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Lecture Outline Stereotype Threat Positive Prejudice Stereotype

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									      Lecture Outline             How Prejudice Affects
     Being the Target of                Targets
          Prejudice


                               Stereotype Threat

    Stereotype Threat
                               Consequences of positive
     Positive Prejudice         prejudice




    Stereotype Threat              Stereotype Threat


Premise:                       Definition:
Stigmatized groups are
 aware of negative             Fear that one will be viewed
 stereotypes                    or treated in way
                                consistent with
                                stereotype, or that one
This awareness produces
 “stereotype threat”........    will confirm the
                                stereotype




    Stereotype Threat           Stereotype Threat Study
                                 Steele & Aronson (Study 1, 1995)



Stereotype threat is
 situationally induced
                               Purpose: Test theory of
                                stereotype threat with
Arises when target realizes
                                respect to African
 that negative stereotype
 can explain their behavior     American students and
 or attributes                  intellectual ability




                                                                    1
           Stereotype Threat Study                                      Stereotype Threat Study
                          Steele & Aronson (Study 1, 1995)                 Steele & Aronson (Study 1, 1995)


                                                                       Participants:
                                                                               African American
                      Valid measure                                            White
                       intellectual                       Laboratory
                                                           exercise
                                                                       Procedure:
                          ability
                                                                                Completed a 30 V-SAT
                                                                               items
                                                                       Manipulation:
                                                                               Valid test
                                                                               Invalid test (laboratory
                          AA < W                          AA = W               exercise)
                                                                       DV: number correct on test




              Stereotype Threat Study                                         Distancing Study
                          Steele & Aronson (Study 1, 1995)             Steele & Aronson (Study 2, 1995)



               14
                                                                       Purpose:
               12
               10                                                      Examined whether
 T e s t S c o re s




                      8                                                 stigmatized targets
                      6                                                 distance themselves
                      4
                                                                        from a negative
                      2
                      0                                                 stereotype when
                               Valid Test              Invalid Test     stereotype threat is
                                     African Americans Whites           activated




                             Distancing Study                                 Distancing Study
                                                                        Steele & Aronson (Study 2, 1995)
           Steele & Aronson (Study 2, 1995)

                                                                       Participants:
                                                                                African American
                                                                                White
                      Valid measure                                    Expected to complete V-SAT items
                       intellectual                       Laboratory
                                                           exercise    Rated self-preferences:
                          ability                                              music: jazz, rap music, classical
                                                                               sports: baseball, basketball, boxing
                                                                               traits: extroverted, aggressive,
                                                                               humorous

                                                                       Never actually took test

      Show that
 negative stereotype
does not apply to them




                                                                                                                      2
       Distancing Study
  Steele & Aronson (Study 2, 1995)
                                                            35




                                      Consistency with AA
Manipulation:
                                                            30




                                          Stereotype
       Valid test
                                                            25



       Invalid test (laboratory
                                                            20


       exercise)                                            15
                                                                 Valid Test               Invalid Test

                                                                      African Americans   Whites


DV:
        Extent to which
       participant rated self
       consistent with African
       American stereotype




      Affirmative Action                                    Affirmative Action

                                     EEOC’s statement:
Designed to:
                                     Says that group membership
                                      should be explicitly taken
“overcome the                         into account in hiring
  discriminating effect of            decisions
  past or present practices,
  policies, or other barriers
                                     Unspoken assumption that
  to equal employment                 non-discrimination not
  opportunity” (EEOC,                 sufficient to counteract
  1970)                               consequences of prejudice
                                      and inequality




 Untended Consequences               Affirmative Action Study
  of Positive Prejudice                          1
                                                Heilman, Simon, & Repper (1987)



Affirmative action                   Purpose:
 designed to help
                                     Examine whether
 minorities and
                                      affirmative action
 underrepresented
                                      damages the self-views of
 groups, but....
                                      those who benefit from it

may undermine their self-
 views and job
 performance




                                                                                                         3
Affirmative Action Study                                 Affirmative Action Study
            1                                                        1
           Heilman et al. (1987)                                Heilman et al. (1987)

                                                        Procedure:
Prediction:                                             1. Paired with opposite sex
                                                            confederate
Women who believe they
 are preferentially                                     2. Task described; leader more
 selected have less                                        important
 confidence in their ability                            3. Answered items assessing
 than those who believe                                    ability for leadership role
 they are selected on                                   4. Manipulation occurred........
 merit




Affirmative Action Study                                 Affirmative Action Study
            1                                                        1
           Heilman et al. (1987)                                Heilman et al. (1987)

                Manipulation                             Procedure continued:
Merit:
       test scored                                       5. Performed task
       script read                                       6. Rated self on:
       participant selected on merit
                                                                task performance
Preference:                                                     leadership ability
       test not scored                                          desire to persist as leader
       script read                                              in task 2
       participant selected on basis
       of gender




                                                             Affirmative Action
                Performance   Leadership
                                ability
                                           Persist as
                                             leader
                                                                  Study 2
Men:                                                       Heilman, Rivero, & Brette (1991)
   Merit           5.15         6.47         5.85
   Preference      5.37         6.59         5.78
Women:
   Merit           5.24         6.71         5.50
   Preference      4.02         5.27         4.00
                                                                                     Job
                                                          Confidence
                                                                                 Performance

Men: Selection basis did not influence
men’s perceptions of performance,
leadership ability, or desire to persist as
leader.                                                 Purpose:
Women: Selection basis did influence                       Examine if preferential
women. Lower perceived performance, and
ability, and less desire to remain as leader             selection causes women to
when preferentially selected. No                             select easier tasks
different from men in merit condition.




                                                                                               4
Affirmative Action Study
                                             Affirmative Action Study
           2
         Heilman et al. (1991)                          2
                                                   Heilman et al. (1991)
Tasks:
       Financial service manager
                                             Participants then
       Subordinate
                                              indicated which of two
Procedures:
                                              tasks they would most
      Test assessed managerial
      skills                                  like to do
Manipulation:                                   Easy task
      Merit or preference based
                                                Difficult task
      selection




                 % Selecting   % Selecting
                                             Affirmative Action Study 2
                  Difficult     Easy Task         Heilman et al. (1987, 1991)
                    Task
 Men:
    Merit            87%          13%
    Preference      100%           0%        Conclusion:
 Women:
    Merit            93%           7%
    Preference       47%          53%
                                             Preferential selection
                                              reduces confidence
 Men: Chose difficult task more often
 regardless of selection basis
                                             Preferential selection
                                              causes people to select
 Women: Selection did influence task
                                              less challenging tasks at
 choice. Women selected easy task             work
 more often when preferentially
 selected. No different from men in
 merit condition.




Affirmative Action: Good or
           Bad?

  Does Affirmative Action
   always have unintended
   negative consequences?


                 No.
 When it is based on merit
  and group membership,
 many of the bad effects it
    creates disappear




                                                                                5

								
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