GOAL – SETTING
DIRECTING EFFORTS TOWARDS PREDETERMINED
RESULTS OR ACHIEVEMENTS.
Level is a particular point in the organization which describes the status, authority and responsibility etc.
that the holder has in carrying out the assigned job. Key Performance Area describe the areas in which
significant contributions are expected from the
position. Are the key or critical functions functions relevant at present requiring priority attention.
Indicate those critical groups of activities for which the
job holder can be held mainly responsible. Are those significant areas of the job which contribute
significantly to the overall results. Are neither as general as roles nor as specific as goals.
At times KPA may cover only 20% of job but account for 80% of results.
IDENTIFICATION PROCESS – KPA
To identify KPA, ask two questions : In which areas is it imperative that I perform well if I have to achieve the main objective of the unit / department ?
Which are the areas where poor performance would significantly damage the product / service provided by my unit / department and harm its quality and reputation ?
2. Another way to identify KPA is as under :-
Listing all activities of a role
Categorizing into similar functions Selecting more critical ones
Editing for overlapping
GOALS Goals are less stable in comparison to KPA. Should not be more than 2 to 3 in every KPA. Goals should be SMART.
Specific / Stretching
Measurable Attainable/ Acceptable
Reviewed/Revision Timed Bound / Traceable
Identification process – By thinking about following aspects of job, we get ideas about goals:-
2. Cost 3. Quality
5. Systems / Procedures 6. Emphasis on all hands – involvement 7. Some Personal Objective
(STRETCHING IS INBUILT)
GOALS ARE SET:
In order to identify goals ask what, why,
when, where, who & how.
HIERARCHY OF GOALS
Vision & mission
The hierarchy of goals OR
that each goal should support the next higher level goal.
Each higher level goal is a guide for setting goals at the lower level. IT IS AN ‘ENDS-MEANS’ CHAIN The term HIERARCHY OF GOALS is used only to emphasize the point that all organizational efforts must contribute to the overall organizational goals.
However,determining goals can be OR
OR a combination of the two.
2. Group Plans
3. Unit Plans
4. Divisional Goals
5. Departmental Goals
6. Sectional Goals
7. Individual Goals
THE HIERARCHY OF GOALS
The direction is dictated by : the managerial philosophy the organizational climate
the task requirements the size of the organization HORIZONTAL CONSISTENCY OF GOALS IS AS IMPORTANT AS VERTICAL CONSISTENCY.
While determining goals, also :-
identify end result
explore the alternative ways achieving this result evaluate the alternatives
choose list out the necessary activities involved in the selected
alternative. calculate and solicit resource requirements.
group in the most effective + efficient manner. assign responsibility + delegate authority
congruently. review + correct
Identification of Facilitators & Barriers
Facilitators are conditions, circumstances or capabilities that help in the accomplishment of goals or that make accomplishment easier. Barriers are conditions, circumstances or lack / want of capabilities that hinder / prevent accomplishment of the goals or that make accomplishment difficult. A review of past may help in this identification process.
Previous years – efforts, difficulties, circumstances & achievements may be reflected upon and notes kept during the year. Detailing of goals to be attained will also help in this process e.g. a) technical know-how b) environment of trust / hostility c) level of clarity of the goals
Training needs get identified by inhibitors / barriers
HOW TO ACHIEVE GOALS
Display your goals
Imagine you have achieved it
Share your goals with those around you Review your goals Analyse the obstacles hindering your goals Specify action steps with time frame to overcome obstacles Celebrate success
“Reward success is easy, but rewarding intelligent failure is more important. We do not judge people strictly by results; we try to judge them by the quality of their efforts.” We should remember that rewarding qualitative efforts and „intelligent failures‟ can promote innovativeness and risk-taking attitude in the employees.
2. A Reward, group or individual, should aim at projecting a role model to all others in the organization in respect of employees‟ performance standards, behavior at work and commitment to the organization.
3. It may be kept in mind that a Reward System reflects organizational culture and value. Reward must be judicious so that it promotes organizational culture, values and image.
RESEARCH FINDINGS ON THE IMPACT OF GOAL SETTING
Specific goals are better than vague or general goals
Difficult / Challenging Goals are better than relatively easy and mundane goals.
Owned and accepted goals arrived at through participation seem preferable to assigned goals. Objective & timely feedback about progress towards goals is preferable to no feedback.
Benefits for individual Shifts emphasis from judgment of personality to
quality of performance.
Goals help in measurement of achievement. Knowing expectations before hand.
Opportunity for dialogue & feedback in open
atmosphere. Job satisfaction.
Clarification about training needs. Self direction &control leads to motivation.
Provides direction, destination & milestones. Helps in distinguishing contribution of one role vis-àvis others. Setting standards.
Goals serve as guide to action, facilitate decision –
making, help in using best of alternatives for achieving the overall objective.
Stretch goals help development.
Benefits for organization
Future orientation rather than past failures. Better understanding of appraisee‟s contributions and
Career planning. Leads to delegation.
Role clarification specially in subjective areas.
Better communication. Clarity of direction.
Commitment to objectives & results. Commitment to organizational goals due to participation. Helps in distinguishing effective &ineffective job performance. Organizational effectiveness.
Gives overall direction ensuring that all parts of the organization move in congruence and in desired direction Shifts emphasis from activities to results.
Contributes toward development of “OCTAPACE”
A CHECKLIST FOR GOAL SETTING
1. 2. 3. 4.
Do the goals cover the main features of my job ? Is the list of goals too long ? If so, can I combine some goals ? Are the goals verifiable; that is, do I know at the end of the period whether or not they have been achieved? Do the goals indicate:
Quantity ? (How much or what)
Time ? (When)
b) Quality ? (How well, or specific characteristics)
Cost ? (At what cost)
Are the goals challenging yet reasonable?
Are priorities assigned to the goals ? (Ranking, weightage etc.) Does the set of goals also include:
a) b) Improvement goals ? Personal Development goals ?
Are the goals coordinated with other Managers and organizational units ? Are the goals consistent with the goals of my superior , my department, the organization ?
Have I communicated the goals to all who need to be informed ?
10. Are the short-term goals consistent with long-term aims ? 11. Are the assumptions underlying the goals clearly identified ? 12. Are the goals expressed clearly and in writing ? 13. Do the goals provide for timely feedback so that I can take any necessary corrective steps ? 14. Are the resources and authority sufficient for achieving the objectives ?
15. Have I given the individuals who are expected to accomplish goals a chance to suggest their goals ? 16. Do my subordinates have control over aspects of the work for which they are assigned responsibility?
17. Are the right goals selected ? Can they induce dysfunctional behavior ?