relationships between people of same-
sex always wrong
1985: 59% (AIDS)
1989: 58%
   41% between two men
   37% between two women
   23% between stable gay/lesbian couple
Mori Poll (2001) 1,693 adults
  95% acknowledged existence of prejudice
  against minority groups
  36% said they held no prejudice against any
  64% prejudiced against at least one group
  Of these, 16% hard core – antipathy towards
  3 or more minority group
  Strong correlation between holding
  homophobic and racist views
Table Exercise: Personal
  Hand out in pack
  Complete individually
  Discuss findings with colleagues on
BELIEFS = BEHAVIOUR = One extreme:
Less Powerful People
      HHC is prevalent all over the UK (remember, so is hate crime
      based on race, gender, disability…)
      Approximate levels experienced:

     All HHC            35-75%             55%
     Verbal             30-70%             45%
     Harassment         10-35%             17%
     Vandalism          10-30%             19%
     Physical           5-25%              12%
Powerful People: Stopping Support
Dec 1987: L.A. Tory leader,        1994: Dr Colin Newman,
  after watching film on safer       executive secretary of British
  sex said: “The film said how       Psychological Society said
  to avoid AIDS, but it did not      “By accepting a Section
  say specifically stop being        devoted to the study of
  queer. It‟s disgusting and         lesbianism, the Society will
  diabolical. As a cure I would      be giving a public signal that
  put 90% of them in the             it endorses behaviour which,
  ruddy gas chamber. Are we          by the biblical standards
  going to keep letting these        they personally seek to
  queers trade their filth up        follow, is incompatible with
  and down the country?”             their own standards of
  2004: Tory councillor tries to     morality.” Took another 4
  stop grant to GALYIC.              years to set up LGB section.
                                   2009: Who doesn‟t want a duty
                                     placed on tackling
Shire Professional (2009)
                Feed ID   High   Elevated   Mid   Low

   SO Gay        122      7%       8%       20%   65%

   SO Lesbian    123      3%       4%       34%   59%

   EO Asian      106      2%       5%       21%   72%

   EO SE         108      1%       5%       12%   82%
   EO Black      107      1%       4%       20%   75%

   Disability    149      1%       4%       15%   80%

   Age            118     1%       4%       11%   84%

   Gender        137      1%       2%       2%    95%

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