Internet Protoco version 6 (IPV6) and Internet Protocol version 4 (IPV4) by kimarikaguongo


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Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)

                               Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)

                                        Student’s name



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                                     Internet Protocol 6 (IPv6)

       The development of IPv6 protocol was initiated in the early 1990s by the Internet

Engineering Task Force (IETF) in the ‘Request for Comments’ document. It evolved from a

number of proposals for instance, TCP and UDP with Bigger Addresses (TUBA) –RFC1347,

Simple Internet Protocol Plus (SIPP) –RFC1710, and Common Architecture for the Internet

(CATNIP) –RFC1707 (Chown, 2006). Later in 1998, it was fully defined by the Internet

Engineering Task Force in RFC2460 document. IPv6 protocol is a family of protocols that

consists of the basic IPv6 protocol together with its addressing structure, the extensive Internet

Control Message Protocol version 6 (ICMPv6) protocols –that offers auto-configuration and

Neighbor Discovery System, Path Maximum Transmission Unit (PMTU) discovery, error and

informational messaging, Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD), and Mobile IPv6 (ProCurve

Networking, 2007).Currently, Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is not capable of satisfying the

ever-rising demand for IP addresses. IPv4 has a 32-bit addressing system capable of

accommodating only four billion distinctly addressed devices. Hence, there is the need to

develop IPv6 which has large addresses spaces and does not lock out devices from the public

addressing system.

       IPv6 applies 128-bits addresses compared to 32-bits addresses of IPv4. Thus, IPv6’s

address space supports 2128 (3.4 * 1038) addresses which provide flexibility in the address

allocation and traffic routing (Bradner & Mankin, 1995).The transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is the

most challenging process and involves three mechanisms: dual stacks, tunneling, and a

combination of both. In dual stack method, IPv4 and IPv6 coexist together on a node (and/or

device) and therefore applications utilize either IPv4 or IPv6 depending on the node they are

talking to. Besides, this may also be influenced by the response of the Domain Name System
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(DNS) to a node-name. Dual stack is the easiest and flexible method to use. The tunneling

method ‘encapsulates IPv6 packets in IPv4 packets and can be used by two IPv6 nodes to

communicate with each other over an IPv4 network (ProCurve Networking, 2007, p. 6). There

are two types of tunneling: automatic tunneling adds routes to IPv6 prefix by applying IPv4

addresses that are compatible with IPv6; configured tunneling means that ‘the IP addresses of

the tunnel exit point are configured on the tunnel entry point’. Nevertheless, both types of

tunneling can be used in combination to route IPv6 
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