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					Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                   Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
DFID Research project R7963                 Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction




Contents

1 Introduction ................................................................................ 3
2 Follow up of the Localising the Habitat Agenda for the
  Istanbul +5 .................................................................................. 5
3 Synthesis of National Reports .................................................. 7
4 Summary of each Region .......................................................... 9
     4.1        Africa Region                                                                                9
     4.2        Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) Region                                                 11
     4.3        Latin America and the Caribbean Region                                                      13
     4.4        West Asia Region                                                                            14
     4.5        Asia and the Pacific Region                                                                 15
5                 Conclusion               19
6                 Bibliography             20


Tables: List of National reports:
        Issues, problems and progress ...................................... 21
7 Table 1. Africa Region ............................................................. 21
8 Table 2. The Economic Commission for
   Europe (ECE) Region .............................................................. 31
9 Table 3. The Latin American and Caribbean Region .......                                51
10 Table 4. The West Asia Region ............................................... 55
11 Table 5. The Asia and The Pacific Region .............................. 61
12 Appendix 1. National Reports: African Region Countries .... 67
13 Appendix 2. National Reports: Economic Commission for
   Europe Region Countries ........................................................ 69
14 Appendix 3. National Reports: Latin America and the
   Caribbean Region Countries ................................................... 71
15 Appendix 4. National Reports: West Asia Region Countries 75
16 Appendix 5. National Reports: Asia Pacific
   Region Countries ..................................................................... 77




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                1
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Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                  Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
DFID Research project R7963                Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                               2
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Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                  Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
DFID Research project R7963                Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction




1 Introduction
The main objective of this preliminary analysis of the National Reports to Istanbul +5 is
to address the Localising the Habitat Agenda for Poverty Reduction research project
hypotheses:
 The Habitat Agenda is being little used as a policy tool for sustainable urban
    development by national and local governments, in particular, as a tool for urban
    poverty reduction.
 The Habitat Agenda forms a useful globally agreed protocol for sharing
    understanding of effective policies and practice in urban poverty reduction.
Specifically the analysis will focus on the process of producing National Reports for
Istanbul +5 implementing the Agenda:
 To find out the main issues, problems and progress that have been achieved by
    each country as stated in their National Reports to Istanbul +5
 To find out how the process of Localising the Habitat Agenda has been used in the
    production of the National Reports.
Poverty alleviation in urban areas and governance are the main focus of this research on
Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction. Shelter is also recognised
as an important element in alleviating poverty in urban areas. Our analysis here will
concentrate specifically on these three issues out of the many covered by the National
Reports.
In the analysis we looked at the literature sources on the UN-Habitat website, to
establish the guidelines and processes used in implementing the Habitat Agenda
between the Istanbul Declaration in 1996 and Istanbul +5 in New York. We also
analysed information on the UN-Habitat website in relation of the National Reports for
the Istanbul +5 conference.
The 171 countries that signed up to the Habitat Agenda in Istanbul in 1996 were
required to produce for the Istanbul+5 conference in New York, National Reports setting
out their country’s progress in implementing the Agenda. Guidelines were established for
the production of these Reports for the sake of comparability. A deadline for submission
was set for May 2001 so that a synthesis of the submitted Reports could be completed
by UN-Habitat for Istanbul+5. This information is shown in various forms in the various
sections of the UN-Habitat website. Annexes 1-5 set out the complete list of countries
and the stage each country has reached according to the various sections on the
website.
However, it will be seen from these Annexes that there are a number of anomalies
between the website sections listing the countries by Region, submission and actually on
the list of synthesised National Reports. Apart from these limitations and an inevitable
lack of comparative clarity, the main issues, problems and progress from each National


Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                               3
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Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                  Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
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Report as stated in the synthesis reports is considered an essential source in
understanding the process of implementing the Habitat Agenda.




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                               4
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2 Follow up of the Localising the Habitat Agenda for
  Istanbul +5
171 countries signed the Istanbul declaration at the Habitat II congress. Those countries
are obliged by their commitment to deliver policy statements on Localising the Habitat
Agenda. However, in practice the commitment is more advisory than an obligation
In October 1999, UNCHS (Habitat) provided reporting guidelines for each country to
complete their National Country Report, which covers progress since 1996 for
presentation to the Istanbul +5 conference.There is a five-step assessment and reporting
process advocated by UN Habitat:
-        Organise a National Habitat Committee
-        Collect and analyse information
Hold national workshops to review plans of action
Agree on priorities for future action and initiatives
Prepare a Country Report
Each of the 171 countries is expected to implement their commitment through local,
national, sub-regional and regional plans of action. The guidelines also advocate the
development of policies and programmes for adequate shelter and sustainable human
settlement as set out in the Istanbul declaration.
Based on paragraph 12 of General Assembly resolution 52/190 of 18 December 1997, a
special session was planned to review and appraise the outcome of Habitat II in 2001.
The preparatory Committee was then held in 1999, as a follow up to General Assembly
resolution 53/180 of 15 December 1998, to adopt the criteria for the scope of the review
and appraisal process.
In the section of National Reports of the UN Habitat Istanbul +5 website1, 122 countries
are listed (34 in Africa, 29 in Europe, 1 in North America, 39 in Latin America, 5 in West
Asia and 14 in Asia Pacific)2. In the list of the countries (See Annexes 1-5), 89 countries
attach their National Reports in the website (33 in Africa, 29 in Europe, 1 in North
America, 9 in Latin America, 4 in West Asia and 13 in Asia Pacific). However, in the
same section of National Reports, 94 countries are stated as having submitted their
National Report, which can be found in the Synthesis of National Reports for each
country’s region.


Further study of countries listed in the synthesis of National Reports finds that there are
93 countries (33 in Africa, 26 in Europe and North America, 15 in Latin America, 5 in

1
    http://www.unhabitat.org/istanbul+5//nationalr.htm
2
    The number of the countries on the list is less from the actual number in the UNCHS website due to repetition such as
Israel, which is mentioned in Europe and West Asia, as well as Egypt, mentioned in Africa and West Asia).

Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                               5
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Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                  Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
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West Asia and 14 in Asia Pacific) listed as having produced National Reports (See
annex 1-5, pg 50-54).
Nevertheless, it does not mean that those are the only countries, which have followed up
the National Report guidelines. Other countries might not have forwarded their National
Reports before the deadline submission in May 2001 for preparation of Istanbul +5
conference, New York, June 2001. This raises the question of why those countries have
not submitted their National Reports. Is it because they do not follow up the guidelines,
which are only considered as an advisory, or because of problems such as not prepared
with the target of National Report submission, internal political problems (wars, natural
disaster) or economic crisis?




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                               6
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3 Synthesis of National Reports
The UN-Habitat committee has completed the synthesis of National Reports on the
implementation of the Habitat Agenda for each region. The report presentation follows
the guidelines for country reporting issued by UNCHS (Habitat) in October 1999. It
consists of six chapters: shelter; social development and eradication of poverty;
environmental management; economic development; governance; and international
cooperation. The reports are set out, based on regional meetings in each region and
took material from National reports submitted by May 2001for the preparation of Istanbul
+5 in New York.
Referring to the study objectives in Urban Poverty Reduction, the analysis only focused
on the chapters of social development and eradication of poverty, governance and
shelter. It looked at main issues, problems and progress of countries mentioned in those
chapters.
33 countries are listed as having submitted their reports by May 2001 in the synthesis of
National Report for the African Region (See annex 1 African Region countries).
However, some countries are mentioned in the synthesis report although they are not
listed. These countries are Angola, Burundi, Eritrea and Zimbabwe 3. Whereas
Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia, Sudan and Tunisia are not mentioned in the synthesis
report although they are listed as having submitted the National Report. It brings the total
number of 32 countries summarised in the synthesis of National Reports, which
highlights their main issues, problems and progress.
The synthesis of National report for the Economic Commission for Europe Region lists
26 countries4 in Europe and North America as having submitted their National Reports
by 14 May 20015 (See annex 2 Economic Commission for Europe Region countries).
Other countries such as Germany, Portugal and the USA are mentioned in the report
although they are not listed. From the listed countries, Armenia and Switzerland are not
mentioned in the synthesis report. Hence there are 27 countries summarised in the
synthesis report.
The synthesis of National report for Latin America and the Caribbean Region lists 15
National Reports as having been submitted by March 2000 to UN-Habitat committee
(See annex 3 Latin America and the Caribbean Region countries). However, Ecuador is
mentioned in the report although it is not listed6 . Whereas Argentina and Peru, which
are listed, are not mentioned in the report. There are 14 countries summarised in the
synthesis report.

3
    UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat Agenda in African Region.
4
    Uzbekistan is excluded in this number although originally listed as it is mentioned in the Asia Pacific region as well.
5
    UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat Agenda in Economic commission
for Europe Region
6
    UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat Agenda in Latin America and the
Caribbean Region.

Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                                 7
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Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                  Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
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5 countries are on the list of member states7. that have submitted the National reports by
May 2001 in the synthesis if National report for the West Asia Region (See annex 4
Table of West Asia Region countries). However, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine,
Qatar and Saudi Arabia are mentioned in the report although they are originally not
listed8. Hence the synthesis report summarises 11 countries.
Finally, there are 14 countries listed as having submitted their National report to the UN
Habitat committee by 1 May 20019 (See annex 5 Table of Asia Pacific Region countries).
However, Malaysia and Myanmar (Burma) are not highlighted in the report. Hence, 12
countries are highlighted in the synthesis report of this region 10.
The main issues, problems and progress mentioned in the synthesis reports are useful
in understanding the process of localising the habitat agenda in each countries.




7
    Egypt is excluded in this number although originally listed as it is mentioned in the African Region as well.
8
    UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat Agenda in West Asia Region.
9
    UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat Agenda in Asia Pacific Region.
10
     This number includes Uzbekistan, which was originally not included in the summary report and has been moved to the
Asia Pacific region from the section of Economic Commission for Europe Region.

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WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                             8
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          Summary of each Region
Our analysis has focused on the chapters in the Country Reports that deal with social
development and eradication of poverty, governance and shelter in order to relate it with
objective of the study’s scope in urban poverty reduction. The detail of main issues,
problems and progress for each country are set out in separate tables (see pages 17 –
49 for the full text). It consists of Table 1 Africa Region, Table 2 The Economic
Commission for Europe (ECE) Region, Table 3 The Latin American and the Caribbean
Region, Table 4 The West Asia Region and Table 5 The Asia and The Pacific Region.
4.1           Africa Region
A. Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
The main challenge in the region is the widespread poverty in some countries such as
Mali, Madagascar, Burkina Faso, Niger, Central-African Republic, and a low level of
economic development in many countries of the region. This challenge particularly
concerns addressing the status and needs of marginalized groups such as the poor
conditions for women and children.
In order to overcome this problem the UN, particularly UNDP, using the Development
Assistant Framework, has promoted Social development issues within the framework of
poverty reduction to be addressed by countries in this region. Homelessness and
inadequate housing resulting in poor condition of health are a critical aspect of poverty.
Economic growth and transformation, good governance and the ability of the poor to
increase their incomes are the major goals for the African countries’ poverty eradication
plans. There have been signs of progress in a few African countries, but the majority has
not changed much.
This section looks at the key elements of ‘Provide equal opportunities for a safe and
healthy life, Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups, and Promote
gender equality in human settlements development’, in addressing the issue of Social
Development and Eradication of Poverty.
B. Governance
Good progress in fostering urban governance has been noted in most African countries
especially in the area of decentralisation, local government reforms, ensuring
transparent, accountable and efficient management of urban areas, private sector
involvement and community participation.
Several countries have undertaken constitutional reviews to promote a decentralised
system of governance. Some countries have strengthened the local government
capacity. Public-private partnership is seen as an innovative approach for the
management of cities by the local governments, especially in the delivery of urban
services. However, there is an essential need for co-ordination in participatory


Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                               9
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DFID Research project R7963                Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction


methodologies in order to address the issues of governance, poverty alleviation and
sustainable Human Settlement, which is still not integrated in the policy framework in
many African countries. There are still institutional weaknesses in most African
countries, which are poorly developed in the relationship between Central Government
and Local Authorities.
Key elements of ‘Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities, and
Encourage and support participation and civic engagement’, are used in analysing this
section.
C. Shelter
With the rapid increase in urbanisation around 60 million new dwellings in the coming
ten years are required to accommodate the new households, and an even greater
number to replace dilapidated houses and relieve overcrowding.
 Several governments are in the process of revising national strategies and reviewing
    institutional and legislative frameworks.
 A number of countries are addressing the issue in the context of the broader
    framework of economic development and to develop it as major tool for creating
    economic wealth and employment.
 In many countries, there is a gradual change of the government role from that of
    provider into that of facilitator of public-private partnerships, and support for
    community based-initiatives.
Few governments have managed sufficiently and effectively to implement the
comprehensive shelter policies and revise the housing development strategy. The main
problems for governments facing difficulties in implementing the policy are lack of
capacity at the local level (technical, planning and financial), and disruption arising from
war and conflict.
Some complex tasks for municipalities to address are promoting security of tenure,
provision of adequate supply of land, construction of infrastructure and provision of
services, and strengthening the capacity of local authorities and other actors, such as
NGO’s and CBO’s at this level.
Key elements in this section consists of:
Provide security of tenure.
Promote the right to adequate housing.
Provide equal access to land.
Promote equal access to credit.
Promote equal access to basic services.




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                              10
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Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                  Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
DFID Research project R7963                Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction


4.2           Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) Region
A. Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
Progress made in this category is recognised through addressing inequality in access to
health services by marginalized groups and by integrating planning in sectors related to
health. This is achieved through a direction by the WHO strategies on ‘healthy cities’ and
‘health for all’ that has promoted health sector reform agendas in several countries.
Unemployment is the most important single cause of poverty in ECE countries. The main
concern in the sharp rise of unemployment in Eastern Europe that affects disadvantaged
groups. This also affects older workers and raises concern of an ageing population in
general.
The complex inter-relationship amongst gender, poverty and governance has been
understood well through widespread research and debate on the issue. This is followed
by efforts in addressing gender inequalities and improving the status of women through
legislative change.
This section focuses on key elements of ‘Provide equal opportunities for a safe and
healthy life, Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups, and Promote
gender equality in human settlements development’, in addressing the issue of Social
Development and Eradication of Poverty.
B. Governance
The capacity of local governments in overcoming city development problems has been
widely recognised. The link between good governance and reduction of poverty is
deemed to provide a solution for poverty and inequality in the region. It is demonstrated
in The European Charter of Local Self-Government adopted by the Council of Europe in
1985 as a European Convention, which was signed and ratified by more than two thirds
of the Council of Europe’s 40 member states.
However, countries in transition in Eastern Europe have not completed this process due
to the complex tasks of changing their central planning structures into decentralised
systems. Insufficient resource in promoting decentralisation for good governance is also
a main issue. Adaptation of appropriate consultation mechanism will ensure that all
stakeholders are involved as an important aspect in providing opportunities for all
citizens of countries in transition.
This section consists of:
Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities.
Encourage and support participation and civic engagement.
Ensure transparent, accountable and efficient governance of towns, cities and
metropolitan areas.




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                              11
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C. Shelter
Most countries in this region have comprehensive housing policies although there is still
a need to promote housing reforms that ensure social equity and improve the quality of
life.
Housing demand varies but is relatively low compared to other regions. The largest
housing demand annually is in Eastern Europe countries. In the region generally, the
increase is mostly due to reduced household sizes rather than to population growth. In
conflict areas such as the Balkans there is a greater need for providing houses a result
of war damage.
The main issues of shelter in the region are urban renewal and provision of greater
housing diversity with consideration on the conservation of historic sites and cultural
heritage and on renovation, modernisation and thermal insulation of existing dwellings.
Most housing demands are in urban areas. In several countries such as Sweden, the
Netherlands and Finland, there is a growing demand for more spacious and qualitatively
better housing. However, some countries such as UK, experience outward migration
from the big cities to suburban or rural areas. This has created a dual housing market,
creating a wide gap of housing provision and condition between growing and declining
urban and rural areas.
Improving access to housing is an essential aspect. ‘One stop shop’ initiative has been
initiated and has improved access to housing in several countries.
The ageing population is a trend especially in Southern Europe. It increases the demand
for smaller unit housing close to services in densely developed inner cities. Better
access to shelter for the elderly and the disabled has been pursued by several countries
such as France and Sweden. This includes housing for senior immigrants, such as
initiated by the Netherlands.
This section consists of:
Provide security of tenure.
Promote the right to adequate housing.
Provide equal access to land.
Promote equal access to credit.
Promote access to basic services.




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                              12
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4.3           Latin America and the Caribbean Region
A. Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
Most countries in the region have agreed on the need to ensure decentralisation through
allocating resources to the local level. This includes increasing the role of civil society in
working together with local authorities.
Apart from enactment of legislation, which promotes principles of social development
and integration of citizen participation, there are factors that hinder the progress, such as
natural disasters, endemic violence and lack of adequate economic resources in the
region.
This section consists of:
Provide equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life.
Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups.
Promote gender equality in human settlements development.
B. Governance
Most countries in the region have introduced legal reforms to promote decentralisation.
However, there is still a need to improve the capacity of municipalities in formulating
development and investment strategies. The establishment of municipal and local
development funds in several countries is considered a good step in implementing
decentralisation policy.
This section consists of:
Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities.
Encourage and support participation and civic engagement.
C. Shelter
This region is recognised as the most urbanised region in the developing world. The
common problems consist of illegality, irregularity and informality in the urbanisation
process.
Shelter sector characteristics cover:
 The macroeconomic conditions, such as employment, low salaries and consequent
   increase in poverty.
 State policies and how the urban land market functions.
 Land use.
Current democratic process of government election in many countries, with many NGOs’
involvement has improved the condition of urban poor in terms of access to urban land
and their legality.


Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                              13
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Some countries have a focus on reconstruction after recent natural disasters and
human-made (war related) disaster. These problems have caused rural to urban
migration and increased the pressure on the existing urban areas.
This section consists of:
Provide security of tenure.
Promote the right to adequate housing.
Provide equal access to land.
Promote equal access to credit.


4.4           West Asia Region
A. Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
There are wide disparities in social progress and the scale of poverty within Gulf
Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. There are still gaps in basic needs provision of
some countries in the region.
The most significant change of policies and legislation is acceptance of the principle of
partnership. As a result, numerous NGOs have emerged in the region. In the partnership
principle, the private sector is widely recognised together with local and central
governments. This principle also promotes the changing role of women, supported by
NGOs, in decision-making processes and local government institutions.
This section consists of:
Provision of equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life.
Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups.
Promote gender equality in human settlements development.
B. Governance
Progress has been made in the last decade although there is not much information
about this matter in each National Report. Policies recognised by countries in the region
are to ensure transparent, accountable and efficient governance of towns, cities and
metropolitan areas. Dubai municipality has achieved the best practice status, especially
in the partnerships of various stakeholders involved in urban management.
This section consists of:
Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities.
Encourage and support participation and civic engagement.
Ensure transparent, accountable and efficient governance of towns, cities and
metropolitan areas.



Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                              14
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C. Shelter
Housing policy and condition is diverse in the countries of the region; especially due to
different effect of the Gulf war in 1991 on each country. However, the majority of the
countries have reviewed and made progress in housing policy during the preparation of
the Istanbul+5 conference.
New housing policies and strategies recently adapted by several governments have
mainly shifted toward private sector involvement in order to relieve public authorities
from the heavy financial burdens in investment in the housing sector. Progress of the
housing delivery process by the private sector has been demonstrated in Egypt, Iraq,
Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Yemen.
There are different characteristics of the housing stock and demand in the region, arising
from expatriate and employment-seekers in the GCC area and the issue of refugees as
a resut of the Gulf War and other civil wars in the region.
Housing crisis, as a result of high natural growth rates, exists in Egypt, Jordan, Syria and
Yemen, especially in the acute crisis of low-cost housing provision. Housing for the poor
has remained a central focus for housing strategies in all countries of the region.
However, other countries have made significant progress in increasing housing unit
provision, such as Bahrain, which achieved a goal of offering 45.500 housing units set
out in their housing policy.
There is also an important development in strengthening the role of women in housing
and urban development in the region. A regional Arab Women Network on Urban
Development, created just before the Habitat II Conference, has played an important
role in this progress.
This section consists of:
Providing security of tenure.
Promote the right to adequate housing.
Provide equal access to land.
Promote access to basic services.


4.5           Asia and the Pacific Region
A. Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
Various forms of poverty, such as homelessness, inadequate housing, exposure to
unhealthy living conditions and lack of access to health services, are manifested in Asia
and the Pacific Region. As a result, many countries have adopted poverty eradication
and social development in their human settlement programme.
Countries in this area have focused on several basic programmes, which include
education, health, safety, social inclusion and gender. This programme is implemented

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WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                              15
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on both rural and urban areas as urban poverty is recognised as an outgrowth of rural
policy.
They also have adopted different approaches to poverty eradication and social
development. However, there is a common characteristic, namely addressing the
minimum basic needs of the low-income families. It takes the form of a system for social
care for the low-income family, youth, elderly with special needs and minority groups.
This section consists of:
Provision of equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life.
Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups.
Promote gender equality in human settlements development.
B. Governance
Significant progress in the implementation of decentralisation has been made in this
region since the Habitat II. It takes the form of amendment to the national constitutions
and enactment of new legislation by many Asian countries. However, there is still a
challenge to build capacity of poor communities during consultation of the citizen
participation process in urban development.
In the aspects of promoting decentralisation and strengthening local authorities, there
has been a major recognition of urban local authorities since 1996 as a third layer of
government to deal with urban planning, slum development and environmental
management.
This section consists of:
Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities.
Encourage and support participation and civic engagement.




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                              16
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C. Shelter
Great differences in socio-economic development are a characteristic of the countries in
Asia Pacific region. High economic growth for several decades in East and East Asia
was interrupted by the economic crisis in 1997, with the exception of China, which
experiences continued high growth rates. Whereas, South Asia’s slower rate of growth in
development was less affected by the crisis.
There is a very high level of housing demand in developing countries of this region as a
result of the rapid urbanisation process. In the case of industrialised countries, there is
also a problem of housing for the aging population and the formation of single person
households. Housing provision to tackle homelessness, inadequate housing and lack of
access to basic services is still one of the top priorities of the region.
Progress has been made by several countries in the region in the implementation of the
Habitat Agenda. Many governments see shelter as an important component in
eradicating poverty. However, the economic crisis in 1997 has affected housing sector
development of East and South-East Asia.
Recognition to facilitate access of the poor to shelter and basic services is a feature in
policy changes for the development and review of urban development and housing acts,
which have objectives of promoting national housing and settlement policies in the
region. There is also recognition to involve the private sector more through
decentralisation and deregulation in housing provision.
One of the major trends in the region is the growing government policy shift towards an
enabling role and partnerships among various stakeholders, which cover private sector,
NGOs and local community organisations, and self-reliance of well-organised
communities.
This section consists of:
Providing security of tenure.
Promote the right to adequate housing.
Provide equal access to land.
Promote equal access to credit.
Promote access to basic services.




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5 Conclusion
There are lists of significant progress achieved by countries in the synthesis report of
each region. However, there is no clear statement of whether this achievement is a
result (directly or indirectly) because of the commitment to the Habitat Agenda. It also
does not include the role of every habitat committee in the progress of achievement.
Only the Netherlands and Greece are mentioned with the role of their habitat committee
(See table 2, page 23). It needs further in depth study of each National Report to find out
about the role of the Habitat Agenda commitment and the habitat committee in achieving
progress.
The synthesis of National Reports generally does not cover the process of the
implementation of the Habitat Agenda in the governance aspect. It does not mention
how the governance aspect is affected by the Habitat Agenda commitment signed by
each country’s representative. These synthesis reports do not discuss ‘best practices’ as
a policy tool in the implementation of the Habitat Agenda.
The National Habitat committee’s role in the achievement of progress in each country is
generally not mentioned in the synthesis reports. It is not clear whether Habitat Agenda
plays important role in the progress or just matching existing programme into the Habitat
Agenda. The synthesis report only highlights the Netherlands through the role Dutch
Habitat Platform and Greece through the role of National Habitat committee in affecting
the progress.
With reference to the categories’ subject headings discussed in the reporting guidelines
by the UN Habitat, each region in the synthesis of National Report has applied slightly
different sub categories.
Only Economic Commission for Europe Region and West Asia Region includes an
aspect to ensure transparent, accountable and efficient governance of towns, cities and
metropolitan areas under the category of Governance.
In the category of Shelter, West Asia Region does not include the aspect of Promote
equal access to credit, whereas Latin America and the Caribbean Region does not
include the aspect of Promote access to basic services.
Apart from lack of information to address the questions stated in this preliminary analysis
report, the synthesis reports of UN-Habitat are a good source for identifying countries
that need to be followed up for more in-depth study from each region. A further study
from selected countries based on the list mentioned in the synthesis reports will become
an essential research to find out how the process of Localising the Habitat Agenda
process has been used in the process of the National Reports and promoted progress in
each country.




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6 Bibliography


http://www.unhabitat.org/istanbul+5//nationalr.htm
UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat
Agenda in African Region
UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat
Agenda in Economic commission for Europe Region.
UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat
Agenda in Latin America and the Caribbean Region.
UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat
Agenda in West Asia Region.
UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat
Agenda in Asia Pacific Region.




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Tables: List of National reports: Issues, problems and progress11
7 Table 1. Africa Region
No          Countries                      National Reports: Issue, Problems and Progress
1           Algeria                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           A Principle of direct intervention of the State for the benefit of the disadvantaged populations
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Engage in upgrading and regularising the informal settlement and promoting security of tenure for millions of people.
                                           An action plan based on housing policy 1996-1998.
2           Angola                         Shelter
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Evolution of banking credit in December 1998 and December 1999 that shows permanent increase in the value of credit for housing and
                                           construction.
3           Botswana                       Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Increase house ownership by female-headed households.
                                           B.Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Implementation of integrated poverty alleviation and housing schemes to assist the urban poor to generate income, earn a living and build
                                           houses through organised self-help.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Increasing home ownership by female-headed households.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Provision of a loan to start manufacturing building materials for income generation for the poor
4           Burkina Faso                   Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           Widespread poverty


11
     UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat Agenda.



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                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           A Presidential decree on 1997 to recognise equal access to land and property without any discrimination based on sex and matrimonial
                                           status.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Housing for the poor programme through security of tenure in an integrated programme.


5           Burundi                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           under-go civil war and refugee problems, which affected Tanzania (as the hosting of the refugees), are considered as disadvantaged part
                                           of population.
                                           The Arusha Peace Agreement.
                                           Shelter
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           Legislation formulation to avoid conflict due to the land issue and the lack of adequate housing for all (Burundi Peace Agreement (Arusha)
                                           and Lusaka Accord (RDC))
6           Central-                       Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
            African                        Widespread poverty
            Republic                       Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Engage in upgrading and regularising the informal settlement and promoting security of tenure for millions of people.
                                           B.Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Coordination among institutions responsible for the shelter sector as a difficulty in shelter delivery.
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           Creation of ‘fond d’amenagement et equipement Urbain (FAEU) that ensures the control of useful urban land for the benefice of poor
                                           fractions of the population.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Creation of ‘fond d’amenagement et equipement Urbain (FAEU) that gives credit for purchase of land and houses, management of




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                                           sanitation and clean water installations.
7           Chad                           Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Developing a family code to improve the economic condition of women as well as their legal status, including households plots ownership.
                                           Shelter
                                           B.Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Coordination among institutions responsible for the shelter sector as a difficulty in shelter delivery.
                                           E. Promote equal access to basic services
                                           Effort to improve the water sector.
                                           Need to adjust standards of infrastructure to the level of affordability.
8           Democratic                     Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
            Republic of                    B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
            Congo                          under-go civil war and refugee problems, which affected Tanzania (as the hosting of the refugees), are considered as disadvantaged part
                                           of population.
                                           Government set up a General Commission on the Reinsertion of refugees that mobilizes external and national aid for them and other
                                           displaced persons
                                           Shelter
                                           B.Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Coordination among institutions for the shelter sector as a difficulty in shelter delivery.


8           Democratic                     C. Provide equal access to land
            Republic of                    Legislation formulation to avoid conflict due to the land issue and the lack of adequate housing for all.
            Congo                          D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           48 Micro-Credits institutions approved by Micro-Credits Institutions World Secretariat, have mobilised 780.000 members of habitat
                                           initiatives in the regions of lower-Congo, Bandundu, Equateur and Kasai.
9            Egypt                         Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           Change of role of women supported by NGOs. Women mayors in municipal councils and equal election for parliamentary members.
                                           A. Provision of equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life




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                                           82% access to fresh water.
                                           20% access to sanitation for urban population.
                                           Progress for infant mortality rates from 43.3 per thousand in 1996 to 35.2 per thousand in the year 2000.
                                           B. Promote Social integration and support disadvantaged groups.
                                           23 % of the population live under the national poverty line. The directs to creation of plans through social funds to integrated socially and
                                           women equality.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Legislation of equal opportunity for women.
                                           Forming of Regional women’s NGO with its activities and influence local and national policy and practice.
                                           Women appointment by quota in the parliament. The women representation has gradually risen.
                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Encouraged decentralisation which increased Local Authority’s responsibility.
                                           Decentralisation, support local authorities and ensure women’s representation in local and national government.
                                           Shelter
                                           High natural growth rates of population resulting in housing crisis.
                                           Formulation policy of housing development plans and then carry out 20%, whereas 80% by private sector.
                                           Emphasising the strengthening role of women. An activity of regional Arab Women Network.
                                           A. Providing Security of Tenure
                                           A legislation that ensure the security of tenure.
                                           80% implementation of housing development plans by the private sector.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           New legislation in favour of the poor to reinforce the rights of the individual and the family for the acquisition of adequate housing, for
                                           secure tenure and the provision of infrastructure and services.
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           Equalisation of opportunities for women in housing provision.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Policies to provide basic services to their citizens. Most urban location has access except the informal settlements and urban poor areas.




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10          Eritrea                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Land proclamation to allow women for the legal rights to own and inherit land


11          Ethiopia                       Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunity for a safe and healthy life
                                           Growth of access to health from 48.5 percent in 1996 to 52.4 percent in 1999.
                                           Shelter
                                           B.Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           No impediments to women or any other particular group to owning or renting land, or taking mortgages in their own right.
                                           E. Promote equal access to basic services
                                           Markets Town Development Programme.
12          Gabon                          Shelter
                                           B.Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Coordination among institutions responsible for the shelter sector as a difficulty in shelter delivery.
13          Guinea                         Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Priority for the professional education of women.
                                           Governance
                                           Recommendation to implement a legal and institution framework to ensure the necessary participation and civil engagement.
                                           Shelter
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           New system for social housing financing by using local savings and credit.
                                           E. Promote equal access to basic services
                                           Rehabilitation and modernisation of existing infrastructure and through capacity building and building of personnel as well as direct help to
                                           the population through the reduction of costs for essential medicines.
14          Kenya                          Shelter
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit




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                                           National Security Authority funds has been invested in land and housing projects.
                                           Small loans through housing cooperatives that demonstrated almost 100 percent repayments.
15          Lesotho                        Shelter
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           Innovative project to address issue of customary land tenure through a multi-stakeholder approach that recognises the legitimate interests
                                           of customary community chiefs.


16          Madagascar                     Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           Widespread poverty
                                           Implementing an action plan with the support of the international community, which includes policy on and resources for addressing
                                           poverty.
                                           Homelessness and inadequate housing along with poor condition of health are critical aspect of poverty
                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Adopted decentralisation policy since Habitat II.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Engage in upgrading and regularising the informal settlement and promoting security of tenure for millions of people.
17          Malawi                         Governance
                                           recognised the lack of private sector involvement.
18          Mali                           Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           Widespread poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunity for a safe and healthy life
                                           the National report presents different figures to understand the progression of poverty, education, infant mortality, health and popular
                                           diseases, including efforts made by the State to face improve the national situation.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Engage in upgrading and regularising the informal settlement and promoting security of tenure for millions of people.




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                                           B.Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           An institution framework for protection of tenants on the basis of decrees 27/9/1967 to protect tenants from arbitrary evictions.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Bank of Habitat that gives credits at a low rate of 7% to members of housing cooperatives (normal rate is 9%).
19          Morocco                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           question of integration of handicapped persons as priority, through specialised administrative and legislative structures and encourages
                                           political participation of those persons and women in particular.
20          Mozambique                     Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           New land law 1997, established the right of occupation for all peasant farmers, regardless of gender.


21          Namibia                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Revising its succession laws and married equality act.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Flexible tenure system to run parallel to the more formal system.
                                           B.Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Constitution that provides a framework for legislation and policies to safeguard the Namibian’s equal right to shelter.
                                           The Build Together Programme that assists the poor to gain access to land and build their own housing through self-help and by utilising
                                           the potential of the informal sector.
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           Institutional and financial support into land delivery process for poor communities through innovative approaches such as the dual
                                           development approach (insitu upgrading and new development for at resettlement)
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           The Building Together Programme that provides loans to low-income households for buying land, constructing or repairing their homes.
22          Niger                          Social Development and Eradication of Poverty




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                                           Widespread poverty
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Engage in upgrading and regularising the informal settlement and promoting security of tenure for millions of people.
23          Nigeria                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Revision of constitutions in order to allow the participation f women and other disadvantaged groups in various sectors of the economy.
24          Republic of                    Shelter
            Djibouti                       B.Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Elaboration of a legislative framework to facilitate provision of housing for all income groups.
25          Rwanda                         Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           under-go civil war and refugee problems, which affected Tanzania (as the hosting of the refugees), are considered as disadvantaged part
                                           of population.
                                           A detailed country development and poverty eradication strategy for the next 20 years.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Enacted a Law of succession for equal access to Land for men and women
                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Post conflict rehabilitation and restructuring of the judicial system.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Ministerial decree 1997 and RDC’s Presidential Decree 1998 regulates urban and rural settlements.
                                           B.Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Establishing a housing fund and being prepared as a land bill, to promote gender equality, a low of succession and matrimonial rights.
26          Senegal                        Shelter
                                           E. Promote equal access to basic services
                                           Implementation of a sectorial water project (2.901 millions USD between 1996-2001) for a period of six years.




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27          South Africa                   Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Land Distribution Programme, provides access to women.
                                           Shelter
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           Land reform programme which benefited those previously denied the opportunity to own land.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           The National Housing Finance Corporation that develops new loan schemes and risk-sharing mechanisms.
                                           Worker Advocacy that led to the use of provident funds to leverage loans for housing.
                                           Hands-on lending approach where good consumer education and provident fund guarantees result in 99 percent repayment.
28          Tanzania                       Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           the most comprehensive gender treatment of land reform through Land Act of 1999.
                                           Governance
                                           Local Government reform in the Government Policy Paper in 1998.
                                           Shelter
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           Land policies aim at increasing access of women to land.
29          Togo                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Engage in upgrading and regularising the informal settlement and promoting security of tenure for millions of people.
                                           Liberation of tenure system to simplify complication of traditional and modern system, strengthening local municipalities financial capacity.
30          Uganda                         Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunity for a safe and healthy life
                                           Household survey data 1997 indicated 51 % of people do not seek medical care when ill, which recommend establishing local health
                                           centres to increase access.
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Revision of constitutions in order to allow the participation f women and other disadvantaged groups in various sectors of the economy.




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                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Local government statute before Habitat II in 1987 offers special opportunity for women’s inclusion in government’s decision making
                                           structure.
                                           Enacted a new land law to operationalise 1995 constitutional reforms; and Universal primary education in Uganda to encourage education
                                           among women.


30          Uganda                         Governance
                                           A National Programme and Action plan on democratic governance was prepared in 1997 to promote decentralisation, democratisation,
                                           transparency and accountability and public information as key areas in good governance.
                                           Shelter
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           Land policies aim at increasing access of women to land.
31          Zambia                         Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Legalisation of unplanned settlements and land titling that met certain criteria through an Act of parliament.
                                           Lands Act 1995 legally recognise the right of people to hold land under customary law.
32          Zimbabwe                       Shelter
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Measures to involve building societies in lending to housing cooperatives.
                                           National Security Authority funds, which covers up to 5 percent and can be invested in low-income housing through building societies.




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8 Table 2. The Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) Region

No           Countries                     National Reports: Issue, Problems and Progresses
1            Austria                       Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Since 1997, the City of Vienna has developed a programme that reaches out to ,and supports young people who may potentially at risk,
                                           targeting youth between 11 and 20 years of age whose main area of social contact are public spaces and not supported by the social
                                           services network.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           A separate institution dealing with women-specific planning was established in 1998, and anchoring the needs of women in a municipal
                                           institutional context. Measures include a focus on equal treatment of men and women, women-friendly urban planning, security and
                                           women friendly housing.
                                           Governance
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           A more integrated system of municipal and district offices into the participation process that has also raised demand for the publication of
                                           documentation on the entire planning and participation process both in large and small-scale projects.
                                           Shelter
                                           Lower demand in new housing units, nearly 25% less that the demand at the end of the last decade.
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Different approach of homelessness not just providing housing demonstrated in ‘Step by Step Plan for the Reintegration of Homeless’,
                                           expanded to the whole city of Vienna in 1998 (Best Practice Database for 2000)
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Various forms of housing subsidies and allowances through the state-subsidised (social) rental housing to address the needs of low
                                           income earners and those who urgently need housing.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Special measures to ensure access to credit for vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, such as young families and the disabled groups
                                           through housing subsidies. These subsidies are related to the floor space and are given to families below a certain income level.




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2            Bulgaria                      Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a healthy and safe life
                                           Formulation of health sector reform agendas, which integrate in spatial plans to promote healthy cities.
                                           Changing the health system from a centralised to a more privatised system, which combines the market and non-market mechanisms.
                                           Integrated actions aimed at preventing and eliminating violence against women.
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Integration of the Roma (Gypsies) programme.
                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Decentralisation of local authority management.
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           Local NGO’s have established regular contacts and dialogue with the local authorities and public forums.


2            Bulgaria                      C. Provide equal access to land
                                           A new Law of Cadastre and Property registration and new urban development law to improve the functioning of land markets and
                                           ownership protection.
                                           Shelter
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Problem of unaffordable prices of houses for the majority of population, as a result of radical reduction of state subsidies.
3            Canada                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a healthy and safe life
                                           Support to local authorities of Toronto in working with business, local communities and residents to identify and act upon serious urban
                                           health problems in an integrated way by the Healthy City Office.
                                           Integrated actions aimed at preventing and eliminating violence against women.
                                           Safer Cities Initiatives at Edmonton that based on the concept of crime prevention through social development and urban design, and
                                           includes a task force on safety.
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Policy framework in 1998 aimed at promoting full citizenship and inclusion of people with disabilities in society through employment,




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                                           income and disability supports.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           The government approved the development of an Agenda for Gender Equality in 2000.
                                           Governance
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           The government has committed more than $90 million over five years to the Voluntary Sector Initiative, to develop its relationship with
                                           voluntary sector in order to improve service delivery, increase effectiveness of government programmes, strengthen communities and
                                           increase capacity of the voluntary sector.
                                           Shelter
                                           The Modernisation and Improvement Programme enhances the quality of life for social housing tenants by improving the social housing
                                           stock to meet the shelter needs of social housing clients.
                                           Supportive housing for elderly combines personal support services and homemaking in congregate residential buildings.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Problems of severe Aboriginal groups housing. The government announced the Homelessness initiative in late 1999, to reduce and
                                           prevent homelessness over a period of three years. This includes The Urban Aboriginal Strategy and The Youth Employment Initiative
                                           Issue of affordable housing for lone women parents.
4            Croatia                       Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a healthy and safe life
                                           Integrated actions aimed at preventing and eliminating violence against women.
                                           Women’s shelter programme, which offers protection to women and children who are victims of violence. This includes public awareness
                                           campaign ‘Together in the Fight Against the Violence Towards Women’.
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           The law of prevention of creating architectural obstacles that regulates free access to all public facilities for persons with mobility-related
                                           predicaments.
                                           Assistance for displaced person as result of refugee and migration, through the Office for Displaced persons such as from providing
                                           shelter to various forms of psycho-social assistance.
4            Croatia                       C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           The government has established a Commission for Gender Equality Issues associated with gender equality.




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                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           The government is in mid-process of the overall reform of the local self-governing system which should be completed before the local
                                           elections to be held in 2005.
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           The strengthening of civil society’s influence in the decision making process has encouraged the establishment of numerous citizens’
                                           associations with total number of 19,000 citizens’ associations have registered at present.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           The need for reconstruction and creation of conditions for the War recovery related housing programme. ‘Reconstruction programme’ and
                                           the ‘Homelands War Victims Housing Provision Programme’ tries to ensure adequate housing for the inhabitants, whose right to adequate
                                           housing has been threatened.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Various forms of housing subsidies and allowances through the state-subsidised (social) rental housing to address the needs of low
                                           income earners and those who urgently need housing.
                                           Welfare-supported Housing Construction Programme was launched in mid 2000 that will assists families not able to purchase apartments
                                           in accessing long-term loans.
                                           Problem of unaffordable prices of houses for the majority of population, as a result of radical reduction of state subsidies.
                                           War victims housing programme in parallel to reconstruction of public services and infrastructure of ‘Homeland War Victims Housing
                                           Provision Programme’, which gives priority to war invalids or families of the war veterans.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Development of a system of subsidies within the legal framework provided by the 1998 Act on Housing Savings and State Incentives for
                                           Housing.
5            Czech                         Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
             Republic                      A. Provide equal opportunities for a healthy and safe life
                                           Formulation of health sector reform agendas, which integrate in spatial plans to promote healthy cities.
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           A joint programme with the Council of Europe Development Bank to facilitate access to adequate housing for disadvantaged persons who




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                                           have specific housing needs based on their age, health, and/or social or ethnic background.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Problem of many buildings in acute state of disrepair.
                                           Considerable shortage of affordable housing has resulted in fast rise of housing cost faster than inflation.
                                           Condition of living in combined households for low-income families and young people.


5            Czech                         B. Promote the right to adequate housing
             Republic                      Various forms of housing subsidies and allowances through the state-subsidised (social) rental housing to address the needs of low
                                           income earners and those who urgently need housing.
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           Establishment of an Institute of Ombudsmen to deal with citizens’ complaints concerning public administration.
6            Denmark                       Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Overall action plan for better integration in the beginning of 2000 that increases opportunity of deprived urban areas by attracting more
                                           advantaged groups and to increase the responsibility of well-off urban areas with respect to solving social urban problems in general.
                                           Setting up an Urban Committee, which has initiated 12 Urban Regeneration Projects since 1996.
                                           An Action plan ‘Accessibility for all – an action plan for the access by the handicapped to the physical environment’ in June 1997 by the
                                           inter-ministerial committee.
                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Establishment of an Urban Fund Scheme to realise the government’s urban policy from 1999 – 2003, which promotes local co-
                                           operation on urban development and counteracts the development of ghettos and slums.
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           Municipalities have initiated new models for democracy and public involvement in urban renewal including Information Technology as an
                                           instrument for public involvement, appointing so-called ‘neigbourhood developers’, establishing Urban Centre Councils and assisting
                                           neighbourhoods to develop their own urban policy study circles.
                                           Shelter




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                                           The greatest growth in recent years of co-operative housing sector. Co-operative apartments are mid-way between owner-occupancy and
                                           tenancy. The share of the capital of the co-operative will give buyer the right to use the apartment.
7            Finland                       Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a healthy and safe life
                                           Integrated actions aimed at preventing and eliminating violence against women.
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Identifying social exclusion as the most important national goals and appointment of cross-sectoral administrative task forces, which have
                                           started several local initiatives.
                                           An experiment with social loans to the needy in 1999 for eight municipalities under supervision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.
                                           Governance
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           A new important steps to ensure good governance and civic engagement in the Land Use and Building Act. The Act underlines
                                           open information flow as well as residents’ participation in the planning and monitoring of construction projects.
                                           C. Ensure transparent, accountable and efficient governance of towns, cities and metropolitan areas.
                                           The Act of Openess of Government Activities in 1999, which results in the authorities to be more transparent.


7            Finland                       Shelter
                                           Completed work on legislation to facilitate process of urban renewal.
                                           The trend towards more spacious and qualitatively better housing.
                                           Strong migration to growth centre with a half chooses Helsinki Metropolitan area. This results in high growth of housing price and rents,
                                           and difficulties to find rental apartments in the growth urban areas.
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Increasing needs in rental housing. The finance of the rental housing could be done through state-subsidised or interest-subsidised loan
                                           schemes.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Various forms of housing subsidies and allowances through the state-subsidised (social) rental housing to address the needs of low
                                           income earners and those who urgently need housing.
                                           A new action programme to reduce homeless.




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8            France                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a healthy and safe life
                                           The law of ‘struggle against exclusion’ and ‘solidarity and urban renewal’, which include an action plan for urgent measures and
                                           preventive actions concerning sanitary risks associated with building occupancy.
                                           A national council programme in assisting/ aiding victims of violence and crime and a general prevention programme ‘City, Life, Recess’
                                           targeting youth in disadvantaged communities in 1999.
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Subsidy in 1999 to provide facility for youth to access their own housing more easily to overcome the problem of three quarters of the
                                           youth aged twenty years and above who still live at home with their parents.
                                           Measures to develop social mediation initiatives and recruitment, training and placement of 300 mediation representatives in the
                                           disadvantaged communities.
                                           Supporting the production of a variety of housing, embarking on the production of good quality integrated social housing, giving extra
                                           support to disadvantaged families who are often restricted in advancing to better housing and improving the image of disadvantaged
                                           neighbourhood, Urban Renewal programme in 1999 and the ‘Great City Project’.
                                           Identifying social exclusion as the most important national goals and passing ‘Aubry’ law in 1998 that create work opportunities for
                                           unemployed youth or youth without qualifications and assisting disadvantaged persons in accessing housing, basic sanitation, education,
                                           health care as well as sports and leisure activities.
                                           Establishing two permanent inter-ministerial urban committees (the city/town interministerial delegation and the spatial planning
                                           interministerial delegation) and initiating ‘Governmental Programme for cities/towns’ in June 2000.
                                           Establishing project approach where the various local actors are involved in the development of a project so as to give rise to social
                                           cohesion amongst the inhabitants, building a sense of belonging and restoring confidence in the future.
                                           Shelter
                                           Completed work on legislation to facilitate process of urban renewal.
                                           Granted subsidies and/or assistance for elderly and disabled to improve or adapt their homes to their particular requirements.


9            Germany                       Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           An initiative of German Mothers’ Centres have demonstrated how civil society groups can contribute to more effective local governance




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                                           that integrates gender concerns.
                                           Governance
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           City Networks, which involves co-operation between local authorities and other stakeholders.
                                           Shelter
                                           Concentration on modernising the building stock in eastern Germany in recent years, resulting in the closing of the housing quality gap.
                                           Completed work on legislation to facilitate process of urban renewal.
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Progress of the quality of the local support systems and social agencies for the homeless that results in better co-operation and greater
                                           professionalism.
                                           Introduction of comparative rent system in1998 to close the gap in living standards between eastern and western Germany.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Various forms of housing subsidies and allowances through the state-subsidised (social) rental housing to address the needs of low
                                           income earners and those who urgently need housing.
10           Greece                        Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           The National Habitat Committee has made and continues to make sustained efforts to inform and involve the municipalities and local
                                           councils through ‘the Guide to Local Authorities on Sustainable Development of Communities and Housing’ and ‘Integrated Local Action
                                           Plans’.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Development of National Cadastre after almost half of the country has been surveyed that will be enforced in 2005.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Problems of adequate housing for earthquakes victims.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Introduction of a new legislation that establishes national systems for social care, especially for vulnerable and disadvantaged groups.
11           Hungary                       Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure




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                                           Problem of country in economies transition where social protection has declines and commercialisation, such as eviction as result of
                                           foreclosure threat by National Savings Bank housing loans.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           The government has introduced reform of the housing subsidy financing system.


12           Israel                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a healthy and safe life
                                           Programme of reduction of family violence, treatment of victims of violence and its activities centre around law enforcement, prevention of
                                           violence, treatment of victims and raising public awareness on the subject, by the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs.
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Set up ‘Public Council for Reducing Gaps in Society and War on Poverty’ in 1996.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Enacting or revising laws that include laws on equal pay, women’s employment, equal rights for women, and reduction of poverty for
                                           women, and reduction of poverty and income disparities among the poor.
                                           The Israeli Knesset established an authority with the mandate to formulate policies that serve to eliminate discrimination against women
                                           and empower them to take their place in society.
                                           Shelter
                                           The highest demand for new housing units.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Accommodation of one million immigrants during the last decade. Through special mortgage system, it has resulted in the 70% home
                                           ownership rate among the immigrants.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Introduction of government subsidised mortgage plan to first time house buyers through a law.
13           Latvia                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a healthy and safe life
                                           Integrated actions aimed at preventing and eliminating violence against women.
                                           Project ‘Preventing Violence against women’ in 1999, with funding from Soros foundation.
                                           Governance




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                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           A union of Local Governments has been developed, which covers 507 of 589 municipalities.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Problem of extreme high prices of services in relation to people’s monthly income. The government determines ‘rent ceiling’ to regulate
                                           the prices of service delivery.
                                           The privatisation of housing has increased the number of owner occupied housing reaching 70% in Latvia. A law protects tenants who live
                                           in buildings to be privatised for seven years, including protection from eviction.
                                           Considerable shortage of affordable housing has resulted in fast rise of housing cost faster than inflation.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Various forms of housing subsidies and allowances through the state-subsidised (social) rental housing to address the needs of low
                                           income earners and those who urgently need housing.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Development of a housing crediting system as the main objective of the National Housing policy. This results in acceptance of ‘Crediting
                                           Programme for Housing Development’ in June 2000.


14           Lithuania                     Shelter
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Various forms of housing subsidies and allowances through the state-subsidised (social) rental housing to address the needs of low
                                           income earners and those who urgently need housing.
                                           The government has placed a major focus on the promotion of funding for social housing development.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           The government offers highly subsidised mortgage products besides an attempt to move this to the private sector, through government-
                                           guaranteed mortgage insurance systems and proposal for the development of secondary mortgage markets.
15           Malta                         Shelter
                                           One-stop-shop approach for speeding up the process of housing application.
16           Poland                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a healthy and safe life




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                                           Collaboration programme between local authorities and NGO’s of ‘Against Violence – Equal Opportunities’.
                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Amendment and adoption of laws, which concern with decentralisation of power since 1996. This has resulted in strengthened territorial
                                           local government.
                                           Shelter
                                           The government has developed a support programme for the renovation and modernisation of residential buildings.
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Problem of eviction due to too high rent and service charges for the poor people.
                                           Considerable shortage of affordable housing has resulted in fast rise of housing cost faster than inflation.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Various forms of housing subsidies and allowances through the state-subsidised (social) rental housing to address the needs of low
                                           income earners and those who urgently need housing.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Support by the National Housing Fund grants preferential loans to Social Housing Associations and housing co-operatives for construction
                                           of affordable tenement apartments.
17           Portugal                      Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Urban Initiative, which is a community-based partnership between community, different levels of government and the private sector
                                           involved in the economic and social regeneration of disadvantaged neighbourhood in Lisbon and Oporto.
18           Republic of                   Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
             Macedonia                     B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Measures, standards and norms for eliminating the barriers in the city and have been incorporated in the Regulations on Standards and
                                           Norms for Area Planning and Facility Designing adopted in 1999.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           The increase need for social housing as a result of refugee crisis.




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18           Republic of                   B. Promote the right to adequate housing
             Macedonia                     The government has abandoned its construction of social housing and replaced it with encouraging construction of social housing
                                           indirectly, by allocating resources for housing to low-income groups.
19           Slovakia                      Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a healthy and safe life
                                           Integrated actions aimed at preventing and eliminating violence against women.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           The tenth country to ratify the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in September 2000
                                           Governance
                                           Good practices: a Local Self-Government Assistance Centre was established in 1996.
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Public administration reform as a part of integration to European Union and NATO, which includes decentralisation and modernisation of
                                           public administration and propose measures of further management reform.
                                           Shelter
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Insufficient social rental housing stocks, which only cover 5-6% remains under municipal ownership.
                                           C. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Support through funds available for housing construction and renewal/upgrading.
20           Slovenia                      Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Revision of the social security, pension and health system since 1996 and ‘a programme for combating poverty and social exclusion’.
                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Decentralisation of local authority management.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           The privatisation of housing has increased the number of owner occupied housing into 82%.
                                           Evictions during privatisation were resulted by lack of tenancy rights in former public rental housing. It needs assistance in reforming




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                                           cadastre and land registration systems through education and training; research and development; exchange of experience; transfer of
                                           technology; and standardisation.
                                           The highest house-price-to income ration in Ljubljana, compared to other Central and Eastern European capitals.
21           Spain                         Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           A programme developed by the Ministry of Social Affairs and the Ministry of Employment and Social Security, focuses on a programme
                                           against social exclusion with objectives: sensitisation on social exclusion; co-operation between various institutions, development of
                                           intervention plans and project directed toward integration; promoting good quality housing; contributing to the development of norms and
                                           policies and promoting citizen participation.


22           Sweden                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a healthy and safe life
                                           Integrated actions aimed at preventing and eliminating violence against women.
                                           Governance
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           Municipalities are working in accordance with the Local Government Act, to promote consultations with users of services and developing
                                           mechanisms for giving users a direct influence over programmes and services.
                                           Shelter
                                           Completed work on legislation to facilitate process of urban renewal.
                                           The trend towards more spacious and qualitatively better housing.
                                           Extremely low levels of housing construction, rising housing costs and sharpening regional inequalities result in unequal housing demand
                                           as a result of economic recession, low inflation and high interest rates.
                                           Adoption of a National Action Plan on Policy for the Elderly.
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Government report in Spring 2000 highlighted the majority of homeless people concentrated in the larger cities and consists of women
                                           under 30 years of age. This directs to several policies and programmes of initiatives for prevention of homelessness.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Various forms of housing subsidies and allowances through the state-subsidised (social) rental housing to address the needs of low




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                                           income earners and those who urgently need housing.
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           A legislative framework, namely appointed Ombudsmen by parliament with the task to monitoring the rights of affordable housing as well
                                           as equal access to credits for housing or land.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Good condition of the scale to basic services for housing, which covers fully modern and basic service provision. This includes ‘basic
                                           service’ term of local amenities such as grocery shops, postal and banking services, and child care.
23           The                           Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
             Netherlands                   A. Provide equal opportunities for a healthy and safe life
                                           Integrated actions aimed at preventing and eliminating violence against women.
                                           ‘Making the Netherlands Safer Programme (1998-2002)’ that focuses on safety policy, limited to public spaces and focusing on both social
                                           and physical aspects of safety, with the core of the safety policy implemented at the local level.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           The women’s advisory committees on local urban planning have demonstrated how civil society groups can contribute to more effective
                                           local governance that integrates gender concerns.
                                           Governance
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           The district-oriented approach, which accommodates and encourages co-operation between various parties that are involved in the
                                           community.


23           The                           Shelter
             Netherlands                   Completed work on legislation to facilitate process of urban renewal.
                                           The trend towards more spacious and qualitatively better housing.
                                           The Dutch Habitat Platform selected housing for immigrant citizens as one of is two biannual themes in 1999, to focus on attention to the
                                           position of immigrant senior citizens.
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Encourage people to buy their own house as an instrument to support the various objectives of housing policy, such as the promotion of
                                           mobility, improvement of the quality of housing and the living climate in districts and neighbourhoods, and supporting the independence of




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                                           house buyers. Special attention is given to the quality of the housing stock. Housing Act highlights the quality requirements of the Building
                                           decree, based on safety, health, usability, energy conservation and the environment.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Various forms of housing subsidies and allowances through the state-subsidised (social) rental housing to address the needs of low
                                           income earners and those who urgently need housing.
                                           Cooperation between municipalities and housing associations and care providers that can offer suitable housing to homeless people.
24           The Russian                   Governance
             Federation                    A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Decentralisation of local authority management.
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           No city action programme is approved without a preliminary discussion with interested public organisations.
                                           Shelter
                                           High demand for new housing units.
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           The privatisation of housing has resulted in the transfer of 60% housing stock to private ownership.
                                           Considerable shortage of affordable housing has resulted in fast rise of housing cost faster than inflation.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Various forms of housing subsidies and allowances through the state-subsidised (social) rental housing to address the needs of low
                                           income earners and those who urgently need housing.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           The development of mortgage systems, which address the needs of low-income groups, as an important component of national housing
                                           strategies.
                                           Consideration of several housing finance initiatives. This includes an extension of subsidies for housing construction and initiation of a
                                           housing credit system.
25           The USA                       Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a healthy and safe life
                                           Dramatic decline in violent crimes, which is a product of a wide variety of factors, including strong economy and new community policing
                                           and crime prevention initiatives.




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25           The USA                       Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Housing cost problems covers 25 metropolitan area, where the rent increases greater than inflation.
                                           The growth of home ownership since 1996 as a result of the role of the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), which ensures mortgages
                                           for low- and moderate-income homebuyers. This includes innovation of homeownership vouchers, which allow rental subsidies to be
                                           applied to downpayments or mortgage payments, in order to enable low-income renters for buying house.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Implementation of comprehensive federal homeless assistance programmes ‘Continuum of Care’, covering 668 cities.
                                                                                                                                                    st
                                           Partnership among the Federal government, local authorities and the private sectors to implement a 21 Century agenda for cities and
                                           rural areas. This includes the construction of one million new urban housing units during the next ten years, redevelopment of urban land
                                           and industrial sites, and addressing the problems of urban sprawl.
                                           A variety of techniques, covers the rental assistance housing vouchers, reducing the amount paid by low-income families to address
                                           shortage of affordable housing. This includes a public housing legislation in 1998 to opening up 1.1 million units of public housing to
                                           moderate-income to very low-income families. A strong role of public-private partnerships in providing affordable housing, with the
                                           government specific role of addressing housing market gaps.
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           There are no regulatory obstacles for women to land and housing ownership, however there is a problem of housing ownership gaps
                                           between whites and ethnic minority groups.
                                           Problems in accessing affordable house and land for redevelopment purposes by the communities. Community development Block Grant
                                           and Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities Programmes have acquired and cleaned up vacant land for urban parks,
                                           playgrounds and community gardens.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           A number of key initiatives, such as the new Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund, to expand credit to minority and
                                           poor families.
26           Turkey                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a healthy and safe life
                                           Integrated actions aimed at preventing and eliminating violence against women.




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                                           Shelter
                                           The highest demand for new housing units.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Problems of adequate housing for earthquakes victims.


27           UK                            Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           The Government’s policy for social inclusion and eradication of poverty and establishing Social Exclusion Unit in the Cabinet Office, which
                                           publishes ‘Bringing Britain Together: National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal in 1998. Key initiatives are ‘New Deal for
                                           Communities’ and the ‘National Strategy Plan’ for neighbourhood renewal.
                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Modification of the established structure of the local authorities since 1996 and The Local Government Act 2000.
                                           Shelter
                                           Housing Policy Statement ‘Quality and Choice: A Decent Home for All’ was published in December 2000, with the objective ‘to offer
                                           everyone the opportunity of a decent home and so promote social cohesion, well-being and self-dependence. This policy is to tackle
                                           problems of deprived housing stocks and low quality standards that needs repair of modernisation.
                                           General trend for households to move out of the city resulting in a very low effective demand for the existing housing stock, ‘hard to let’
                                           social housing’ and ‘area abandonment’.




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9                   Table 3. The Latin American and the Caribbean Region

No           Countries                     National Reports: Issue, Problems and Progresses
1            Bolivia                       Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life
                                           Sectoral policies clearly give priority to those social groups, which are most needy.
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           An integral plan for poverty eradication, based on the principle of participatory planning and development, which involves all stakeholders
                                           from public, private and non-governmental organisations. This plan is developed by the Vice-Ministry of Strategic Planning and Popular
                                           Participation (VPEPP).
                                           C. Promote Gender equality in human settlements development
                                           High female unemployment rate and earn less than men. The earn level for women is 47% than men.
                                           Women and Land security agreement signed by government and civil society in 1999.
                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Reformation in allocation of resources to the local authorities, both from the national budget and municipal revenues.
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           Innovative policies in decentralisation, the process of decentralisation, which helps implementation of community development
                                           programmes.
2            Brazil                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life
                                           Curitiba programme, which encourages poor communities to collect garbage in their own area and swap the results of their
                                           efforts for milk, has impact on creating conditions for a safe and healthy life for the majority poor.
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Several actions to expand the opportunities for a safe lifestyle, particularly among vulnerable groups of the population.
                                           C. Promote Gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Clear evidence of low-income women participation in taking a lead in community organisations and residents associations.
                                           Governance




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                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           Multiplication of mass participation and civil mobilisation across countrywide, due to advertising campaigns, grassroots movement,
                                           networks, forum and committees, as well as the communications media.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Improvement of living conditions in towns and cities with increase in formal ownership titles.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Reduction of housing shortage by the Municipal Districts through various types of interventions that includes: housing improvements, self-
                                           help building programmes through savings group, self-construction, self-management, basic building materials kits, upgrading of slums
                                           and building new housing units.


2            Brazil                        D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Progress in equal access to credit for women with an edict issued in 1998 by the Ministry of planning and Budget.
3            Chile                         Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           Addressing issue of extreme poverty, specifically in irregular or precarious settlements through ‘Chile Barrio’ programme that is fully
                                           operational in 1998
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life
                                           Environmental management of water is currently governed by an extensive normative framework and dispersed through various legal
                                           bodies in 1998.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           Regularisation of property titles, basic infrastructure and increasing access to already existing housing and/or future housing stock for
                                           better housing.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Exceptional for housing deficit in Latin America
4            Colombia                      Shelter
                                           An Urban Reform 1990s with gives autonomy to each municipalities.
                                           Reconstruction after recent natural disasters and human-made disaster.




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                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Self-help housing subsidised by the government.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Special subsidies for self-help housing schemes to marginalized groups.
5            Cuba                          Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           C. Promote Gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Increased women participation between 1990 and 1999, reaching 66 percent women professionals nowadays.
                                           Governance
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           Innovative policies in decentralisation.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           85% inhabitants are homeowners
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Implementation of ‘solidarity’ schemes.
                                           Special subsidies for self-help housing schemes to marginalized groups.
6            Dominican                     Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
             Republic                      Law 17-97 pledges 4% of national income to be distributed proportionally toward housing needs according to the population density of
                                           each municipality.
                                           Governance
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           Recognises the importance of participatory citizenship and facilitate process of modernisation and decentralisation.


6            Dominican                     Shelter
             Republic                      D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           National Fund for Popular Housing and a national housing subsidies programme for marginalized low-income groups.
7            Ecuador                       Shelter
                                           C. Provide equal access to land




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                                           Good practice of securing a more efficient system for land access and control.
8            El Salvador                   Shelter
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Advances in housing and land tenure.
9            Jamaica                       Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Creation of Jamaica’s Habitat Secretariat in 1996, to coordinate and monitor the implementation of the Habitat Agenda. It promotes
                                           partnership among national and local government, other public institutions, the private sector and non-governmental organisations and
                                           develops National Poverty Eradication Programme.
                                           The Ministry of National Security and Justice embarked upon a Victim Support Programme in 1998 in order to tackle the problem of
                                           violence against women.
                                           C. Promote Gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Developed a draft gender equity mechanism instrument (GEM)
                                           Shelter
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           Emancipation Lands projects in 1998
10           Mexico                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life
                                           It has large urban population with progress of high proportion of access to potable water, sewerage and electricity in 1999.
                                           C. Promote Gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Special programme to ensure better education, health, and employment opportunities for women.
                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Bringing together public institutions, private sector, NGOs and communities in defining local development and investment processes.
11           Nicaragua                     Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life
                                           The National Plan for Housing and Human Settlements 1996-2000, aimed at improving safety and health conditions for the rural and urban
                                           poor.




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                                           Law 290 to create the Institute of Urban and Rural Housing (INVUR).
                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           The normative framework for Municipalities that gives full autonomy to the local governments. The government is working towards the
                                           fulfilment of the commitments in the Stockholm meeting consisting of democracy, transparency, governance, civic participation and the
                                           strengthening of the decentralisation process, and recognition of gender equality, child, ethnic and minority rights.




12           Panama                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           National Government programme PARVIS in 1996, which promotes participation of NGOs and community organisations in the
                                           development of the housing programme.
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Urban development Plan for the Metropolitan Areas of Pacific and Atlantic, which promotes a consultative process between public
                                           institutions and non-governmental organisations.
                                           Shelter
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           Programme legal land tenure.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Implementation of ‘solidarity’ schemes.
13           Suriname                      Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provide equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life
                                           A government’s programme, which will bring safe drinking water to everyone within the space of a few years.
                                           Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support disadvantaged groups
                                           Social security policy as one of the main goals of the social policy.
                                           C. Promote Gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Adoption of a gender policy within the Ministry of Home Affairs.
14           Venezuela                     Social Development and Eradication of Poverty




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                                           New housing policy within the framework of participatory democracy, in order to ensure and lasting change in urban development, housing
                                           and habitat sector.
                                           C. Promote Gender equality in human settlements development
                                           High female unemployment rate and earn less than men. The earn level for women is 20% than men.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide security of tenure
                                           New Housing Plan to regulate tenure and legalisation of land use.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Housing policy that gives priority to low-income households, representing of 90% of the national population.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Housing policy that transforms the potential demand of the most needy families.




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10 Table 4. The West Asia Region

No           Countries                     National Reports: Issue, Problems and Progresses
1            Bahrain                       Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provision of equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life
                                           100% access to fresh water.
                                           There has been successful eradication of poverty through building government hospitals, which encourage private sector to provide health
                                           service, caring for elderly and encourage women participation resulting in success of women positions.
                                           Shelter
                                           Government offers 45.500 units to the country since for the implementation of its housing programme, between 1993-1998.
2            Iraq                          Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           Change of role of women supported by NGOs. Women mayors in municipal councils and equal election for parliamentary members.
                                           A. Provision of equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life
                                           This country experiences the worst condition in the last ten years with infant mortality rate is 125 per one thousand children in 1988.
                                           Additional problem of a sanction by the UN.
                                           B. Promote Social integration and support disadvantaged groups.
                                           This country develops social development funds for basic needs.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Legislation of equal opportunity for women.
                                           Forming of Regional women’s NGO with its activities and influence local and national policy and practice.
                                           Women appointment by quota in the parliament. The women representation has gradually risen.
                                           Governance
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           A neighbourhood rehabilitation project by an NGO and the inhabitants apart from the weakness of the local government. (the Best Practice
                                           database)
                                           Shelter
                                           The government has strengthened the housing delivery through private sector involvement and other civil society organisations.




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                                           Emphasising the strengthening role of women. An activity of regional Arab Women Network.
                                           A. Providing Security of Tenure
                                           Tenure for all citizen, with equality of women in ownership of tenure.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           A new legislation in favour of the poor to reinforce the rights of the individual and the family for the acquisition of adequate housing, for
                                           secure tenure and the provision of infrastructure and services.
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           Equalisation of opportunities for women in housing provision.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Policies to provide basic services to their citizens. Most urban location has access except the informal settlements and urban poor areas.




3            Jordan                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           Change of role of women supported by NGOs. Women mayors in municipal councils and equal election for parliamentary members.
                                           B. Promote Social integration and support disadvantaged groups.
                                           NGO is active in helping the poor, such as micro credit and income generating projects and empowerment of women.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Forming of Regional women’s NGO with its activities and influence local and national policy and practice.
                                           Women appointment by quota in the parliament. The women representation has gradually risen.
                                           A few women elected to the municipal councils including 1 mayor in a small town.
                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Encouraged decentralisation, which increased Local Authority’s responsibility.
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement
                                           Women representation in the municipal election.
                                           Shelter
                                           Problem of refugees from Palestine especially during the Gulf War.




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                                           High natural growth rates of population resulting in housing crisis.
                                           The government has strengthened the housing delivery through private sector involvement and other civil society organisations.
                                           An activity of regional Arab Women Network.
                                           A. Providing Security of Tenure
                                           A security package programme to combat poverty, amendment of the landlords and tenants law, and the Housing Support Programme.
                                           Settlement upgrading programme which aiming at granting the tenure security.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           A legislation of poverty reduction schemes to control slums area.
                                           A legal framework to address the needs of refugees.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Housing banks offer loan at a much lower interest rate to low income groups, without discriminating women.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Good examples of standards for basic services.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Policies to provide basic services to their citizens. Most urban location has access except the informal settlements and urban poor areas.
4            Kuwait                        Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provision of equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life
                                           100% access to fresh water.
                                           100% access to sanitation for urban population.
5            Lebanon                       Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           Change of role of women supported by NGOs. Women mayors in municipal councils and equal election for parliamentary members.
                                           A. Provision of equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life
                                           100% access to fresh water.
                                           B. Promote Social integration and support disadvantaged groups.
                                           NGO is active in helping the poor, such as micro credit and income generating projects and empowerment of women.


5            Lebanon                       C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Forming of Regional women’s NGO with its activities and influence local and national policy and practice.




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                                           Women appointment by quota in the parliament. The women representation has gradually risen.
                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Encouraged decentralisation, which increased Local Authority’s responsibility.
                                           Shelter
                                           Problem of refugees from Palestine especially during the Gulf War.
                                           The government has strengthened the housing delivery through private sector involvement and other civil society organisations.
                                           An activity of regional Arab Women Network.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           A legal framework to address the needs of refugees.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Policies to provide basic services to their citizens. Most urban location has access except the informal settlements and urban poor areas.
6            Oman                          Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provision of equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life
                                           98% access to sanitation for urban population.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Forming of Regional women’s NGO with its activities and influence local and national policy and practice.
                                           Shelter
                                           An activity of regional Arab Women Network.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Housing banks offer loan at a much lower interest rate to low income groups, without discriminating women.
7            Palestine                     Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           Change of role of women supported by NGOs. Women mayors in municipal councils and equal election for parliamentary members.
                                           B. Promote Social integration and support disadvantaged groups.
                                           NGO is active in helping the poor, such as micro credit and income generating projects and empowerment of women.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Forming of Regional women’s NGO with its activities and influence local and national policy and practice.
                                           Women appointment by quota in the parliament. The women representation has gradually risen.




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                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           In Gaza, the municipality built the capacity building of is staff (Best Practice Database).
                                           Shelter
                                           Problem of refugees from Palestine to Lebanon, Syria and Jordan, especially during the Gulf War.
                                           An activity of regional Arab Women Network.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Policies to provide basic services to their citizens. Most urban location has access except the informal settlements and urban poor areas.




8            Qatar                         Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provision of equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life
                                           100% access to fresh water.
9            Saudi Arabia                  Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provision of equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life
                                           100% access to sanitation for urban population.
10           Syria                         Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           Change of role of women supported by NGOs. Women mayors in municipal councils and equal election for parliamentary members.
                                           A. Provision of equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life
                                           77% access to sanitation for urban population.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Forming of Regional women’s NGO with its activities and influence local and national policy and practice.
                                           Women appointment by quota in the parliament. The women representation has gradually risen.
                                           Shelter
                                           Problem of refugees from Palestine especially during the Gulf War.
                                           High natural growth rates of population resulting in housing crisis.
                                           The government has strengthened the housing delivery through private sector involvement and other civil society organisations.




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                                           An activity of regional Arab Women Network.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           A legislation of poverty reduction schemes to control slums area.
                                           A legal framework to address the needs of refugees.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Policies to provide basic services to their citizens. Most urban location has access except the informal settlements and urban poor areas.
11           Yemen                         Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provision of equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life
                                           40% access to sanitation for urban population.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Forming of Regional women’s NGO with its activities and influence local and national policy and practice.
                                           Shelter
                                           High natural growth rates of population resulting in housing crisis.
                                           The government has strengthened the housing delivery through private sector involvement and other civil society organisations.
                                           An activity of regional Arab Women Network.
                                           A. Providing Security of Tenure
                                           Settlement upgrading programme which aiming at granting the tenure security.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Housing banks offer loan at a much lower interest rate to low income groups, without discriminating women.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Policies to provide basic services to their citizens. Most urban location has access except the informal settlements and urban poor areas.




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11 Table 5. The Asia and The Pacific Region

No           Countries                     National Reports: Issue, Problems and Progresses
1            Bangladesh                    Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provision of equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life.
                                           A major problem of women harassment in crime and violence, leads to enacted law to deal with women victims. The children and women
                                           abuse act.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Women posts in municipalities as well as in local administration.
                                           Shelter
                                           Emphasise on housing programmes that are market oriented, demand driven, spearheaded by the private sector, decentralised and
                                           deregulated.
                                           A. Provide Security of tenure
                                           A landmark decision from the High court which declared illegality of eviction of squatters without rehabilitation in the National Housing
                                           Policy 1993, amended in 1999.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Strong emphasise on market oriented housing delivery system and enabling role of the government.
                                           Problem of only 3% of the constructed houses are earmarked for the poor.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           The formal mortgage market is limited and confined to new housing construction and serves the high income groups in selected urban
                                           areas. Private institutions provides loans for renovating existing houses, whereas Government, semi-government and NGOs offer semi-
                                           government housing loan for housing the low income.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Successful installation of water points and latrines, implemented by cooperation donor agencies, the local people, an NGO and a public
                                           organisation.
2            Cambodia                      Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities




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                                           Law granting limited financial autonomy to the provinces and cities.
                                           Shelter
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Problem of invisible temporary urban poor, such as seasonal migrants.
3            China                         Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provision of equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life.
                                           Health sector agenda, child support to parents and older people programme through social system directed specifically to the needs of
                                           low-income families.
                                           B. Promote social integration and support to disadvantaged groups.
                                           Attention to the needs of disadvantaged groups in urban planning administration through Design Standard for Urban Roads and Building
                                           with Easy Access for Disabled People and implementation programme of ‘Ten Years of the Disabled’.
                                           Shelter
                                           A. Provide Security of tenure
                                           Emphasises on rental housing in the region.
3            China                         B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Shelter delivery system in the form of promoting the modernisation of housing industry.
                                           Accelerating housing reform and social housing construction with new approaches to shelter provision, taking into account cooperative,
                                           collective and individual construction including rental housing.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Housing subsidy policy and promulgation of the central provident fund, with modification of mortgages policies and setting up of standards
                                           and specifications for design and planning.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Made large investments into service provision, resulting availability of electricity in almost dwellings in cities and towns and increase urban
                                           water supply coverage.
4            India                         Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support to disadvantaged groups.
                                           Adoption of the National Housing and Habitat Policy, targets vulnerable groups to institutional finance, cost effective building technologies,
                                           slum upgrading, and self-help construction, including through capacity building.




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                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Legislation to allocate women in local councils.
                                           Newly found presence of women in planning and management processes.
                                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Guidelines to all States Governments to simplify tax procedures and tax rates on various types of properties.
                                           B. Encourage and support participation and civic engagement.
                                           Representation from more vulnerable groups of community and women empowerment.
                                           Shelter
                                           Increasingly NGO’s involvement in shelter delivery and community infrastructure, through provision of micro-credit. Programmes National
                                           Slum Development Programme (NSDP) and Swarn Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY), emphasise on the formation of groups and
                                           Thrift and Credit Societies.
                                           A. Provide Security of tenure
                                           Acknowledgement of long term squatter settlements and guaranteed their existence or at least a relocation site by some States or local
                                           government.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Strong emphasise on market oriented housing delivery system and enabling role of the government.
                                           Introduce a package of incentives and concessions to attract private sector participation in the construction of housing for the poor.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           A new approach, where NGOs have been able to set up guarantee programmes and involve commercial banks in financing housing for
                                           poor communities.
5            Iran                          Shelter
                                           A. Provide Security of tenure
                                           Recognition of the right to adequate housing in article 51 of the constitution.




6            Japan                         Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support to disadvantaged groups.




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                                           Effort to create various opportunities for exchange between the elderly and the young generation by promoting the construction of core
                                           facilities for exchange.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           The Equal Employment Opportunity Law and other legislation were revised to ban discrimination against women.
                                           Shelter
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           New Outline of Promoting Comprehensive Land Policies, states the objective of land policy from 1997 to promote rational land use through
                                           the effective use of land under the principle of ‘from ownership to use’.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Renewal of water utility companies around the country for building water supply facilities.
7            Lao                           Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Policy decision to decentralise the responsibilities of urban development to urban local authority.
                                           Shelter
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Highest priority strategy to the most rapidly urbanising and larger urban centres and progressive attention to the smaller urban areas.
8            Phillippines                  Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           A. Provision of equal opportunities for a safe and healthy life.
                                           Progress of increase in life expectancy.
                                           B. Promote social integration and support to disadvantaged groups.
                                           Lingap Para Sa Mahirap Programme, involves the integration of 2 million poor families by providing them with viable micro-entreprises
                                           activities.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Increase budget allocations to Gender and Development (GAD) activities, which directed to women entrepreneurs.
                                           Shelter
                                           Set up a presidential task force on housing and urban development.
                                           Emphasise on housing programmes that are market oriented, demand driven, spearheaded by the private sector, decentralised and
                                           deregulated.




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WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                                                                                        64
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                                           A. Provide Security of tenure
                                           The Community Mortgage Programme, provides credit to communities to acquire the land on which they are settling.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Efforts in recent years to overcome the problems of the economic crisis and to promote transformation of housing delivery system more
                                           oriented at market mechanisms and decentralising the programmes in order to mobilise local governments.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Problem of the collapse of the National Home mortgage finance company and the Unified Home Lending Programme, which needs
                                           revival of housing delivery system. It continues community lending programme and the government set up new lending mechanism.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Creation of a solid waste management commission for Metro-Manila for recycling and composting wastes.


9            South Korea                   Social Development and Eradication of Poverty
                                           B. Promote social integration and support to disadvantaged groups.
                                           The Act of National Basic Livelihood Security and the social assistance measures.
                                           C. Promote gender equality in human settlements development
                                           Sex Equality Employment Acts. However, there is still problem in equal wages.
                                           Shelter
                                           Emphasise on housing programmes that are market oriented, demand driven, spearheaded by the private sector, decentralised and
                                           deregulated.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Impact of economic crisis, which reduces housing units provision due to economic crisis.
                                           C. Provide equal access to land
                                           The revision or relevant legislation such as donation tax and inheritance law to enable women to enjoy equal inheritance rights with men.
                                           D. Promote equal access to credit
                                           Strengthening the commercial mortgage system by establishing a framework for secondary mortgage markets.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Able to raise the level service provision in every respect.
10           Sri Lanka                     Social Development and Eradication of Poverty




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                                                                                      65
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                                           B. Promote social integration and support to disadvantaged groups.
                                           Special scheme to provide basic services for the growing number of disabled people as a result of ongoing war.
                                           Shelter
                                           Set up a presidential task force on housing and urban development.
                                           A. Provide Security of tenure
                                           Enacting several laws to enable transferring the ownership of a large stock of government owned housing apartments to the respective
                                           occupiers.
                                           B. Promote the right to adequate housing
                                           Strong emphasise on market oriented housing delivery system and enabling role of the government.
                                           Encourage private sector property developer to invest in construction of houses for employees of middle and lower income groups by
                                           providing them incentives and concessions.
                                           E. Promote access to basic services
                                           Gradual improvement of access to water, the household connection to electricity. Still problem in sewerage system.
11           Thailand                      Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           Increase quantity and power of the local authority.
12           Uzbekistan                    Governance
                                           A. Promote decentralisation and strengthen local authorities
                                           The government has developed a structure to increase the role of the self-governing local bodies, makhalla (community) committees, by
                                           strengthening their legal and financial base. It is also in the process of strengthening the legal and financial base of local government
                                           bodies, in order to undertake programmes such as social protection, low-income housing, basic infrastructure and services for urban and
                                           rural development and improving access to drinking water.




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                                                                                          66
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12 Appendix 1. National Reports: African Region Countries


UN Member countries                         Listed in        Listed as          Listed as         Summarised     Region
                                                             attached           submitting
Source: World                               UN Habitat                          National          in Synthesis   (UN Habitat:
Bank(2000)                                                   National           Report in
                                            Istanbul         Report                               of National    Istanbul +5
                                                                                Synthesis
Selected World                                                                                                   website
                                                                                Reports**
Development Indicators                      +5               in UN Habitat                        Reports        classification)*

                                            Website *        web site *                           ***


Algeria                                     Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Africa

Angola                                      Y                Y                                    Y              Africa

Botswana                                    Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Africa

Burkina Faso                                Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Africa

Burundi                                                                                           Y              Africa

Cameroon                                    Y                Y                  Y                                Africa

Central African Rep.                        Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Africa

Chad                                        Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Africa

Congo, Dem.Rep                              Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Africa

Cote d’Ivoire                               Y                Y                  Y                                Africa

Djibouti                                    Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Africa

Egypt, Arab Rep.                            Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Africa

Eritrea                                                                                           Y              Africa

Ethiopia                                    Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Africa

Gabon                                       Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Africa

Guinea                                      Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Africa




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                             67
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Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                  Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
DFID Research project R7963                Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction



Kenya                                       Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa

Lesotho                                     Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa

Liberia                                     Y                Y                  Y                      Africa

Madagascar                                  Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa

Malawi                                      Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa

Mali                                        Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa

Morocco                                     Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa

Mozambique                                  Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa

Namibia                                     Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa

Niger                                       Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa

Nigeria                                     Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa

Rwanda                                      Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa

Senegal                                     Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa

South Africa                                Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa

Sudan                                       Y                Y                  Y                      Africa

Tanzania, United                            Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa
Republic

Togo                                        Y                                   Y                 Y    Africa

Tunisia                                     Y                Y                  Y                      Africa

Uganda                                      Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa

Zambia                                      Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Africa

Zimbabwe                                                                                          Y    Africa
* http://www.unhabitat.org/istanbul+5//nationalr.htm
** UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat Agenda in African
     Region, Annex 2, page 27
*** In chapters Social Development and Eradication of Poverty, Governance and Shelter



Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                   68
68cebc8d-b79f-42e3-9fa3-a1465c241ef9.doc
Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                  Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
DFID Research project R7963                Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction




13 Appendix 2. National Reports: Economic Commission for
   Europe Region Countries


UN Member countries                         Listed in        Listed as          Listed as         Summarised     Region
                                                             attached           sub- mitting
Source: World                               UN Habitat                          National          in Synthesis   (UN Habitat:
Bank(2000)                                                   National           Report in
                                            Istanbul         Report                               of National    Istanbul +5
                                                                                Synthesis
Selected World                                                                                                   website
                                                                                Reports**
Development Indicators                      +5               in UN Habitat                        Reports        classification)*

                                            Website *        web site *                           ***


Armenia                                     Y                Y                  Y                                Europe

Austria                                     Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Europe

Belgium                                     Y                Y                                                   Europe

Bulgaria                                    Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Europe

Canada                                      Y                Y                  Y                 Y              North America

Croatia                                     Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Europe

Czech Republic                              Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Europe

Denmark                                     Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Europe

Finland                                     Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Europe

France                                      Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Europe

Germany                                     Y                Y                                    Y              Europe

Greece                                      Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Europe

Hungary                                     Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Europe

Israel                                      Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Europe



Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                             69
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Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                  Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
DFID Research project R7963                Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction



Latvia                                      Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Europe

Lithuania                                   Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Europe

Macedonia FYR                               Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Europe

Malta                                       Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Europe

Norway                                      Y                Y                                         Europe

Poland                                      Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Europe

Portugal                                    Y                Y                                    Y    Europe

Russian Federation                          Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Europe

Slovakia                                                                        Y                 Y    Europe

Slovenia                                    Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Europe

Spain                                       Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Europe

Sweden                                      Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Europe

Switzerland                                 Y                Y                  Y                      Europe

The Netherlands                             Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Europe

Turkey                                      Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Europe

Ukraine                                     Y                Y                                         Europe

United Kingdom                              Y                Y                  Y                 Y    Europe

US America                                                                                        Y    North America



*       http://www.unhabitat.org/istanbul+5//nationalr.htm
** UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat Agenda in
         Economic Commission for Europe Region, Annex 2, page 39
*** In chapters Social Development and Eradication of Poverty, Governance and Shelter




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                   70
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Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                   Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
DFID Research project R7963                Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction




14 Appendix 3. National Reports: Latin America and the
   Caribbean Region Countries


UN Member countries                         Listed in       Listed as          Listed as       Summarised     Region
                                                            attached           submitting
Source: World                               UN                                 National        in Synthesis   (UN Habitat:
Bank(2000)                                  Habitat         National           Report in
                                                            Report                             of National    Istanbul +5 website
                                                                               Synthesis
Selected World                              Istanbul                                                          classification)*
                                                                               Reports**
Development Indicators                                      in UN Habitat                      Reports
                                            +5
                                                            web site *                         ***
                                            Website *

Anguilla                                    Y                                                                 Caribbean

Antigua and Barbuda                         Y                                                                 Caribbean

Argentina                                   Y               Y                  Y                              South America

Bahamas, The                                Y                                                                 Caribbean

Barbados                                    Y                                                                 Caribbean

Belize                                      Y                                                                 Central America

Bolivia                                     Y                                  Y               Y              South America

Brazil                                      Y                                  Y               Y              South America

British Virgin Islands                      Y                                                                 Caribbean

Cayman Islands                              Y                                                                 Caribbean

Chile                                       Y               Y                  Y               Y              South America

Colombia                                    Y                                  Y               Y              South America

Costa Rica                                  Y                                                                 Central America

Cuba                                        Y               Y                  Y               Y              Caribbean




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                          71
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DFID Research project R7963                Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction



Dominica                                    Y                                                          Caribbean

Dominican Republic                          Y                                  Y               Y       Caribbean

Ecuador                                     Y                                                  Y       South America

El Salvador                                 Y                                  Y               Y       Central America

Grenada                                     Y                                                          Caribbean

Guatemala                                   Y                                                          Central America

Guyana                                      Y                                                          South America

Haiti                                       Y                                                          Caribbean

Honduras                                    Y                                                          Central America

Jamaica                                     Y               Y                  Y               Y       Caribbean

Mexico                                      Y                                  Y               Y       Central America

Monserrat                                   Y                                                          Caribbean

Netherlands Antilles                        Y                                                          Caribbean

Nicaragua                                   Y               Y                  Y               Y       Central America

Panama                                      Y               Y                  Y               Y       Central America

Paraguay                                    Y                                                          South America

Peru                                        Y               Y                  Y                       South America

St. Kitts and Nevis                         Y                                                          Caribbean

St Lucia                                    Y                                                          Caribbean

St Vincent and the                          Y                                                          Caribbean
Grenadines

Suriname                                    Y               Y                  Y               Y       South America

Trinidad and Tobago                         Y                                                          Caribbean

Turks and Caicos                            Y                                                          Caribbean

Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                72
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Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                  Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
DFID Research project R7963                Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction


Islands

Uruguay                                     Y                                                          South America

Venezuela, RB                               Y               Y                  Y               Y       South America

*       http://www.unhabitat.org/istanbul+5//nationalr.htm
** UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat Agenda in Latin
         America and the Caribbean Region, Annex 1, page 19
*** In chapters Social Development and Eradication of Poverty, Governance and Shelter




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                73
68cebc8d-b79f-42e3-9fa3-a1465c241ef9.doc
Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                  Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
DFID Research project R7963                Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                              74
68cebc8d-b79f-42e3-9fa3-a1465c241ef9.doc
Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                  Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
DFID Research project R7963                Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction




15 Appendix 4. National Reports: West Asia Region Countries


UN Member countries                        Listed in          Listed as            Listed as           Summarised     Region
                                                              attached             submitting
Source: World                              UN Habitat                              National            in Synthesis   (UN Habitat:
Bank(2000)                                                    National             Report in
                                           Istanbul           Report                                   of National    Istanbul +5
                                                                                   Synthesis
Selected World                                                                                                        website
                                                                                   Reports**
Development Indicators                     +5                 in UN Habitat                            Reports        classification)*

                                           Website *          web site *                               ***


Bahrain                                    Y                                       Y                   Y              West Asia

Iraq                                       Y                  Y                    Y                   Y              West Asia

Jordan                                     Y                  Y                    Y                   Y              West Asia

Kuwait                                                                                                 Y              West Asia

Lebanon                                                                                                Y              West Asia

Oman                                                                                                   Y              West Asia

Palestine                                                                                              Y              West Asia

Qatar                                                                                                  Y              West Asia

Saudi Arabia                                                                                           Y              West Asia

Syrian Arab Republic                       Y                  Y                    Y                   Y              West Asia

Yemen, Rep. Of                             Y                  Y                    Y                   Y              West Asia



*       http://www.unhabitat.org/istanbul+5//nationalr.htm
** UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat Agenda in West
         Asia Region, Annex 1, page 18
*** In chapters Social Development and Eradication of Poverty, Governance and Shelter




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                          75
68cebc8d-b79f-42e3-9fa3-a1465c241ef9.doc
Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                  Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
DFID Research project R7963                Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                              76
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Report on Inception Phase – March 2002                                  Analysis of National Reports – Annex H
DFID Research project R7963                Localising the Habitat Agenda for Urban Poverty Reduction




16 Appendix 5. National Reports: Asia Pacific Region Countries


UN Member countries                         Listed in        Listed as          Listed as         Summarised     Region
Source: World                               UN Habitat       attached           sub- mitting      in Synthesis   (UN Habitat:
Bank(2000)                                  Istanbul         National           National          of National    Istanbul +5
Selected World                              +5               Report             Report in         Reports        website
Development Indicators                      Website *        in UN Habitat      Synthesis         ***            classification)*
                                                             web site *         Reports**

Bangladesh                                  Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Asia Pacific

Cambodia                                    Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Asia Pacific

China                                       Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Asia Pacific

India                                       Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Asia Pacific

Iran, Islamic Rep.                          Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Asia Pacific

Japan                                       Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Asia Pacific

Korea, Republic of                          Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Asia Pacific

Lao,PeoplesDemRp.                           Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Asia Pacific

Malaysia                                    Y                Y                  Y                                Asia Pacific

Myanmar (Burma)                             Y                                   Y                                Asia Pacific

Phillippines                                Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Asia Pacific

Sri Lanka                                   Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Asia Pacific

Thailand                                    Y                Y                  Y                 Y              Asia Pacific

Uzbekistan                                  Y                Y                  Y                                Asia Pacific

*       http://www.unhabitat.org/istanbul+5//nationalr.htm
** UN-Habitat (2000) Synthesis of National Reports on the Implementation of the Habitat Agenda in Asia
         Pacific Region, Annex 1, page 22
*** In chapters Social Development and Eradication of Poverty, Governance and Shelter




Max Lock Centre, University of Westminster
WEDC, Loughborough University                                                                                             77
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