# 04 ICE GIS presentation

Document Sample

```					ICE GIS/GPS presentation

By Bill Sluiman
CREDIT:
Most of the slides for this power point
presentation were taken from a presentation by
David Nesbitt, Southern Science and Information
Section and Ted Hiscock, GIS Officer, of the
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources at a GIS
workshop hosted by ICE on Dec 9 and 10, 2008
What is GIS?
Geographic Information Systems

Geographic
Refers to the spatial geometry of objects

Information System
Process that manages all the details about the
object
What is GIS
Spatial Geometry

PROJECTION
A mathematical method used to represent the earth’s
3D features so they can fit on the flat surface of a map.
Spatial Geometry
Spatial Geometry
Letters

Numbers
Spatial Geometry

Algonquin Park
Favourite fishing spot
677632, 5039331

Y

X
Data
Vector Data
Coordinate based data model that represents
geographic features as points, lines, and
polygons

Raster Data
A spatial data model that defines space as an
array of equally sized cells arranged in rows and
columns, and composed of single or multiple
bands
Vector Data
POINT
A geometric element defined by a pair of x,y
coordinates.
Vector Data
LINE
A shape defined by a connected series of
unique x,y coordinate pairs.
Vector Data
POLYGON
A closed shape defined by a connected
sequence of x,y coordinate pairs, where the
first and last coordinate pair are the same
and all other pairs are unique.
Vector Data
POLYGON
Polygons are used to represent property
parcel lot data.
Parcel data for First Nations in Canada can
http://cccm.nrcan.gc.ca
Vector Data
Attribute Data

Tabular or textual data describing the
geographic characteristics of the features.
•Number
•Date
•Quality
•Quantity
•Name
Raster Data

Spatial Data based on a distribution of grid
cells with Attribute values depicted by the
grid colour
Raster Data
Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
What is GIS
Hardware
Hardware comprises the equipment needed
to support the many activities of GIS ranging
from data collection to data analysis

High resolution digital LCD screens    Plotters
Clynt uses an HP mobile workstation model NW9440.
He uses this as his mobile-office computer.
Clynt uses an HP desktop workstation model XW9400
when he is in his office.
What is GIS
People

Well-trained people knowledgeable in spatial
analysis and skilled in using GIS software
are essential to the GIS process
What is GIS
Software
The ESRI ArcGIS software package is one
type of GIS software on the market.
It can be used for creating, editing and
analyzing spatial and attribute data.
These packages contain a myriad of GIS
functionality as well as the ability to build
custom tools.
ArcGIS
DESKTOP
ArcInfo                ArcEditor          ArcView     ArcExplorer
For Authoring & Applying Geographic Knowledge                    Mapping &
Visualization
•   Compilation       • Compilation       • Mapping   • View
•   Data Management   • Data Management   • Using
•   Mapping           • Mapping
•   Analysis
Geoprocessing                                                                              & Editing

Spatial Analysis
& Modeling

ArcGIS
SERVER
Open & Scalable GIS Server
Desktop   Web Map   Explorer Mobile     Open      Enterprise
Standards   Integration
• Data Management   • Mapping            •   Analysis           Use
• 3D Visualization   •   Mobile
• Data Management    •   Mapping
•   3D Visualization
•   Data Management

Serve

Author

. . . Making GIS Knowledge Available to Anyone
Software
MapWindow is a FREE GIS Open Source Software
(www.mapwindow.org)

The MapWindow application is a free, extensible,
geographic information system (GIS) that can be used:

- As an alternative to expensive desktop GIS

- To distribute data to others

- To develop and distribute custom spatial data analyses

MapWindow has a plug-in called: watershed delineation.
Software
There are also GIS-like software available on the market
can be found at www.comap.ca

Clynt is taking the lead at working with COMAP to develop
a First Nations Application.

This new application will help us leverage and access GIS
data through the internet.

This new application can be thought of as ‘google earth’
merging with ‘facebook’ but with all the GIS-like
functionality within a GIS internet based application.
What is GIS
So What can we do?

Points
Lines
Polygons
Moisture
Vegetation
DEM
Imagery
What can we do with it?

•Map where things are in order to Manage
and protect heritage

•Map change so we can monitor our removal
of forest products and medicinal plants

•Map what’s nearby so we know what
impact our planning decisions will have
on the future
What can we do with it?
Study the impact of construction plans on a
watershed
What can we do with it?
Predict the spread of forest fire based on
terrain and weather data.
What can we do with it?
Predict animal concentrations and preferred
habitat based on forest information and
animal preferences
Summary of GIS
•The applications of a GIS vary widely and with
endless possibilities

•Assist us in making informed decisions

•Allows us to predict data from existing data

•Improves our ability to work with our data more
efficiently and cost effectively
Introduction to Global
(GNSS)
generically known as
Global Positioning System (GPS)
A brief history…
• 1970s - first global GPS established by US
DND.
• 1980s - NAVSTAR-GPS used by US DND
and allies.
• 1983 - Korean Airlines flight 007 incident.
Reagan made GPS available for public
use.
… a brief history.
• 1994 - NAVSTAR came online for public use.
– Selective Availability (SA) turned ON - differential
correction required for accurate positions.
• 2000 - Clinton directed that SA be turned OFF.
• Today:
•   Wide variety of receivers & features.
•   20+ channels on most receivers.
•   Improvements in satellite technology.
A GNSS has satellites and…

GPS Satellite              GPS Constellation
(NAVStar has ~30 satellites)

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gps
… position correction.
• Wide Area Augmentation
System (WAAS) – free.
• Other correction systems:
– European Geostationary
Service. - free
– Differential GPS (DGPS) \$.
(vehicles, missiles) \$\$.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gps
• All new receivers are WAAS enabled.
• Coordinates for position are calculated from GNSS data
(satellite position and correction).
• Provide user with coordinates, time & direction.
• User can select local coordinate system and datum.
• Data collected & stored on receiver using:
– Geographic Coordinate System (GCS).
– Latitude & Longitude in Decimal Degrees (DD).
– Datum is World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS-84).
usually projected.
eTrexH

• \$150 - \$500
• 3-5 metre accuracy in
good conditions.            Garmin
Legend HCx
• Mid-range have mapping.
from GIS (not easily).
• Some have built-in
camera and voice
recorder.                  Magellan
Triton 2000
• Low to medium
complexity.
• \$1500 - \$3000
Magellan
PathAway, etc).          MobileMapper 6
• 3 m. accuracy in good
conditions.
• Windows Mobile OS.
• Electronic forms, etc.       Trimble
• Medium to high              Juno SC

complexity.
• \$6000 - \$10000
• Capable of sub-metre
accuracy in good
Trimble Geo-XT
conditions.
– High accuracy
Magellan
requires a nearby GPS     MobileMapper CX
base station and post-
processing.
• Windows Mobile O/S
• High complexity.
Clynt uses an older Thales
Mobilemapper
(Magellan bought Thales)
• \$25,000 +
accuracy -
millimetres.
• Very high complexity.

Trimble Zephyrant

TopCon
Millimetre GPS
• Are desktop & receiver interface user-friendly?
–   Windows CE gives software options (ArcPad, PathAway, etc.)
–   Ease of importing background data (MapSource or NRVIS)
–   Ease of data transfer.
–   Is conversion required to get data into correct format?
• Is the receiver screen easily seen under a clear sky?
• Does the receiver meet military ruggedness?
• Type of batteries and expected life under normal use.
• User acceptance of receiver and desktop software.
years.
months (all seasons).
Factors Affecting Data Collection
Human                           Physical
• Water
• Personality
– Vegetation density
– Acceptance of technology      – Precipitation in air & on
– Patience                        canopy
– Human body
• Knowledge
• Structures & Vehicles
– Training
– error increases near
– Experience                      concrete or metal
– Understanding limits of    • Terrain
GPS                           – Valley, base of cliff
– Understanding GIS          • Atmosphere
capabilities                  – Rain, clouds, ionosphere
More Factors
Timing                            System
• Time of year                    • Receiver clock errors.
– Heavy dew on canopy in       • Orbital or ephemeris
mornings                       errors.
– Leafless period is best
• Constellation
– Dew is more of a problem
in the late summer & early   • Intentional degradation of
fall                           the satellite signal.
Considerations
for GPS and Mobile GIS Projects
• Consult (or hire) a GIS specialist!
• Mapping scale affects target accuracy
– 3 m. accuracy is adequate for 1:5000 or smaller
– 7 m. accuracy is fine for 1:10000 or smaller
– MNR has target of 10 m. accuracy for most values mapping.
• Check existing GPS collection standards & guidelines.
• Background data required for Mobile GIS.
– MapSource, Fugawi NTS, custom geotiff.
• User preferences
– Size of receiver, backpack with antenna.
• Temperature
– Short battery life below freezing.
• Establish documentation procedures for field and post-processing.
More Considerations
for GPS and Mobile GIS Projects
• Features to be mapped
– Point, line, polygon
• Improved accuracy with averaging positions.
– 30 positions per point, 3 for line.
• Establish minimum polygon size and field capture methods.
– If target accuracy is 10 m., then 20 m. is minimum width of the polygon
feature to be mapped. Smaller areas will be lines or points depending
on shape.
– Use averaged points at significant locations to capture small polygons.
• Exporting GPS data to your GIS:
– Desktop interface.
– DNR GARMIN.
– GPS Babel converts GPS data formats.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GPS
http://gauss.gge.unb.ca/manufact.htm
http://gpsinformation.us/main/whichgps.html
http://www.gpsnuts.com/myGPS/GPS/Technical/g