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					               Siberian Technological Company “Zeosit”


                          Zeoforming
           A catalytic process for production
          of unblended high-octane gasolines




              «Glimar» Refinery, Poland.
The process of Zeoforming is started in February 1997.




                              Rustavi, Georgia.
                         The process of Zeoforming
                         is started in March 2002.

  Siberian Technological Company “Zeosit” Pr. Ak. Lavrentieva, 6, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
 Tel. /Fax: (383) 330-05-96, 335-62-51 E-mail: zeosit@zeosit.nsc.ru URL: http://www.zeosit.nsc.ru/
      PREHISTORY (1990-1997)
 The Zeoforming technology is developed and applied in
 industry in construction of autonomous installations for
 high-octane (RON 92-96) motor gasoline production of
 capacity 5 to 350-500 thousand tons per year with respect to
 the raw material – straight-run gasoline fraction (SRG) for
 a fixed catalyst bed process. For a process using moving
 catalyst bed, the possibility is proved to increase capacity up
 to one million tons per year with respect to straight-run
 gasoline fraction.


                                                             Zeoforming
                                         Naphtha
                                          (SRG)
                      DISTILLATION




 Crude oil
  or gas                             Diesel                                 High-
                                                                            octane            LPG
condensate                           Fuel oil
                                                                            gasoline



                                                           STORAGE


  The industrial technology of Zeoforming and the catalyst
  production technology are developed by SEC “Zeosit” SB RAS
  and protected by more than 30 RF patents. SEC “Zeosit”
  possesses the exclusive right of licensing the use of Zeoforming
  and develops Basic Engineering for installations of motor fuel
  production through the Zeoforming process.



    Siberian Technological Company “Zeosit” Pr. Ak. Lavrentieva, 6, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
   Tel. /Fax: (383) 330-05-96, 335-62-51 E-mail: zeosit@zeosit.nsc.ru URL: http://www.zeosit.nsc.ru/
 THE CHEMICAL PRINCIPLES OF THE PROCESS


    The process of Zeoforming is based on the
    reactions of catalytic conversion of paraffins and
    naphthenes over zeolite-containing catalysts.


      During the Zeoforming process the reactions of C-C bonds
      splitting, isomerization, hydrogen redistribution, and alkylation
      of the initial hydrocarbons and of the intermediate compounds
      result in conversion of low-octane hydrocarbons (naphthenes and
      unbranched paraffins) into high-octane components (iso-
      paraffins, arenes). Due to molecular-sieve properties of the
      catalyst, the branched high-octane paraffins undergo practically
      no conversion.
      The sulphuric compounds of the raw material are also converted
      into high-octane components during the Zeoforming process, e.g.
      via demercaptanization, with H2S emission into the gaseous
      phase.
      As a results, Zeoforming increases the octane number of the
      straight-run gasoline from 45-60 MON to 72-86 MON (76-95
      RON) and decreases the content of sulphur to 0.02-0.05% wt.
The yield of the final products depends on type, quality, and fractional
composition of the raw material and on the mode of operation of the
installation. For the mode of normal gasoline production, the yield of
gasoline reaches 80-92% and in case of regular gasoline it is 70-80%
of the raw material fed. The second final product is liquefied gas.

               Besides straight-run gasoline fractions, olefin-
               containing gases of cracking and pyrolysis and oxygen-
               containing organic compounds may also be used as raw
               material in Zeoforming.

    Siberian Technological Company “Zeosit” Pr. Ak. Lavrentieva, 6, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
   Tel. /Fax: (383) 330-05-96, 335-62-51 E-mail: zeosit@zeosit.nsc.ru URL: http://www.zeosit.nsc.ru/
 ADVANTAGES
              As compared with the conventional
              processes, Zeoforming has a number
              of considerable advantages :

The catalysts are developed on the basis of an environmentally safe
system containing no expensive noble and heavy metals;
The catalyst is insensitive to sulphur content, so no hydrofining of
the raw material of sulphur and nitrogen-containing compounds is
required;
The reactions converting the sulphuric compounds of the raw
material, including demercaptanization, result in the total sulphur
content in the liquid products not exceeding 0.02-0.05% wt.;
Through the process of Zeoforming, a wide range of hydrocarbon
raw material can be converted;
Zeoforming doesn’t use hydrogen and the related compressor
equipment;
The process proceeds under lower pressures (0.5-1.5 MPa) and
temperatures (340-450оC) thus decreasing power consumption by 20-
30%;
Due to essentially lower content of aromatic hydrocarbons and,
particularly, of benzene meeting the modern international standards,
the gasolines produced are more ecologically safe;
The gasolines produced don’t require any blending;
The process is profitable for capacities above 5 000 ton/year with
respect to the raw material.

The said advantages result in a considerable decrease
of capital and operational costs.
   Siberian Technological Company “Zeosit” Pr. Ak. Lavrentieva, 6, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
  Tel. /Fax: (383) 330-05-96, 335-62-51 E-mail: zeosit@zeosit.nsc.ru URL: http://www.zeosit.nsc.ru/
         Parameter                               Zeoforming                             Reforming
 The reaction temperature, оC                       350-460                                480-550

        Pressure, atm.                                5-15                                   3-35
     Hydrogen equipment                          Is not required                         Is required

    Hydrofining of the raw
                                                 Is not required                         Is required
           material

                                     Hydrocarbon fractions C5 –240оC;             Hydrocarbon fractions
         Raw material                olefin-containing gases; oxygen-             C6 –180оC (naphthene-
                                          containing compounds                           based)
                                                                                 Contains Pt, Pd and may
                                          Contains no noble metals;
            Catalyst                                                               contain other heavy
                                              ecologically safe
                                                                                         metals
                                                                                   High-octane aromatic
         Final product               High-octane gasoline ready for use           component of gasoline,
                                                                                      needs blending
    Benzene content in the
    gasoline fraction of the                     0.6-1.5% vol.                           5-10% vol.
            product
                                              Motor gasoline*) :
    Yield of final product:                                        «Euro-
                                     Normal       Regular                           Yields of gasolines
                                                                  super-95»         depend on blending
    - for fraction 35-160оC          80-90%       70-85%           68-82%               conditions
    - for fraction 70-180оC          85-92%       75-90%           72-85%

 Permissible sulphur content
                                                 is not limited                     less than 0.001% wt.
     in the raw material
    Sulphur content in the
                                           no more than 0.05% wt.                no more than 0.001% wt.
     gasoline produced

                                       For capacities 80-200 thousand                 Is profitable for
  Economical characteristics            tons/year, the investments are           capacities above 600-800
                                      repaid in less than 1.5 – 2.5 years           thousand tons/year


*) The second desired product is LPG. The ratio of the gasoline and LPG yields is provided
according to the market demands.



      Siberian Technological Company “Zeosit” Pr. Ak. Lavrentieva, 6, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
     Tel. /Fax: (383) 330-05-96, 335-62-51 E-mail: zeosit@zeosit.nsc.ru URL: http://www.zeosit.nsc.ru/
SEC Zeosit SB RAS has two versions of the technology of Zeoforming.

Version I.        The main products of the process are
                  high-octane gasoline (HOG, the yield is 65-80%) and
                  liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, the yield is 20-30%).

Version II.       The main products of the process are
                  HOG (the yield is 85-90%) and LPG (the yield is 8-10%).



 According to the results of the expertise performed by the American
 company Purvin & Hertz Inc., in the countries with a high demand for
 LPG import (e.g. the countries of South America, China, Poland etc.), the
 first version of Zeoforming has good economical and technological
 prospects while in the countries with a limited market for LPG, the main
 product should be HOG and the second version is to be applied.

              In both versions, HOG meets the international standards
                  which are coming into force since 2003, namely:
 the content of                                             doesn’t exceed
                     sulfur                                                             0.01%;
                     benzene                                                            1%;
                     aromatic hydrocarbons                                              40-42%;
                     olefins                                                            5-7%.


 After analysis of the group and fractional composition and other properties
 of the raw material proposed, SEC Zeosit can determine the possible yields
 of HOG and LPG for each version of the Zeoforming process.


         In both cases, desulfurization of the raw material is achieved
         during the process of Zeoforming without using hydrogen or
         hydrogen facilities.

     Siberian Technological Company “Zeosit” Pr. Ak. Lavrentieva, 6, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
    Tel. /Fax: (383) 330-05-96, 335-62-51 E-mail: zeosit@zeosit.nsc.ru URL: http://www.zeosit.nsc.ru/
                                 In the course of
                         high-octane gasoline production
                         through Zeoforming technology
                       desulphurization of the raw material
                             proceeds simultaneously.

R1–SH
                                                                R
R1–S–R2
                                                                  + H2S + CnH2n+2
R1–S–S–R2


               S
                    0,4

                                                                                                            100
                   0,35
                   1.15

                   1.10
                     0,3
                                                                                    Octane number (RON)
                                                                                                            90
 S total, % mass




                   0,25
                                                                                                            80
                    0,2                 – Orenburg gas plant
                                        – Urengoy gas plant
                   0,15                                                                                     70

                    0,1
                                                                                                            60
                   0,05


                      0                                                                                     50
                       250   300   350           400          450          500                            550
                                                          о
                                   Temperature, C


 Siberian Technological Company “Zeosit” Pr. Ak. Lavrentieva, 6, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
Tel. /Fax: (383) 330-05-96, 335-62-51 E-mail: zeosit@zeosit.nsc.ru URL: http://www.zeosit.nsc.ru/
 INDUSTRIAL IMPLEMENTATION

     I       Since 1992 the
first industrial Zeoforming
installation of 5 thousand
ton/year     capacity  with
regard to raw material is in


                                                    II
operation at Nizhnevartovsk
Gas-Processing Plant.
                                                             In February, 1997 a
                                                 Zeoforming installation of 40 thousand
                                                 ton per year capacity was put into
                                                 operation at Glimar Refinery in Gorlice,
                                                 Poland. The installation had been
                                                 designed and constructed by Lurgi
                                                 Company (Germany) with the use of
                                                 license and Basic Engineering of SEC
                                                 “Zeosit” SB RAS.




The raw material of the
installation is a stable gas
gasoline. The final product of the
installation is unblended normal-
grade gasoline.                                   The installation is designed to produce
If the installation is switched to                unblended motor gasoline “Eurosuper-
another raw material – straight-                  95” from straight-run gasoline of octane
run gasoline, the yield of motor                  number 45-65 MON. The second desired
gasoline grows up to 82-85% wt.                   product of the installation is liquefied
The lifetime of the catalyst is over              gas.
1.5 years.

     Siberian Technological Company “Zeosit” Pr. Ak. Lavrentieva, 6, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
    Tel. /Fax: (383) 330-05-96, 335-62-51 E-mail: zeosit@zeosit.nsc.ru URL: http://www.zeosit.nsc.ru/
        PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
         OF ZEOFORMING INSTALLATION
             AT GLIMAR REFINERY

                On the basis of analysis of 5-year run factual results,
                an expert commission made the following conclusions:



The    desired products of the process are high-octane motor
gasoline ready for use without blending and liquefied gas, the total
yield of the desired products being not less 92-95% wt.
The high-octane components of the gasolines produced are iso-
paraffins (30-50%) and aromatic hydrocarbons (25-45%), the
content of benzene not exceeding 1.5% wt. Such composition
meets the modern European quality standards. In the process of
conversion, the ON of gasoline increases from 45 MON to 82-86
MON, or 92-95 RON.
The    obtained liquefied gas contains 40-42% propane, 30-32%
n-butane, and 26-28% wt. isobutane, the content of olefins not
exceeding 1%. Such composition of the liquefied gas allows its use
as a fuel both for domestic purposes and for automobiles.
Due   to simultaneously proceeding reactions of conversion of
sulphuric compounds in the raw material including
demercaptanisation, the process goes steadily without previous
desulphurisation and hydrogen application.
The    switching reaction-to-regeneration system is completely
automatic at all stages and has proved its high reliability by a
5-year trouble-free operation.
The installation   meets all the requirements of economical and
technological efficiency and reliability. The investments were
completely repaid in 1.5 years after starting the installation.


  Siberian Technological Company “Zeosit” Pr. Ak. Lavrentieva, 6, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
 Tel. /Fax: (383) 330-05-96, 335-62-51 E-mail: zeosit@zeosit.nsc.ru URL: http://www.zeosit.nsc.ru/
                                 DYNAMICS OF COSTS AND PROFITS
                             DEPENDING ON THE INSTALLATION CAPACITY
(the data concern the production of regular to premium gasolines)



                                                80 thou. ton/year
                                                40 thou. ton/year
                                                Точечная 3
       Profits, rel. units




                                       Starting the installation

                              0       5      10      15      20        25    30      35      40      45      50      55      60
       Costs, rel. units




                                                                                                     number of months




                   COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV)
                     FOR THE INSTALLATIONS OF HIGH-OCTANE GASOLINE
                       PRODUCTION VIA ZEOFORMING AND REFORMING
           10
                                                                  Zeoforming
                       8
NPV, million USD




                                                                  Reforming
                       6
                       4
                       2
                       0
               -2 0                           20                  40                60                80                  100
               -4
                                     Capacity of installation with respect to the gasoline produced,
                                                              thou. ton/year
                              Siberian Technological Company “Zeosit” Pr. Ak. Lavrentieva, 6, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
                             Tel. /Fax: (383) 330-05-96, 335-62-51 E-mail: zeosit@zeosit.nsc.ru URL: http://www.zeosit.nsc.ru/
      Diagram of conversion of oil fractions or gas
      condensate into motor fuels through different
      processes:
 Diagram 1. Conventional scheme (Reforming and isomerization)


            Fractioning                             Hydrofining                    Hydro-isomerization
            installation                            installation                       installation
                                Gasoline                               C5-C6
  Feed-
                              fraction 35%                              9%
  stock

Diesel fuel 35%                                          Gasoline                               iso-
       Fuel oil 30%                                      fraction                               paraffins
                                                         26%                                    8.5%
                Hydrogen-containing
                       gas
                           Hydrogen-
                                                                High-octane   Blending Gasoline
                         containing gas                                                30.5%
                                                                component 22%   unit

     Unit of gas                H2
                                               Reforming
   desulphurization                            installation

 Diagram 2. Zeoforming technology
                Fractioning                                Zeoforming              High-octane
                installation                               installation           gasoline 24.5%
    Feed-                            Gasoline                                       Fuel gas 1%
    stock                          fraction 35%                                    Liquefied gas 9%

 Diesel fuel 35%
                                                                      Diesel fraction 0.5 %
          Fuel oil 30%


           Siberian Technological Company “Zeosit” Pr. Ak. Lavrentieva, 6, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
          Tel. /Fax: (383) 330-05-96, 335-62-51 E-mail: zeosit@zeosit.nsc.ru URL: http://www.zeosit.nsc.ru/
 III
 An industrial Zeoforming installation of
 capacity 40 thousand ton/year is started in
 Rustavi, Georgia in March 2002.




IV
Industrial production of the catalyst is put into
operation at JSC “Novosibirsk Plant of Chemical
Concentrates”. Catalyst supply is guaranteed for
the whole period of operation.

  Siberian Technological Company “Zeosit” Pr. Ak. Lavrentieva, 6, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
 Tel. /Fax: (383) 330-05-96, 335-62-51 E-mail: zeosit@zeosit.nsc.ru URL: http://www.zeosit.nsc.ru/
PROSPECTS
An industrial Zeoforming installation of capacity 40 thousand
ton/year is designed and constructed by IRV Corporation in Bishkek,
Kirghizia using license and Basic Engineering of SEC “Zeosit” and
is now prepared for being started. Its feedstock is gasoline fraction of
oil or of gas condensate.




In November 2001 a demonstrational Zeoforming installation of
capacity 0.2 ton/day with respect to the raw material using moving
catalyst bed technology was put into operation in Daejeon city,
South Korea.
The installation was constructed by
Samsung Engineering Company, Ltd.
(South Korea) with the use of Basic
Engineering, technology, and catalyst
developed by SEC “Zeosit” SB RAS.
Starting this demonstrational installation
opens the opportunity to increase the
capacity of the Zeoforming process up to 1
million ton/year.

     Siberian Technological Company “Zeosit” Pr. Ak. Lavrentieva, 6, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
    Tel. /Fax: (383) 330-05-96, 335-62-51 E-mail: zeosit@zeosit.nsc.ru URL: http://www.zeosit.nsc.ru/
         POLYFUNCTIONAL CATALYSIS

 I.                                                                       High-octane gasoline

   Petroleum fractions Polyfunctional                                     Oil base
   T boiling = 180-450ОC  catalyst,
                                                H2
                                                                          Low-pour diesel fuel



 II.       A number of technologies for motor fuels production
           from non-petroleum raw materials are developed and
           tested at the pilot level :

                                                        + Toluene             Para-xylene

                                                                              Para-ethyltoluene
                 + H2                                     + Xylenes
      CO2                                                                    Durene

      Coal                                                                  High-octane gasoline,
                                                                                 diesel fuel
     Bio-                                                                   Dimethyl ether
    wastes               CO + 2H2

   Natural gas                                                                Olefins
                         Methanol
                                                         + Methyl naphthalenes              Dimethyl
                                                                                          naphthalenes
                            DMC
                                                                            Oil base



The above technologies open a possibility to solve a number of problems,
both ecological (CO2 discharge reduction and wastes utilization) and
strategical in the framework of the general GTL (gas to liquid) strategy.

       Siberian Technological Company “Zeosit” Pr. Ak. Lavrentieva, 6, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia
      Tel. /Fax: (383) 330-05-96, 335-62-51 E-mail: zeosit@zeosit.nsc.ru URL: http://www.zeosit.nsc.ru/

				
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