Engineers Without Borders - DOC by linzhengnd


									       Engineers Without Borders
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

          Orissa Site Assessment
             IPENG Report


                Malia Appleford
                Stephanie Bogle
              Jessica Koschmeder
                 Keith Burrows
                 Dan Weintrit
Table of Contents
 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 2
 Project Description.......................................................................................................... 3
 Project Participants ......................................................................................................... 4
 Pre-Site Asssessment ...................................................................................................... 5
 Site Assessment .............................................................................................................. 7
    Itinerary ....................................................................................................................... 7
    Site Assessment Summary .......................................................................................... 8
 Plan ............................................................................................................................... 11
    Testing and Prototyping ............................................................................................ 11
    Economic Analysis ................................................................................................... 12
    Fundraising ............................................................................................................... 13
    Preparation for Implementation ................................................................................ 13
 Personal Statements ...................................................................................................... 14
 Appendix A – Plants ..................................................................................................... 22
 Appendix B – Site Assessment Q & A ......................................................................... 24
 Appendix C – PSM ....................................................................................................... 28
 Appendix D - Timeline.……………………………………………………………….32
 Appendix E (Photos) ..................................................................................................... 31


Engineers Without Borders is a national engineering organization whose mission is: To
work with disadvantaged communities to improve their quality of life through
implementation of environmentally and economically sustainable engineering projects,
while developing internationally responsible engineering students. The chapter of EWB
at the University of Illinois was formed in the fall of 2003.

This paper describes the chapter‘s experience preparing for and conducting a site
assessment for a rural electrification project in Orissa, India.

Project Description

The goal of this project is the electrification of several rural communities in Orissa, India.
The electricity will be used to provide lighting to extend the working hours past sunset as
well as mechanizing income-generating projects (IGPs) in the villages. Electricy via
conventional methods is not expected to reach these communities in the near future. The
project was submitted to Engineers Without Borders by Dr. Dhanada Mishra from AID
India1 in November of 2003, and was accepted and assigned to the University of Illinois
chapter of Engineers Without Borders.

The chapter of Engineers Without Borders at the University of Illinois was formed at the
beginning of the fall 2003 semester. Work began on the Orissa project in the spring
semester of 2004. The original proposal put forward biodiesel as the most viable option
to provide electricity but alternatives such as solar and wind were also to be considered.

Biodiesel is a fuel made from vegetable oils that are esterified so that they have similar
viscosity to petroleum diesel. Theoretically any vegetable oil can be used, but the most
popular choices are crops such as rapeseed and Jatropha. For the Orissa project, local
oilseeds would be collected and processed to yield the vegetable oil. This oil could then
be used as the fuel to power a generator. The availability of oil-bearing plants,
agricultural land for their growth, and the chemicals needed for the esterification was
examined. Additional plants may be planted if needed and soil samples were taken to
examine this possibility.

Besides biodiesel, there are a variety of other energy options available. Solar and wind
will be considered. In addition, pre-heated (or otherwise simply processed) vegetable oil
can be used in modified diesel generators. This method would simplify the process and
eliminate the dependence on outside supplies of chemicals.

Cultural issues are also to be addressed. The technology must be sustainable and
appropriate for the region. The project should be largely independent of outside aid. It
will be the responsibility of the village to manage the oilseed collection and the biodiesel
production, as well as to maintain the equipment. The electrification of the villages will
augment their economic situation through the development of sustainable income
generating projects. They will be empowered to improve their lives through their own
hard work.

         Association for India's Development, Inc. (AID) is a voluntary non-profit
       organization committed to promoting sustainable, equitable and just development
       in India, by working with grassroots organizations and movements in India. AID
       supports and initiates efforts in various interconnected spheres such as
       education, livelihoods, natural resources, health, women's empowerment and
       social justice. (Quoted from

A site assessment was determined to be necessary for successful completion of the
project and is a standard step in an EWB project. A site assessment is performed to
gather technical and cultural data, as well as liaising with local experts and aid groups.
Traveling to the site allows for a better understanding of the problems and cultural

Project Participants

EWB-UIUC site survey team:
   Malia Appleford (MS student, Agricultural and Biological Engineering)
   Stephanie Bogle (PhD student, Materials Science)
   Keith Burrows (undergraduate, Materials Science)
   Jessica Koschmeder (undergraduate, Materials Science)
   Dan Weintritt (undergraduate, Mechanical Engineering)

Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology/AID-India:
    Dr. Dhanada Mishra (Professor, Civil Engineering, AID-Orissa representative)
    Pete Bakos (Civil Engineering assistant, AID-Orissa village liaison)
    Debi Nanda (Civil Engineering student)
    Bijay Pattanaik (Civil Engineering student)
    Kabir Mishra (Civil Engineering student)

Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology
    Mr. Lanka (Research Scientist, Forestry)

Pre-Site Asssessment

To get the project started, the group was initially divided into 7 subgroups:

      Energy System Design
          o Design of reactor (if needed)
          o Electrical components
          o Report on alternative methods for energy production
          o Determine liters of oil needed for system designed
      Agriculture (feedstock development)
          o Research native oilseed plants (& whether currently used as fuel source)
          o Research exotic oilseed plants
      Community Interface
          o Interact (via email) with AID-India & gather needed information
      Country/Culture Information
          o Report to group on country/culture information
      Travel Planning
          o Secure necessary plane tickets
          o Advise on getting visas, healthcare, & other needed personal items
          o Arrange first-aid/cpr training
          o Work with community interface to secure in-country travel arrangements
              and lodging
      Economic
          o Determine if overall energy system is economically feasible
          o Look at possible development/expansion of income generating projects
          o Determine appropriate fee system
          o Determine overall cost of system
          o Determine optimal system within limits given by energy system group
      Fundraising
          o Identify grants
          o Talk with corporations, etc. about sponsorship
          o Organize fundraisers

Most of these groups are on-going; none have to-date completed their tasks, but have
kept these ultimate goals in mind throughout the initial phase of the project.

Over the course of the semester we identified several possible oilseed choices, including
Indian Beech (native) and jatropha curacus (exotic) as likely choices for a biodiesel
system. Descriptions of all potential plants for use in the project can be found in
Appendix A.

Our main criteria in choosing an oilseed for biodiesel use are the following:

      Native – if possible, this will maintain the overall bio-integrity of the area and be
       familiar to the local community, increasing the sustainability of the plant species.
       The current oilseed population may need to be augmented.

      Easily processed with a standard oil press
      Easy to gather
      Large oil content
      Does not interfere with more valuable economic uses
      Suitable viscosity (if pre-heated or otherwise simply treated)
      Suitable heating value, density, carbon content

We also gathered as much site-specific information as possible before the site assessment
via email with AID-India to better prepare us for the trip. Questions asked before and
during the site assessment were based on the factors necessary to complete a sustainable
electrification project, which included feedstock availability, availability of raw
materials, manufacturing and repair knowledge and facilities, economic considerations,
current agriculture practices, projected energy needs and community life. A successful
project would enhance the IGPs of the community, increase their self-sufficiency,
maintain the ecological integrity of the area, and allow for future development. For a
complete list of questions and answers, see Appendix B.

Prior to any travel, EWB chapters are required to fill out a project summary matrix
(PSM) summarizing technical and cultural considerations of the project. Our pre-site
assessment PSM can be found in Appendix C. Also, all logistics including travel, safety
and health had to be appropriately addressed. Travel was arranged through our in-
country partner (AID-India) including train from Kolkata to Bhubaneshwar and car to the
villages. Most of the students completed CPR and First aid training. A first aid kit and
water purification system accompanied the group. Two-way radios were used for
communication between groups.

Cultural and technical training were also necessary. Basic surveying and soil sampling
skills were acquired. Other members of group presented a report to those traveling
regarding the area and culture of Orissa. A Hindi TA advised the group in basic Hindi
phases and culture tips (e.g. what to wear, how male and females should interact, how to
politely decline tap water). However, most of our interaction in India was achieved
through translators (KIIT students); Oriya is spoken in Orissa.

Site Assessment


            a. May 21 – 23: Travel from Chicago, IL to Kolkata, India
            b. May 23: Shopping and travel from Kolkata to Bhubaneswar via train
            c. May 24: Meetings with Dr. Dhanada Mishra, other professors and students
               at Kalinga Institute of Industrial Engineering (KIIT). Also met with
               professors at the Orissa University of Agricultural Technology (OUAT).
            d. May 25: Travel from Bhubaneswar to the Keonjhar District. Met with
               coordinators of Gana Chetna (local NGO).
            e. May 26 – 28: Spent time at Gana Chetna, observing the 3 selected villages
               as well as meeting with residents, collecting soil samples, and observing
               current infrastructure.
            f. May 29: Travel from Keonjhar to Puri.
            g. May 30: Time for relaxation and preparation of final presentation for
               students of OUAT. Travel from Puri to Bhubaneswar.
            h. May 31: Final preparations for presentation, shopping, and presentation at
            i. June 1: Travel from Bhubaneswar to Kolkata.
            j. June 2: Travel from Kolkata to Chicago.

Site Assessment Summary

Our first several days in India were spent in travel. Much was observed about our
surroundings and culture in these few days. We walked through the market in Kolkata
and met with professors at KIIT, giving us a wide spectrum of impressions. In Kolkata,
the women in the group bought native clothing so that our attire was more appropriate
(and thus less distracting). Our meeting with the KIIT students and professors provided
us with the first input directly related to our project. They gave us some idea of what to
expect from the villagers in terms of cultural taboos, local mindsets and some insight as
to why previous projects had failed. These opinions also reflected the attitude of the
literate population towards those in rural areas. We were introduced to a number of
projects that were aimed at the rural population of India, several of which we would later
see applied, though incorrectly, at Gana Chetna.

We then traveled through the countryside to the district of Keonjhar. This in itself
revealed several cultural idiosyncrasies. Upon arriving at a local research station outside
the city of Keonjhar we met with the coordinators of Gana Chetna, a local
nongovernmental organization (NGO). We were able to extract valuable information
from this meeting about local organization and economic development. Gana Chetna is
involved in many communities in the Keonjhar district. In many of these villages they
have established ‗self-help groups (SHG).‘ These groups are designed to generate
income for the community through a collaborative effort (these are called Income
Generating Projects or IGPs). Selling processed spices, sal leaf plates, and local produce
are among several existing IGPs. The SHGs are comprised of women from the village
and a representative from a local council. The IGPs are completed in addition to
everyday chores. The activities of the male villagers consist of farming and collecting
firewood. The agricultural season lasts for three to four months of the year, usually June
to September. This is monsoon season so the predominant crop is rice. We also
discussed the availability of local oil seeds. Sal trees (shorea robusta) are common in the
area and the seeds are already collect by the women and children of the villages.
Additionally, the harvest season for the seeds (May-June) doesn‘t conflict with
planting/monsoon season. Currently the oil from the sal seeds is used as a replacement
for kerosene and is pressed by hand. This method is approximately 10-15% efficient as
compared with pressing done in a mill that is 30-40% efficient. We also learned later that
the average family spends approximately Rs. 50 on kerosene each month. Other
discussion topics included the operation and management of the generator as well as past
projects with solar panels that failed.

We held meetings in three prospective villages selected by Gana Chetna. In the first
village we met with the women‘s SHG (Radha Krishna), the Forest Protection Committee
and the Village Farmers Committee, both men‘s groups. The primary IGP in this village
was the production of sal leaf plates and bowls. This is an individual IGP. Villagers
receive roughly Rs. 70 for each 1000 sal leaf plates. (Rs. is standard notation for the
local currency rupees. The exchange rate with the American dollar is approximately Rs.

50 : $1.) Villagers also collect kusam, ponga and sal seeds. One kilogram of sal seed is
worth roughly Rs. 3. The men in this village were very interested in using the biodiesel
to power water pumps for irrigation. We were told that a water pump had been installed
in the village at one time; however the parts were stolen and sold. Also, the residents of
this village did have access to a diesel machine for crushing rice that could be sold or
used. We were given a tour of the village. Evidence of past electrical installments was
seen in electrical polls and some remaining wiring. A tribal village was situated not far
from this first village. This was a Juang tribe that is classified as a scheduled tribe and
therefore protected by the government of India. As a tribal people they are below the
other villagers in caste. The Juang people also help collect the sal seeds and reported that
one kilogram of oil can be produced from four kilograms of seed.

The second village was similar in size to the first one: approximately 40 families or 300
people. There were no established IGPs in this village and, as it was removed from the
jungle areas, they rarely collected wood, leaves, or seeds. Their primary source of
income came from processing rice with a diesel machine that is shared between several
villages. This village had a very educated teacher who asked many questions regarding
what the biodiesel generator could be used for and how it would be paid for. We later
learned that the community already had at least one operational solar panel that was used
to power a television.

Badakamandara was the third village that we visited. It was considerably larger than the
previous villages with nearly 140 families. Also, a larger percentage of the population
was educated. Approximately 60% of boys are educated through the equivalent of grade
twelve, the number was approximately 40% for girls. There were presently a number of
young men (ten to twelve) who were well educated and unemployed. The SHG was also
visibly active in this community. They cared for a large kitchen/market garden. This
garden was in addition to personal kitchen gardens and the produce was sold in the local
market or in Keonjhar. The women also processed turmeric and chili powders. This
village was located near a jungle area as the first village had been so a number of
products were collected including sal seeds. The village collects anywhere from 60 kg to
80 kg of sal seed each year, of which approximately 20 kg are pressed into oil. Using
traditional methods of pressing this yields only five liters per year. We were given a
demonstration of this process. First the seeds are pounded using a diki. A diki could be
described as an unbalanced teeter-totter that was raised then allowed to fall and crush the
seeds in a small hole beneath it. The crushed seeds are then heated and placed in a load
bearing basket. The basket and seeds are finally placed between two very heavy rocks or
logs to extract the oil. Villagers had also had the opportunity to use a mechanized press
which had a slightly higher yield. The village infrastructure in Badakamandara showed
promise as well, with many existing electrical poles, wire and a suitable spot for the
generator housing. Finally, another functional solar panel was found in this village
operating a television.

We concluded that Badakamandara showed the most promise of a successful project for
several reasons. First of all, the SHG was already very active and the community was
practiced in undertaking projects as a group. They also had some experience with diesel

machinery, maintenance, noise, etc. Finally, the local infrastructure and education level
was also appropriate.

We still had many concerns as we completed our stay with Gana Chetna. We feared, and
our hosts from Gana Chetna confirmed, that many of the villagers did not understand
why we had come to visit them. In order to successfully implement a biodiesel generator
into the community all of the villagers must understand the purpose, benefits and dangers
of the project. One of our primary fears was that electricity would be wasted. We had
observed nonconservative use of light sources and other resources on several occasions in
the short time we visited. In order to hopefully avoid some wastefulness and to prepare
the village for implementation, we communicated to the coordinators of Gana Chetna that
interaction with villagers in Badakamandara would have to increase. Further interest
must be sought out, a management committee must be established or at least selected
before implementation, and a method of record keeping must also be established.

A number of soil samples and vegetation samples were taken during our stay with Gana
Chetna. These samples were sent to OUAT to be analyzed. This concluded our formal
data collection process. We summarized our conclusions in a presentation made to
students and faculty at OUAT when we returned to Bhubaneswar.

It is obvious that many of our most important observations were not made in a formal or
controlled environment. Instances where the lamps burned all night would not have been
included in a formal report, neither would observations of building techniques and living
arrangements. Thus we also learned that the data reported above has little meaning
without the cultural context. We now understand not only the technical aspect of
biodiesel electrification but also, and more importantly, the social aspect.


The plan forward from the completion of the site survey is to create a timeline and budget
for and then execute the objectives described below. Communication with and approval
from both EWB-USA and the village, through AID-Orissa, will be necessary. After
completion of each stage, the group will determine if the project is still feasible, and if
infeasible, a full study of why will be pursued, and the project will be suspended without
further expense.

The group has again been divided into subgroups and will be revised as needed:

      Energy Production and Agriculture
          o Design of reactor (if needed)
          o Report on alternative methods for energy production
          o Determine liters of oil needed for system designed
          o Research native oilseed plants (& whether currently used as fuel source)
          o Research exotic oilseed plants
      Electrical Assessment
          o Determine necessary electrical components
          o Develop plan for wiring village
      Mechanical Concerns
          o Oil extraction (oil press)
          o Maintenance
      Community Interaction/Education
          o Interact (via email) with AID-India & gather needed information
          o Develop plan for educating community on biodiesel, engine repair,
               economic planning, etc.
          o Determine interaction plan (i.e. how to get community involved and take
               ownership of the project)
      Economic
          o Determine if overall energy system is economically feasible
          o Look at possible development/expansion of income generating projects
          o Determine appropriate fee system
          o Determine overall cost of system
          o Determine optimal system within limits given by energy system group
      Fundraising (whole chapter committee)
          o Identify grants
          o Talk with corporations, etc. about sponsorship
          o Organize fundraisers

Testing and Prototyping

It will first be necessary to determine the oil composition and realistic yield from the
feedstock options: sal, neem, and kurange (ponga). Separate yields will be obtained from
use of traditional and mechanized oil presses. Enough of these test oils will need to be

made in order to run a series of tests in a diesel engine for pure and esterified versions of
the fuels.

Fuel performance and emissions tests, and engine reliability tests will require a
representative diesel engine, one that utilizes the same basic process as those available in
the Orissa state. Alternatives for procurement of this engine include an arrangement with
the Agricultural and Biological Engineering (ABE) department here on campus, which
may have a suitable engine, lease or purchase of a new or used diesel engine, or another
arrangement with another department or someone outside the University. An appropriate
testing set-up is already available at ABE.

Once all the necessary elements have been obtained, the above tests will need to be run
on all fuels at a range of engine speeds, with and without engine modifications and/or
preheating of the fuel to different intake viscosities. From our tests we should be able to
obtain heating values, efficiencies, and emissions from the different oil varieties and use
them for input values in the economic analysis.

Economic Analysis

Realistic local market prices for various bulk goods and materials will allow for a
reasonable economic feasibility study. Values for unprocessed seed, pressed oil, and fuel
byproducts, as well as the value of goods currently produced and the probable value of
goods to be produced after electrification, will serve as bases in the study. A cost of labor
for this village will allow for inclusion of labor cost for fuel production and maintenance
per kilowatt-hour, and for installation. Though a mechanical efficiency should have been
determined in the bare engine performance tests, a social efficiency will need to be
determined; i.e., how much electricity do we expect the community to use productively?
Gross mechanical and material cost will vary with the different possible power
arrangements (fuel production, fuel type, engine type). A variety of calculations for these
configurations will reveal the optimal set-up (What is the cheapest arrangement that will
provide adequate power?). This final cost for power will be compared to a conservative
expected monetary return from electrification. This will include any gains in market
strength from having more viable commodities, any costs of labor saved by
mechanization, and costs of any goods saved, in the form of food, water, medicine,
kerosene, etc. Ultimately, we anticipate that start-up costs for the village will be small, as
we will shoulder much of that bulk, but it must be determined if the costs of operating
and maintaining a diesel engine will pay for themselves in the form of increased time
efficiency and market viability. The operating costs and liters of oil needed will be
calculated by HOMER. These costs will be compared to other sources of energy
including petroleum diesel and solar. If the process is not economical (costs vs.
community benefit) there is little chance of success.


Our projected budget will need to encompass our mechanical and material costs,
expenses on testing and prototyping, and all travel and airfare costs. Fundraising is the
responsibility of the fundraising committee of the EWB chapter, led by the chapter
treasurer. The group has also entered the Mondialogo Engineering Competition to
acquire funds for expansion of the project to other villages. The Mondialogo competition
is a challenge to multidisciplinary groups of university students to complete a sustainable
international development project. For more information on the competition see

Preparation for Implementation

A plan for the infrastructure (building to house generator, electrical wiring) will need to
be developed before the implementation. It is necessary to house the generator so that it
is protected from the environment and from theft. This building will serve as the
headquarters from which the village can manage the project. Students will either have to
be trained to wire the houses, or electricians will have to be hired for the implementation.

The group will need to arrange for all necessary tools, machinery, and materials to be
either in the village or brought over from the states. All tasks to be accomplished abroad
will be identified, and a schedule for their completion will be drafted. A final group and a
date of departure and return will be will be determined. Paperwork will need to be
submitted to EWB-USA and the University, and all proper insurance, shots and
immunizations, passports and visas will be procured. Round trip airline and train tickets,
and any hotel reservations should already have been obtained at this point. Training will
take the form of various teambuilding and cultural awareness exercises, first aid
certification, and any practice with the tools and machinery to be used during

An approximate timeline is given in Appendix D. This timeline will have to be strictly
adhered to achieve implementation in late December. If the timeline is determine
unfeasible, the implementation phase will be shifted to May.

Personal Statements

Malia Appleford
Graduate Student

When I tell my friends about my time in India I am fond of saying that I saw and
experienced things I didn‘t expect and expected to see and experience things that I didn‘t.
I went to India with a combination of notions derived from National Geographic,
television specials about Mother Theresa, fellow grad students that were from India, and
pastiches of Indian culture attempting to be sold off as hipness. I expected to see real
poverty, starvation, suffering and illness. I expected to see a very conservatively Hindu
attitude, misogyny, piety, and the diligence of every Indian immigrant I‘ve ever seen. I
expected the developmental problems reported in every third-world country (although I
know that isn‘t what they are supposed to be called now): corruption, bribery, classism,
environmental problems, spotty infrastructure and lack of air conditioning. I expected to
be able to affect real change for the communities we would work with. I was right. And

Ironically, I saw the India I thought I would see mostly in the centre of Calcutta. Friends
of mine are shocked that we spent the first whole day we were in India around the area of
the Calcutta train station. The idea was that we would be able to buy Indian-style
clothing in the markets before we headed to the villages, but because the markets were
closed that Sunday, what really happened was that we walked around what is, I am now
told, the major slum are of Calcutta. What was really shocking to me was that we did not
see a middle-class or upper-class person from the time we left the airport, except for in
the restaurant of a hotel we happened upon. It was as if anyone with any money
evaporated into their secluded communities with their drivers. I guess this happens in the
US, too, that we have our ―good‖ neighborhoods and our ―bad‖ neighborhoods, but I
suppose I just didn‘t expect that the main train station would be in one of ―those‖
neighborhoods. We definitely saw poverty in Calcutta. Some people looked poor, but all
right, but others looked hungry and not well taken care of. There were a few visibly ill.
The most heartbreaking aspect of which were the children who would come up and beg
for food or money or both. It was hard to know what to do with them as we knew some
of them were being used by their parents or others as begging employees. Oftentimes we
would just give them candy or something else they could have for just themselves. I
wonder what these children were told about us. We were white and therefore had a lot of

We were also stared at everywhere we went. In the airport on the way back, I joked to
Dan that I could stare at him if he were ever homesick for India. Seriously, no matter
how much we tried, we were entertainment for the people of India. When we descended
on a clothing shop to purchase appropriate wear, a crowd gathered outside to see the
white people buy Indian clothes. In the villages, the whole village would watch us gather
soil samples or map out the infrastructure. This was not helped by the fact that we
traveled in a group. We were called after, whispered about, and most of all, stared at. I
expected this, just not in the level at which it happened. I guess I understand what

celebrities feel like. But everyone was nice to us. I don‘t think I felt threatened or
despised at all. The worst that happened was skepticism. Unlike some areas of the
world, Americans aren‘t blindly hated, which was a relief. People were happy to have us,
and those that had the opportunity showed gracious hospitality. Oh, and we were fed
exceedingly well.

And India was beautiful—much more beautiful than I expected. Trees and rolling
mountain-hills covered the countryside on our way to Keonjhar. Somehow in my mind I
expected a dusty wasteland—a vision corresponding to the vision of poverty and hunger.
Perhaps this was a vision of all developing countries collapsed onto each other. I guess
the lushness of Orissa has taught me the distinctness and individuality of each
underdeveloped nation‘s situation.

This is not to say that the problems common to development did not exist. I was warned
of problems with bribery before we went. I think it may perhaps be less of a problem
than it used to, but I wasn‘t used to thinking about it all the time. An example is that our
train tickets were somehow purchased for one stop before Bhubaneswar and we had to
bribe the ticket collector to allow us to stay on the train. Later, my Indian friends have
told me that they suspect this was a deliberate ploy on the part of the ticket office to
ensure extra revenue for their collectors. There was also more laziness than I could have
imagined. In my mind Indians are extraordinarily hard-working. I was really shocked to
discover, and I‘m sure this is my American puritan work-ethic talking here, that there
isn‘t a very strong link between hard work and success in India, so people don‘t
necessarily work very hard. I don‘t think we‘ve ever waited so much in my life. We
waited to get to work. We waited for the driver to come. We waited just a lot. The men
in the village also appeared to do not much of anything except during the monsoon rice
season. It didn‘t seem to occur to them that they could get another agricultural crop in
during the year and sell it for profit or improve the variety of their diet. And, most
distressingly, the people of Gana Chetna did not appear to be committed to achieving the
goals their funding was intended for. The hut we stayed in was thrown together at the
last minute and not at all according to the plans that had been agreed to. Their organic
garden had not been tended and from what Pete said, some of the money had gone to
improving their personal houses. I think this was the worst realization of the whole
trip—that ―charity‖ organizations may not be completely ethical. At the same time, not
every member of these groups is corrupt. The only female member of Gana Chetna,
Sunita, was extremely committed to helping the villagers and tried her best to keep the
organization to its ideals. (Of course, she was hindered in her attempts by the fact that, as
the only woman, she was expected to cook and clean for the whole organization, despite
the fact that she was of a higher caste). It was definitely an eye-opener, though, and
something we will have to be careful about. Certainly AID-India will only give them
gifts in kind now, not cash.

But I still think that this project is achievable, if for no other reason than that the villagers
themselves had high hopes. I don‘t have enough powers of discernment to know if they
hope we were there to deliver the answers whole or if they hope we can enable them to

make the answers for themselves, but at least it was obvious that they still had hope.
That‘s enough for me.

Stephanie Bogle
Graduate Student

Some things just need to be put in perspective. For instance, there‘s no point in worrying
about the traffic in India from the passenger seat of the car even if there is a truck coming
toward you on the wrong side of the street. The five of us went to India to perform a site
assessment for an electrification project in 3 rural villages in the Keonjhar district of
Orissa India, each of us with different reasons for wanting to travel all the way to India
for this project.

I have been a member of Engineers Without Borders for 4 years. My interest in
international sustainable development began during my undergraduate orientation (6
years ago, now I am a graduate student); I think I can safely blame Dr. Joe Herkert for
putting those thoughts in my head. I finished my studies at NCSU with a B.S. degree in
Materials Science and Engineering and a B.S. degree in Science, Technology, and
Society with a concentration in Sustainable Development in Latin America.

Over the past 4 years my passport has been well used and wrinkled, but had plenty of
space for a stamp and visa from India. This trip would be different from my previous
travel for several reasons: 1) I do not speak anything close to the native languages in
India, 2) this was not (conventional) study abroad, for pleasure, or for a research
conference, 3) I would be mostly visiting places no sane first-time visitor would visit and
4) my purpose in this trip was to expose other people not myself to new things. Of
course I was automatically doing both: I wore Indian dress, ate Indian food, noted
differences in communication styles, and mannerisms. All of this and many other things
we noticed were important for completing the project but having a different purpose than
usual altered my perspective.

Planning a site assessment in India for energy project in rural India required several
months of background work. Upon leaving we felt about as prepared as possible for this
trip considering the short notice, but none of us actually new what to expect.

Keith Burrows

You could say I have a bit of wanderlust in my genes. My father left his home in
England at a young age, ending up as an ex-pat construction worker in Saudi Arabia. My
mother was an army brat, growing up on dozens of bases across the country and in the
Middle East. The story is the same for much of my family. My own younger years, as
well, were spent moving from place to place. But for the last ten years, I have lived in
Champaign. Don‘t take it wrong, it‘s a nice town, but there‘s a big world out there.

Engineers Without Borders, the University of Illinois, and the IPENG office gave me a
chance for an adventure, and too fulfill some of that wanderlust. This is my personal
recollections concerning a site assessment for an Engineers Without Borders project
conducted in the state of Orissa, India. The goal of the project is the electrification of
rural villages using Biodiesel. The site assessment consisted of five students making a
thirteen day trip to India, in order to see the villages, interact with the locals, and
coordinate with the local universities and aid groups.

Touching down in Calcutta was a relief after more than 24 hours of flying and sitting in
airports). My first impression when looking out the window as we approached the
runway was that India was greener then I had though. I would later find out that early
rains were responsible for the surprising lushness. After disembarking and navigating
our way through the airport, we meet our guide, Pete Bakos. More then just a guide, Pete
was our contact with AID India, and the member most involved with the project. India
without Pete would have not been the same. An ex-pat Australian living in India for ten
years, Pete was a valuable bridge better western and Indian culture. Not to mention a
translator, historian, scientist, engineer, and social worker. After our arrival, he took us
on a tour through Calcutta in the region surrounding the train station. Many people
familiar with the area I have spoke with since returning expressed surprise that we would
spend time there. And before going, too, I was warned that Calcutta was a place to be
avoided. My personal experience was nothing so drastic, however. It is true that the
people were poor, and that sanitation was inadequate, but I never expected Calcutta to be
a western city. This certainly wasn‘t the part of India that they would put in a brochure.

That brief tour of Calcutta would be our only real chance to see the city, since we had to
catch a train that evening. That‘s where we had our first experience with the Indian
railroads. Famed throughout the world for its tardiness, lack of comfort, and all around
poor management, it would not disappoint. We dragged our luggage through five train
cars finally arriving at our seats only to find them occupied. After a lot of confusion and
hassle, we finally had a place to bunk down and try to get some rest. Until one stop
before our destination- when we were told that we would have to get off. Our tickets
didn‘t go beyond Cuttack. Pete saved the day by bribing the ticket agent (you‘ll find
virtually every task you do in India will require a bribe). Later we were told that they
likely issued our ticket incorrectly because we were foreigners and they knew they could
get a bribe.

Our next port of call was Bhubaneswar, the capital of Orissa. While in Bhubaneswar, we
interacted with the faculty and students from two area universities, the Kalinga Industrial
Institute of Technology and the Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology. The
faculty of KIIT were receptive and eager to provide assistance to the project. The
students were less convinced. They had a lot of questions, and I don‘t think we
convinced all of them. But the fact that they all showed interest was impressive. I got
the impression that they were ashamed of the conditions in Orissa, one of the poorest
states in India, and perhaps felt some guilt for not doing more themselves. For whatever
reason, many were not receptive to the project. There were a few students who seemed
very interested, and they expressed interest in perhaps forming their own chapter. The

faculty and students of OUAT were welcoming and interested when we spoke with them
too, at the end of the site assessment.

Most of the site assessment was spent in and around the villages themselves. Pete
accompanied us, as well as three civil engineering students from KIIT. Working with
these students was one of the highlights of the trip for me. I learned a lot about India
from them, and made some good friends. It was interesting to see and hear what they
thought about America and Americans. They were excited about the work, willing to do
anything to help (including braving intense heat to survey the villages). This is
particularly impressive since they didn‘t really know what they would be doing until we
actually left for the villages. The villagers were just as pleasant to deal with. We didn‘t
have much direct communication with them because of the language differences, but they
seemed willing and eager to work to electrify the village. During the entire trip, we met
with only a handful people who were rude or treated us poorly. The rest, the vast
majority of people, were courteous and kind. If sometimes slightly confused by us. They
never did understand why we would want to go camping, or why we would willing go
out in a rainstorm (it was our only chance for a shower in the village).

In the end, we came away from the assessment with a much better idea of the situation.
The site assessment is a critical tool for EWB projects, and I would seriously advise
about ever trying to do without it.

I returned from the trip only a few months ago, but it already seems like another lifetime.
It was packed with little adventures; a thousand memories that will never leave me, even
though the details are already fading, obscured by time and the day to day of my
―regular‖ life. I‘ve traveled quite a bit, but it‘s never felt so exciting, so real, as working
in India.

A few things stick out from the trip in my memory still. First of all, although we were
careful, it is easy to get sick in India. From the water, from the food, or just from the
heat. However much you pack, you only need half of it. Or less. Given the chance,
don‘t stay in the ―western‖ hotel. And never order spaghetti bolognaise in India. And
however much you think you know- you don‘t.

So much of Engineers Without Borders is teaching. Teaching the locals new, appropriate
technologies as well as teaching students about engineering in the developing world.
Participating in an EWB project abroad is a chance to give something back, to gain
valuable skills, technical and otherwise, and to learn about a new culture. Traveling
abroad with an international program is an opportunity for students not to be missed.

Jessica Koschmeder

I have developed a routine answer for each time someone asks me how my trip to India
was. It is usually followed by, ―Why were you there again?‖ for which I also have a

routine answer. A predictable response follows, ―Oh, that‘s cool,‖ and the conversation
shifts. Each time I have this conversation I feel like I am belittling my experience,
describing a three week adventure in just a few sentences and evoking no more emotion
from my listeners than a story about going to the grocery store. In all truth I am belittling
my experience; it simply isn‘t possible to summarize it! However, I also realize that most
people haven‘t had these same experiences and won‘t be as interested. I hope to take this
opportunity and this captive audience to express just a little bit more than I usually get
out. The difficult part is where to begin…

I think that our trip was extremely successful; however, not in a way that I ever expected.
We left the United States with several goals such as collecting soil samples and
topographical information and completing a sufficient cultural assessment. It was this
last goal that began as we stepped off the plane and into the streets of Kolkata. As we
wove through traffic, pedestrians and the occasional cow I no longer knew what to think.
I honestly kept waiting to see the ‗real‘ city and to get out of the slums…that never
happened. I know our first day exploring the streets of Kolkata left me with one of the
most overwhelming feelings I can recall. There were so many people in the streets.
Some were busy minding their fruits or merchandise, others were simply idle playing
games or just sitting, and there were others whom I can only hope were asleep. I can say
with all honesty that I was glad to get on the train that evening and leave Kolkata. I
needed time to unwind, reflect, and rid my stomach of the sinking feeling I felt each time
I had to ignore a child tapping on my leg and pointing to their mouth.

As we moved on to Bhubaneswar, Keonjhar, and Gana Chetna we were received very
warmly by almost everyone. I say almost not because we had a bad encounter but several
interesting ones. We quickly learned to tell strangers that we were from Canada and to
avoid the topic of the United States. We also encountered several who thought it was
very odd that we traveled all the way to India for the purpose of electrifying a rural
village. I honestly don‘t know if they were offended that we were meddling in their
business or if they simply didn‘t understand the status of their own rural areas. There
was more than one occasion in which I felt our hosts were trying to pamper us so that we
would overlook the actual conditions. This idea was the source of several of our greatest
challenges. We quickly learned that working through a translator would prove difficult.
Our translator would often do more interpreting that translating. Also, we desparately
wanted to observe village life and culture without disrupting the everyday routine. This
proved practically impossible. I think I can say after this experience, I would never want
to be a movie star! We were watched and followed everywhere; it‘s hard to say that we
didn‘t stick out.

The three days we spent with Gana Chetna near the villages included most of my favorite
experiences. This was our chance to really observe the people we would be working with
and to learn things you couldn‘t read in a book. We watched as Sunita, one of our hosts,
cooked throughout the day and an old man continuously carried water from the pump
several hundred meters away. We awoke with the sun to find men already in the fields
only to watch activity slow as the hot sun rose. These people were most productive in the
very early hours of the day and in the evening for obvious reasons. However, when I say

productive it may take on a meaning most Americans would disagree with. One of the
biggest challenges for me was to be patient. The pace of life in India is much more
relaxed than what I was familiar with, although the city traffic would lead to
contradictory thinking. This relaxed pace may have been why I enjoyed my time in the
villages so much. I know that I was frustrated that we could not utilize our time more
efficiently though. We found good uses for our extra time as we waited for our hosts.
Often we played Frisbee, trying to seduce local youngsters into playing with us. We
were usually unsuccessful in this and they continued to watch us shyly with utmost
curiosity. We played in the pre-monsoon rains, explored the rocky areas around our
shelter, and exchanged politics lessons with our translators from KIIT. Unexpectedly
many of these moments became very valuable.

As I think back on the trip I miss trying to cram six people into a tiny auto rickshaw and
the smell of chai on the streets, but there were also many small personal changes that I
have noticed since then. This was by far the greatest challenge I have faced in my life. I
put myself in a situation where I hardly knew what to expect or why I was were I was.
Three weeks in a country like India forces you to question a lot of things about yourself
and I think that, in retrospect, I was able to clarify some of my goals and at the same time
become more confident in them and in myself. I grew very close to those I traveled with
and forced myself to become very versatile in terms of perspective and ability to adapt.
So while, when I flip through my memories I feel like I am reliving an issue of ―National
Geographic,‖ I know that tied to each image there is a story, a feeling, and sometimes
even a revelation.

Dan Weintritt

Our group‘s work in India this summer proved to be a deeply culturally sensitive
endeavor. On paper, the project was to be one of efficiencies and costs. However, we
were aware that the actual success of our implementation of biopower into such a socially
remote area would depend on much more than technical and economic sustainability.
Cultural research from the States was futile. Though information was available on very
many aspects of life in the area we were to work in, such as agricultural production, diet,
education, health, etc., there was virtually no way to get a definite picture of the dynamic
of this village, and to see specifically what type of electrical production would be
beneficial. It was primarily for this reason that we undertook our site survey at the end of

Little could have prepared us for the realities of this nation. Common information on the
politics, society, and cultures of India‘s urban and rural populations proved to be a
distressing generalization of what we came to encounter through our trip. Our flight took
us into Calcutta‘s international airport, from where we traveled across town to the train
station. Differences from our norm so slight as traffic patterns, advertising, retail, and
hygiene instilled a tremendous sense of newness. Exotification in my eyes, and wariness
of that exotification, of the most mundane daily functions from the beginning of our trip
allowed me in a way to disattach myself from most expectations, and placed me in the

role of student rather than expert. The group‘s openness in general to experiencing new
things without judgment allowed us to get a more complete sense of the workings of
residential, market, and agrarian systems than we possibly could have attained if we had
arrived with more specific goals or questions in mind.

In addition to the relative immersion in otherness that was to become the standard for
normalcy in our project, the group and I came to make several important and rewarding
acquaintances and friendships during our stay. We met with professional engineers of
both American and Indian educational backgrounds, students in two Orissian universities
with largely different focuses in their education, an activist and volunteer in our efforts
from Australia who possessed an eclectic engineering and sociological experience, and
the farmers and their families who had would ultimately become the most significant
collaborators in our experiment. Indeed, a major transformation that took place within me
during this time was to cease to see the attempt less as an engineering design project and
more as a holistic social, cultural and technological experiment. I came to learn that the
major obstacle in this was not whether biodiesel fuel could viably be used sustainably in
an agrarian setting, but whether the introduction of such technology could be designed in
such a way that homogenized into a community structure that was organized in its

In effect, this trip/experience has had contributed invaluably to lessening the gap between
my perceptions of our work and its actual function and consequences. In demonstrating
the sensitivity required for true global understanding and awareness, I have begun to
characterize how to properly view myself and my participation in these projects with
respect to global and local communities.

Appendix A – Plants

Karanj and need oil descriptions are below. Insufficient information is available on
the characteristics of Sal. The descriptions are attributed to source unknown (obtained
from AID-India; most of the text is the work of the original authors but included inside
this text as a reference to the reader.

Karanj Oil


The tree starts bearing at the age of 4-7 years. The fruits come to harvest
at different periods of the year in different parts of the country but the
harvest season extends in general from November-December to May-
June. The yield of the seed is said to range from 10-250kg per tree. The
seed composition is 5% of shell and 95% of oleaginous kernel. The
purification of the oil by cold extraction with alcohol and subsequent
alkali refining and bleaching of the final product can be obtained by
treating the crude oil with sodium chlorite and then with alcoholic
caustic soda in three stages in concentrations of 0.3, 0.1 and 0.1%. The
non fatty components of the oil include karanjin and pongamol. Karanjin
slowly separates from the oil on standing; Yields of up to 1.25% of
Karanjin and 0.85% of pongamol have been obtained from the oil.


   The seed oil is the most useful commercial product and is now being
    used as a diesel substitute.
   The oil which is got from crushing of seed is used for leather
    dressing, soap making, lubrication, candle preparation, illumination,
    and for medicinal purposes.
   Seed cake is used as fodder for cattle.
   The wood is used for yokes of bullock carts, ploughs, solid cart-
    wheels, rafters of thatched cottages, oil mills, furniture, small turnery
    articles such as planes, chisels, and screw drivers.
   The seed and oil also has many medicinal uses.

Neem Oil


The fruits ripen in April right before the monsoon. Harvesting season is
May to July. The seed on average comprises 44.7% kernel and 55.3%
shell. The kernel yield a greenish yellow to brown acrid bitter fixed oil
known as oil of Margosa. The yield is equivalent to 23.5% of the whole
seed. The fruits are dried well, and the husks removed before the oil
extraction. The kernels are crushed in local crusher or expellers giving
30-40%of the oil. Hand crushers produce less yield than mechanized crushers.
The by-products--oil cake—are used as a manure, food for the livestock,
insecticide and nematicide. It has a high protein content (36%)and low
fiber content (11.7%).

Commercial Uses

   The wood is used for furniture, carts, axles, yokes, naves and felloes,
    broads and panels, cabinets, bottoms of drawers, packing cases,
    ornamental ceilings, ship and boat building, helms, oars, oil-mills,
    cigar boxes, carved images, toys, drums and agricultural implements.
   The oil is employed in cosmetic preparations such as creams, hair-
    lotions, medicated soaps, washing-soaps and toothpastes; it can be
    mixed with other oils also for soaps.
   The shell from the seeds is used for the production of activated
    carbon and toothpowder.
   It can be used as fuel and for manufacturing briquetts or hardboards.
   Neem oil also has many medicinal uses

Appendix B – Site Assessment Q & A

Site Assessment Questions and Answers
Rationale and Goals
        Were the following considered and why was biodiesel picked over them?
             o biogas from fermentation
                     not many animals, manure is used for compost
             o pyrolysis gas from biomass
                     huge unit needed, fuel must have optimum moisture content &
                       feedstock consistency
             o solar
                     high capital costs, easily destroyed, batteries & transformers
                       needed (*batteries are also optimal for a generator setup)
             o wind
                     inconsistent, batteries needed, need to gather data for one year

Chemical Feedstock Availability
      Are any of the following available for purchase locally and from what
            o sodium or potassium hydroxide
                     mix your own with magnesium?
            o methanol or ethanol
                     mango ethanol is possible but villagers might drink the ethanol
                     methanol has toxicity concerns (villagers unaware of toxic
                        chemical effects on the environment)
      Wood Ash (source of potassium hydroxide)
            o What is the fuel used for fires? wood
            o How much wood ash is produced by the population served? 2L /day
            o Are there competing uses of ash? none
                     soap production
                     fertilizer
      Is petroleum based diesel available for co-firing with vegetable oil?
            o 23-25 Rp/L ($0.55)
            o This would simplify the process and make it unnecessary to obtain
                other reactants and produce biodiesel
            o Biodiesel could be produced centrally and co-fired with vegetable oil
            o If biodiesel proves unworkable in the future, petroleum diesel could be
            o Engine can be pre-heated with diesel before use & cleaned with diesel
                after use.

Reactor Material Availability
       Which of the following more available locally and most commonly used and
         worked with?
            o Plastic containers e.g.

                         55 gallon plastic drums
                               Rp 600-800 per 55 gallon, readily available
                         5 gallon buckets
             o Metals
                      galvanized steel
                      tin plated steel including used food containers
                      stainless steel
                      metal drums
             o concrete materials available
                      Portland cement
                      Pre-cast shapes such as pipes, troughs, or tubs
             o Fired nonporous clay bricks, pots, pipes, etc.
          What types of filters are available locally?
             o finely woven cloth
                      hand-spun, folded 4 times
             o cotton or fiberglass batting
             o commercial fuel filters
             o paint filters
             o oil filters Rp 200, unit ~ Rp 1000

Local Manufacturing Ability
    What is the state of local manufacturing and repair?
         o In Keonjhar or closer, service diesel jeeps
    Are any of the following available?
         o Welding
         o Machining(Presumably limited due to no electricity)
         o Blacksmithing/forging/metal casting
                 More locally ?
         o Pottery kilns
                 Not common; pit fired, some brick kiln
    Does the local populace have experience with any of the following?
         o Soap making (very similar to biodiesel production)
                 No, but keonjhar district
         o Oil pressing or animal fat rendering
                 Yes, machine and post; boil and wrap in cloth
         o Hide tanning or other chemical processing techniques with skills
            transferable to biodiesel production
    What is the local skill level with maintaining diesel or gasoline engines?

Energy Needs
    What will the biodiesel be used for?
         o mechanical power
                 irrigation pump (tillers, etc. later)
         o electricity generation
                 lights, TV, oil press

      What is the nature of the electrical load?
          o times of day or year needed
                   timer may be needed; prone to leaving lights on at all times
          o spatial location and dispersion of need
                   lights throughout, oil press at generation site, maybe 2 TVs,
                      consider expansion to other uses such as irrigation
          o How much electric power is needed at each location?
                   Most at oil press
      Similar questions for mechanical power

   What is the population of individuals to be served?
   What is the daily routine like for each group?
   Who is interested in maintaining the project (i.e. who would we train)?
        o Young men (upper teens), about 10 in Badakamandara
   How many community man-hours are available for the project?
        o 6 hrs/day processing
   Which members of the community were involved in the initiation of the project?
   How is the community structured?
        o Governance by democracy or hereditary tribal elders etc.
        o Communal or capitalist system

      To what extent is the local population vegetarian? They eat goat, sheep, chicken,
       fish in addition to rice and vegetables
      This affects the following:
            o Land availability for fuel production
            o Availability of waste animal fats and lipids for fuel production
                    No waste, boil meat
      How are decisions made? e.g. village council, individual leader. The identified
       group would be in charge of the following: need to form new group
            o Collecting monthly payments
                    Group payment for seeds, users of energy would pay, some profit
                       for expansion
            o Supervision of operation
            o Protection of energy crop, generation facility and distribution
            o System decisions (maintenance, expansion, etc.)
      What are the basic roles of individuals in the community? Roles of women? Men?
       Children? Elders? Are interactions between these groups formal or informal?
      What are the prevailing religious and traditional beliefs of the community?
            o In addition to Hindu beliefs, fear of dark & geckos
      Is there any aspect of the project that might infringe upon these beliefs?
      What is the role of Gana Chetna?
            o How different are the tribal groups included in this organization? (this will
               be addressed Gana Chetna & AID-India). Visitation to Gana Chetna and

              surrounding tribes would be useful, especially since the project in likely to
              expand if successful.
    Do different social sectors differ in routine unrelated to sex/age? (tribal leaders,
           o For the scheduled cast villages, men & women do separate tasks; in Juang
              tribals, men & women are more likely to work together.
    Who participates in agriculture?
    What are existing sources of oils and fats?
           o Are the oil sources we are considering already growing in the region?
           o Are Jatropha or Indian Beech plants available for transplanting?
                   Will raise from seed
    Land use patterns
    What is the seasonal cycle of planting, harvesting etc.?
           o Are biodiesel needs synchronized with the agricultural calendar?
                   Most oilseed plants can be harvested year-round; more energy will
                       be needed during harvest season (October)
           o Will the harvesting of oilseeds and biodiesel production conflict with
              existing busy times?
    What agricultural products are already produced?
           o What kind of food processing capabilities are desired?
                   Spices, leaf plates, flour, rice shucking
    Who controls money? Land? individuals
    Who participates in buying and selling? Marketing – women, contract – men
    Who has ownership in the community? Is individual ownership a concept there?
    Who will own and manage the biodiesel equipment and products? committee
    How will the community participate in the implementation process? Labor?
      Funding (including in-kind contributions)?
    Is the local economy on a cash or barter basis? cash
    What trade exists? What businesses?
    How closely is the community tied to the external economy in terms of selling
      and purchasing goods? Local market – weekly, keonjhar - monthly
    What are transportation links like especially for obtaining chemical raw materials
      that cannot be produced locally? Jeep, buses

    What are we going to do with all of the leftover glycerin from the production?
          o compost
          o use as bacterial food for biogas production
          o sell to someone else for a chemical feedstock
       nothing extant

Appendix C – PSM

Item                                           10/4/04   10/11/04   10/18/04   10/25/04    11/1/04    11/8/04   11/15/04
Oil Feedstock
Order/recieve oil
buy/locate generator
test oil (already in progress in India)
determine best oilseed
identify economic factors
create HOMER spreadsheet
create total economic spreadsheet
create pricing scheme
evaluate community's ability to
produce oil
identify electrical loads
calculate electrical loads (w/losses)
coordinate building desgin
(mostly completed by AID-India)
begin building (community built
before arrival)
Community Interaction/Education
identify cultural complications to be
write instruction manuals (pictoral)
practice teaching maintence
design interacation activities (eg. to teach
Oil Press/Mechanical
Coordinate oil press method
(mostly completed by AID-India)
Travel & In country purchases
begin travel plans
find equipment in-country (AID-
Order equipment (AID-India)

                                           11/22/04      11/29/04    12/6/04   12/13/04 12/20/2004   12/27/04     1/3/05   1/10/05
Post Design through
begin electrical wiring (AID India)
continue travel planing
group interaction activities
first aid training
technical training (some already

Appendix E (Photos)

Meeting with villagers from Badakamandara.

Women‘s Self Help Group from Badakamandara.

Students get a great reception at a village in Orissa, India.

Soil sampling near the villages.


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